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1906 <A 

1 o 





By H. R. PLOMER ... ... 32 


LEE 78, 209, 287, 411 

REVIEWS . . . . . . .97 



LEE 113 



POEMS. By H. R. PLOMER . . . 149 

DELL ESDAILE ...... 167 


By JOHN BALLINGER . . . . .181 

A. W. POLLARD ...... 225 




HILL 257 

LIBRARY. By G. R. REDGRAVE . . . 263 




By PH. SHEAVYN ...... 337 

DELL ESDAILE. ...... 366 




PROGRESS. By F. M. CRUNDEN, A.M., LL.D. . 384 



FORD. By W. E. DOUBLEDAY . . . . 437 

INDEX ........ 447 

From the portrait at St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich 

Second Series, 

No. 25, VOL. VII. JANUARY, 1906. 



S a boy it was my good fortune to 
' come under the influence of a parish 
, priest of the Gilbert White type, who 
, followed the seasons of Nature no less 
ardently than those of the Church, 
and whose excursions into science had brought him 
into contact with physic and physicians. Father 
Johnson, as his friends loved to call him, founder 
and Warden of the Trinity College School near 
Toronto, illustrated that angelical conjunction (to 
use Cotton Mather's words) of medicine and divinity 
more common in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries than in the nineteenth. An earnest student 
of Sir Thomas Browne, particularly of the c Religio 
Medici,' he often read to us extradls in illustration of 
the beauty of the English language, or he would 
entertain us with some of the author's quaint con- 
ceits, such as the man without a navel (Adam), or 
that woman was the rib and crooked piece of man. 
The copy which I hold in my hand (J. T. Fields's 

1 An address delivered at the Physical Society, Guy's Hospital, 
Odlober 12, 1905. 



edition of 1862), my companion ever since my 
schooldays, is the most precious book in my library. 
I mention these circumstances in extenuation of an 
enthusiasm which has enabled me to make this 
almost complete collection of the editions of his 
works I show you this evening, knowing full well 
the compassionate feeling with which the biblio- 
maniac is regarded by his saner colleagues. 


The little Thomas was happy in his entrance 
upon the stage, I9th Oftober, 1605. Among multi- 
plied acknowledgements, he could lift up one hand 
to Heaven (as he says) that he was born of honest 
parents, * that modesty, humility, patience, and ve- 
racity lay in the same egg, and came into the world' 
with him. Of his father, a London merchant, but 
little is known. There is at Devonshire House a 
family picture which shows him to have been a 
man of fine presence, looking not unworthy of the 
future philosopher, a child of three or four years, 
seated on his mother's knee. She married a second 
time, Sir Thomas Dutton, a man of wealth and 
position, who gave his stepson every advantage of 
education and travel. We lack accurate information 
of the early years of the school days at Winchester, 
of his life at Broadgate Hall, now Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford, and of the influences which induced 
him to study medicine. Possibly he got his inspira- 
tion from the Regius Professor of Medicine, the 
elder Clayton, the Master of Broadgate Hall and 
afterwards of Pembroke College. That he was a dis- 


tinguished undergraduate is shown in his selection 
at the end of the first year in residence to deliver 
an oration at the opening of Pembroke College. 
Possibly between the years 1626, when he took the 
B.A., and 1 629, when he commenced M. A., he may 
have been engaged in the study of medicine ; but 
Mr. Charles Williams, of Norwich, who is perhaps 
more familiar than any one living with the history 
of our author, does not think it likely that he began 
until he went abroad. In these years he could at 
least have ' entered upon the physic line ' and could 
have proceeded to the M.B. He was too early to 
participate in the revival of science in Oxford, but 
even after that had occurred Sydenham flung the 
cruel reproach at his Alma Mater that he would as 
soon send a man to her to learn shoemaking as prac- 
tical physic. It was possible, of course, to pick up 
a little knowledge of medicine from the local prac- 
titioners and from the Physic Garden, together with 
the leftures of the Regius Professor, who, as far as 
we know, had not at any rate the awkward failing 
of his more distinguished son, who could not look 
upon blood without fainting, and in consequence 
had to hand over his anatomy lectures to a deputy. 
Clayton's studies and work would naturally be of 
a somewhat mixed character, and at that period 
even many of those whose chief business was theo- 
logy were interested in natural philosophy, of which 
medicine formed an important part. Burton refers 
to an address delivered about this time by Clayton 
dealing with the mutual relations of mind and body. 
The 'Anatomy of Melancholy/ which appeared in 
1621, must have proved a stimulating bonne bouche for 


the Oxford men of the day, and I like to think of the 
eagerness with which so ardent a student as Browne 
of Pembroke would have pounced on the second 
and enlarged edition which appeared in 1624. He 
may, indeed, have been a friend of Burton, or he 
may have formed one of a group of undergraduates 
to watch Democritus Junior leaning over the bridge 
and laughing at the bargees as they swore at each 
other. It is stated, I know not with what authority, 
that Browne practised in Oxford for a time. 

After a visit to Ireland with his stepfather he 
took the grand tour France, Italy, and Holland 
spending two years in study. Of his Continental 
trip our knowledge is very meagre. He went to 
Montpellier, still famous, but failing, where he 
probably listened to the teaching of Riviere, whose 
c Praxis ' was for years the leading textbook in 
Europe thence to Padua, where he must have 
heard the celebrated Sanclorius of the Medicina 
Statica then on to Ley den, just rising into pro- 
minence, where it is said he took his doftor's 
degree in 1633. Of this, however, there is no cer- 
tainty. A few years ago I looked through the 
register of that famous University, but failed to find 
his name. At the end of two years' travel he may have 
had cobwebs in his pocket, and the Leyden degree 
was expensive, as that quaint old contemporary of 
Browne, the Rev. John Ward of Stratford-on-Avon, 
tells us ( c Diary J ) : ' Mr. Burnet had a letter out of 
the Low Countries of the charge of a doctor's de- 
gree, which is at Leyden about 16, besides feasting 
the professors; at Angers in France, not above 9, 
and feasting not necessary neither.' No doubt the 


young Englishman got of the best that there was 
in the teaching of the day, and from the c Religio ' 
one learns that he developed from it an extraor- 
dinary breadth of culture, and a charity not always 
granted to travellers. He pierced beneath the shell 
of nationalism into the heart of the people among 
whom he lived, feeling at home everywhere and in 
every clime; hence the charity, rare in a Protestant, 
expressed so beautifully in the lines : ' I can dis- 
pense with my hat at the sight of a cross, but 
scarce with the thought of my Saviour.' 

He must have made good use of his exceptional 
opportunities as he was able to boast, in a humble 
way it is true, that he understood six languages. 

Returning to England in 1634 he settled at 
Shibden Dale, close to Halifax, not, as Mr. Charles 
Williams has pointed out, to practice his profession, 
but to recruit his health, somewhat impaired by 
shipwreck and disease. Here, in Upper Shibden 
Hall, he wrote the ' Religio Medici,' the book by 
which to-day his memory is kept green among us. 
In his travels he had doubtless made many observa- 
tions on men and in his reading had culled many 
useful memoranda. He makes it quite clear and 
is anxious to do so that the book was written 
while he was very young. He says: c My life is a 
miracle of thirty years/ ' I have not seen one re- 
volution of Saturn.' ' My pulse hath not beat thirty 
years.' Indeed, he seems to be of Plato's opinion 
that the pace of life slackens after this date, and 
there is a note of sadness in his comment, that while 
the radical humour may contain sufficient oil for 
seventy, ' in some it gives no light past thirty,' and 


he adds that those dying at this age should not 
complain of immaturity. In the quiet Yorkshire 
valley, with leisurable hours for his private exercise 
and satisfaction, the manuscript was completed, 
' with/ as he says, c such disadvantages that (I pro- 
test) from the first setting pen to paper I had not 
the assistance of any good book.' c Communicated 
to one it became common to many,' and at last in 
1642, seven years after its completion, reached the 
press in a depraved form. 

In 1637, at the solicitation of friends, Browne 
moved to Norwich, with which city, so far as we 
know, he had had no previous connection. At that 
date the East Anglian capital had not become famous 
in the annals of medicine. True, she had given Caius 
to the profession, but he had only practised there 
for a short time and does not seem to have had 
any special influence on her destinies. Sir Thomas 
Browne may be said to be the first of the long list 
of worthies who have in the past two and a-half 
centuries made Norwich famous among the pro- 
vincial towns of the kingdom. Here for forty-five 
years he lived the quiet, uneventful life of a student- 
practitioner, absorbed, like a sensible man, in his 
family, his friends, his studies and his patients. It 
is a life of singular happiness to contemplate. In 
1 641 he married Dorothy Mileham, ' a lady of such 
a symmetrical proportion to her worthy husband 
that they seemed to come together by a kind of 
natural magnetism.' In the c Religio ' he had said 
some hard things of the gentle goddess and had 
expressed himself very strongly against Nature's 
method for the propagation of the race. He be- 


lieved, with Milton, that the world should have 
been populated ' without feminine,' and in almost 
identical words they wish that some way less trivial 
and vulgar had been found to generate mankind. 
Dame Dorothy proved a good wife, a fruitful 
branch, bearing ten children. We have a pleasant 
picture of her in her letters to her boys and to 
her daughter-in-law in a spelling suggestive of 
Pitman's phonetics. She seems to have had in 
full measure the simple piety and the tender affec- 
tion mentioned on her monument in St. Peter's 
Church. The domestic correspondence (Wilkin's 
edition of the e Works ') gives interesting glimpses 
of the family life, the lights and shadows of a cul- 
tured English home. The two boys were all that 
their father could have wished. Edward, the elder, 
had a distinguished career, following his father's 
footsteps in the profession and reaching the dignity 
of the Presidency of the Royal College of Physicians. 
Inheriting his father's tastes, as the letters between 
them prove, his wide interests in natural history and 
archaeology are shown in his well-known book of 
* Travels,' and I am fortunate in possessing a copy 
of the ' Hydriotaphia ' with his autograph. 

Edward's son, the c Tommy ' of the letters, the 
delight of his grandfather, also became a physician, 
and practised with his father. He died in 1710 under 
rather unfortunate circumstances, and with him the 
male line of Sir Thomas ended. Of the younger son 
we have, in the letters, a charming picture a brave 
sailor-lad with many of his father's tastes, who served 
with great distinction in the Dutch wars, in which 
he met (it is supposed) a sailor's death. The eldest 


daughter married Henry Fairfax, and through their 
daughter, who married the Earl of Buchan, there 
are to-day among the Buchans and Erskines the 
only existing representatives of Sir Thomas. 

The waves and storms of the Civil War scarcely 
reached the quiet Norwich home. Browne was a 
staunch Royalist, and his name occurs among the 
citizens who in 1643 refused to contribute to a 
fund for the recapture of the town of Newcastle. 
It is astonishing how few references occur in his 
writings to the national troubles, which must have 
tried his heart sorely. In the preface to the 
* Religio ' he gives vent to his feelings, lamenting 
not only the universal tyranny of the Press, but 
the defamation of the name of his Majesty, the 
degradation of Parliament, and the writings of both 
' depravedly, anticipatively, counterfeitedly, im- 
printed.' In one of the letters he speaks of the 
execution of Charles I as c horrid murther,' and in 
another he calls Cromwell a usurper. In civil wars 
physicians of all men suffer least, as the services of 
able men are needed by both parties, and time and 
again it has happened that an even-balanced soul, 
such as our author, has passed quietly through 
terrible trials, doing the day's work with closed lips. 
Corresponding with the most aftlve decades of his 
life, in which his three important works were issued, 
one might have expected to find in them reference 
to the Civil War, or, at least, echoes of the great 
change wrought by the Commonwealth, but, like 
Fox, in whose writings the same silence has been 
noticed, whatever may have been his feelings, he 
preserved a discreet silence. His own rule of life, 


no doubt, is expressed in the advice to his son: 
c Times look troublesome, but you have an honest 
and peaceable profession which may employ you, 
and discretion to guide your words and aftions.' 

Busy with his professional work, interested in 
natural history, in archaeology, and in literature, 
with a wide circle of scientific friends and corre- 
spondents, the glimpses of Browne's life, which we 
have from the letters, are singularly attractive. He 
adopted an admirable plan in the education of his 
children, sending them abroad, and urging them to 
form early habits of independence. His younger 
boy, Thomas, he sent at the age of fourteen to 
France, alone, and he remarks in one of his 
letters to him: ' He that hath learnt not in France 
travelleth in vain/ Everywhere in the correspond- 
ence with his children there is evidence of good, 
practical sense. He tells one of the boys to c cast 
off pudor rusticus^ and to have a handsome garb of 
his body.' Even the daughters were taken to 
France. In his souvenir of Sir Thomas Browne 
Mr. Charles Williams has given an illustration of 
his house, a fine old building which was unfor- 
tunately torn down some years ago, though the 
handsome mantelpiece has been preserved. 

An interesting contemporary account has been 
left by Evelyn, who paid a visit to Sir Thomas in 
1673. He says: '. . . the whole house being a 
paradise and a cabinet of rarities, and that of the 
best collections, especially medails, books, plants, 
and natural things. Amongst other curiosities, Sir 
Thomas had a collection of the eggs of all the foule 
and birds he could procure, that country, especially 


the promintory of Norfolck, being frequented, as 
he said, by several kinds which seldom or never go 
further into the land, as cranes, storkes, eagles, and 
a variety of other foule.' 

After Dr. Edward Browne was established in 
London the letters show the keen interest Sir 
Thomas took in the scientific work of the day. 
Writing of his son's lefture on anatomy at the 
Chirurgical Hall, he warns him that he would have 
more spectators than auditors, and after that first 
day, as the lefture was in Latin, c very many will 
not be earnest to come here-after.' He evidently 
takes the greatest interest in his son's progress, and 
constantly gives him suggestions with reference to 
new points that are coming up in the literature. 
Here and there are references to important medical 
cases, and comments upon modes of treatment. It 
is interesting to note the prevalence of agues, even 
of the severe haemorrhagic types, and his use of 
Peruvian bark. In one of the letters a remarkable 
case of pneumothorax is described : ' A young 
woman who had a julking and fluctuation in her 
chest so that it might be heard by standers-by.' 
Evidently he had a large and extensive practice in 
the Eastern Counties, and there are numerous re- 
ferences to the local physicians. There is a poem 
extolling his skill in the despaired-of case of Mrs. 
E. S., three or four of the lines of which are worth 

He came, saw, cur'd ! Could Caesar's self do more ; 
Galen, Hippocrates, London's four-score 
Of ffamous Colledge . . . had these heard him read 
His lecture on this Skeliton, half dead ; 


And seen his modest eye search every part, 
Judging, not seeing. 

The correspondence with his son is kept up to 
the time of his death. Only part of the letters ap- 
pears in Wilkin's ' Life/ and there are many extant 
worthy of publication. 

In 1671 he was knighted by Charles II. In 1664 
he was made an honorary Fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians, with which, through his son, he 
had close affiliations. His name does not appear in 
the roll of the Royal Society, with the spirit and 
objects of which he must yet have had the warmest 
sympathy. He was in correspondence with many 
of the leading men of the day Evelyn, Grew, 
Elias Ashmole, Dugdale, Paston, Aubrey, and others. 
The letters deal with a remarkable variety of sub- 
jects natural history, botany, chemistry, magic and 
archaeology, etc. The c Pseudodoxia Epidemica ' 
(1646) extended his reputation among all classes 
and helped to bring him into close relationship 
with the virtuosi of the period. There is in the 
Bodleian a delightful letter from Mr. Henry Bates, 
a wit of the court, a few extracts from which will 
give you an idea of the extravagant admiration ex- 
cited by his writings: * Sir, Amongst those great 
and due acknowledgements this horizon owes you 
for imparting your sublime solid phansie to them 
in that incomparable piece of invention and judg- 
ment, R. M. gives mee leave, sir, here at last to 
tender my share, which I wish I could make pro- 
portionable to the value I deservedly sett upon it, 
for truly, sir, ever since I had the happiness to 
know your religion I have religiously honoured 


you; hug'd your Minerva in my bosome, and voted 
it my vade mecum* . . . c I am of that opinion still, 
that next the " Legenda Dei," it is the master piece 
of Christendome; and though I have met some- 
times with some omnes sic ego vero non sic men pre- 
judicating pates, who bogled at shadowes in 't, and 
carpt at atoms, and have so strappadoed me into 
impatience with their senseless censures, yet this 
still satisfied my zeal toward it, when I found non 
intelligunt was the nurse of theire vituperant, and 
they onely stumbled for want of a lanthorne.' 1 

While interested actively in medicine, Browne 
does not seem to have been on intimate terms with 
his great contemporaries Harvey, Sydenham, or 
Glisson though he mentions them, and always 
with respeft. He was a prudent, prosperous man, 
generous to his children and to his friends. He sub- 
scribed liberally to his old school at Winchester, to 
the rebuilding of the Library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and to the repairs at Christ Church, 
Oxford. A life placid, uneventful, and easy, with- 
out stress or strain, happy in his friends, his family, 
and his work, he expressed in it that harmony of 
the inner and of the outer man which it is the aim 
of all true philosophy to attain, and which he in- 
culcated so nobly and in such noble words in the 
' Religio Medici* and in the ' Christian Morals.' 

A description of him given by his friend, the 
Rev. John Whitefoot, is worth quoting: 'He was 
never seen to be transported with mirth or deje6led 
with sadness; always cheerful but rarely merry, at 
any sensible rate; seldom heard to break a jest, and 

1 Wilkin, vol. i., p. 253. 


when he did he would be apt to blush at the levity 
of it. His gravity was natural, without affectation. J 

The end came unexpectedly in his seventy-seventh 
year, after a sharp attack of colic, on his birthday, 
October 5th, 1682 a curious coincidence of which 
he speaks in the 'Letter to a Friend': 'But in 
persons who outlive many years, and when there 
are no less than 365 days to determine their lives 
every year that the first day should make the last, 
that the tail of the snake should return into its 
mouth precisely at that time, and they should wind 
up upon the day of their nativity is, indeed, a 
remarkable coincidence, which, though astrology 
hath taken witty pains to solve, yet hath it been 
very wary in making predictions of it.' 

There are three good portraits of Sir Thomas 
one in the College of Physicians, London, which 
is the best known and has been often reproduced, 
and from which is taken the frontispiece in Green- 
hill's edition of the ' Religio Medici '; a second is 
in the Bodleian, and this also has frequently been 
reproduced; the third is in the vestry of St. Peter's 
Mancroft, Norwich. Through the kindness of 
Mr. Charles Williams it is here reproduced as a 
frontispiece to this number of ' The Library.' In 
many ways it is the most pleasing of the three, and 
Browne looks in it a younger man, closer to the 
days of the ' Religio.' There is a fourth picture, 
the frontispiece to the fifth edition of the < Pseudo- 
doxia,' but it is so unlike the others that I doubt 
very much if it could have been Sir Thomas. If 
it was, he must have suffered from the artist, as did 
Milton, whose picture in the frontispiece to the 


'Poems/ 1645, is a base caricature, but Browne has 
not had the satisfaction of Milton's joke and happy 


As a book the ' Rcligio Medici ' has had an in- 
teresting history. Written at ' leisurable hours and 
for his private exercise and satisfaction, 5 it circulated 
in manuscript among friends, c and was by tran- 
scription successively corrupted, until it arrived in 
a most depraved copy at the press/ Two surrep- 
titious editions were issued by Andrew Crooke in 
1 642 (Fig. i ) , both in small oftavo, with an engraved 
frontispiece by Marshall representing a man falling 
from a rock (the earth) into the sea of eternity, but 
caught by a hand issuing from the clouds, under 
which is the legend ' A Coelo Salus.' Johnson sug- 
gests that the author may not have been ignorant 
of Crooke's design, but was very willing to let a 
tentative edition be issued c a stratagem by which 
an author panting for fame, and yet afraid of seem- 
ing to challenge it, may at once gratify his vanity 
and preserve the appearance of modesty.' 

There are at least six manuscripts of the c Religio ' 
in existence, all presenting minor differences, which 
bear out the author's contention that by transcrip- 
tion they had become depraved. One in the Wil- 
kin collection, in the Castle Museum, Norwich, is 
in the author's handwriting. Had Browne been 
party to an innocent fraud he would scarcely have 
allowed Crooke to issue within a year a second im- 
perfect edition not simply a second impression, as 
the two differ in the size and number of the pages, 


tmpcrfcftly tiwfSi rrgrtitiju;fi'jmrttaCf>efin 
fr mt. name gf "Kp \I~JLO 3f cdici. 




and present also minor differences in the text. The 
authorized edition appeared in the following year 
by the same publisher and with the same frontis- 
piece, with the following words at the foot of the 
plate: c A true and full copy of that which was 
most imperfectly and surreptitiously printed before 
under the name of " Religio Medici >: ' (Fig. 2). It 
was issued anonymously, with a preface, signed 
c A. B/: c To such as have or shall peruse the ob- 
servations upon a former corrupt copy of this 
Booke/ A curious incident here links together two 
men, types of the intelleftual movement of their 
generation both students, both mystics the one 
a quiet observer of nature, an antiquary and a 
physician; the other a restless spirit, a bold bucca- 
neer, a politician, a philosopher, and an amateur 
physician. Sir Kenelm Digby, committed to Win- 
chester House by the Parliamentarians, had heard 
favourably from the Earl of Dorset of the ' Religio 
Medici.' Though late in the day, c the magnetic 
motion/ as he says, c was impatience to have the 
booke in his hands/ so he sent at once to St. Paul's 
churchyard for it. He was in bed when it came. 
c This good natur'd creature I could easily perswade 
to be my bedfellow and to wake me as long as I 
had any edge to entertain myselfe with the de- 
lights I sucked in from so noble a conversation. 
And truly I closed not my eyes till I had enricht 
myselfe with (or at least exactly surveyed) all the 
treasures that are lapt up in the folds of those new 
sheets/ Sir Kenelm holds the record for reading in 
bed; not only did he read the c Religio' through, 
but he wrote c Observations ' upon it the same night 


in the form of a letter to his friend, which extends 
to three-fourths of the size of the ' Religio ' itself. 
As Johnson remarks, he ' returned his judgement 
of it not in the form of a letter but of a book/ He 
dates it at the end 'the 22nd. (I think I may say 
the 23rd, for I am sure it is morning and I think 
it is day) of December,- 1642.' Johnson says that its 
principal claim to admiration is that it was written 
within twenty-four hours, of which part was spent 
in procuring Browne's book and part in reading it. 
Sir Kenelm was a remarkable man, but in connec- 
tion with his statements it may be well to remem- 
ber the reputation he had among his contem- 
poraries, Stubbs calling him ' the Pliny of our age 
for lying.' However this may be, his criticisms of 
the work are exceedingly interesting and often just. 
This little booklet of Sir Kenelm has floated down 
the stream of literature, reappearing at intervals 
attached to editions of the ' Religio,' while his 
weightier tomes are deep in the ooze at the bottom. 
The ' Religio Medici ' became popular with re- 
markable rapidity. As Johnson remarks/ It ex- 
cited attention by the novelty of paradoxes, the 
dignity of sentiment, the quick succession of im- 
ages, the multitude of abstrusive allusions, subtility of 
disquisition, and the strength of language/ A Cam- 
bridge student Merry weather travelling in 
Europe, translated it into Latin, and it was pub- 
lished in 1644 by Hackius at Leyden in a very neat 
volume. A second impression appeared in the same 
year, and also a Paris edition a reprint of the 
Leyden. The Continental scholars were a good 
deal puzzled and not altogether certain of the 


orthodoxy of the work. Merryweather, in a very 
interesting letter (1649) savs tnat ne ^a^. some 
difficulty in getting a printer at Leyden. Salmasius, 
to whom Haye, a book merchant, took it for appro- 
bation, said c that there was in it many things well 
said, but that it contained also many exorbitant 
conceptions in religion and would probably find 
much frowning entertainment, especially amongst 
the ministers.' Two other printers also refused it. 
The most interesting Continental criticism is by 
that distinguished member of the profession, Guy 
Patin, professor in the Paris Faculty of Medicine. 
In a letter to Charles Spon of Lyons, dated Paris, 
O6tober 2ist, 1644, he mentions having received a 
little book called the ' Religio Medici,' written by 
an Englishman, ' a very mystical book containing 
strange and ravishing thoughts/ In a letter, dated 
1645, he says 'the book is in high credit here; the 
author has wit, and there are abundance of fine 
things in the book. He is a humorist whose 
thoughts are very agreeable, but who, in my opinion, 
is to seek for a master in religion may in the end 
find none/ Patin thought the author in a parlous 
state, and as he was still alive he might grow worse 
as well as better. Evidently, however, the work 
became a favourite one with him, as in letters of 
1650-1653-1657 he refers to it again in different 
editions. It is remarkable that he nowhere men- 
tions the author by name, but subsequently when 
Edward Browne was a student in Paris Patin sends 
kindly greetings to his father. 

Much discussion occurred on the Continent as 
to the orthodoxy of the c Religio/ It is no slight 




Pfeudodoxia Epidemica: 

o R. 


compliment to the author that he should have been 
by one claimed as a Catholic, by another denounced 
as an Atheist, while a member of the Society of 
Friends saw in him a likely convert. The book 
was placed on the ' Index.' In England, with the 
exception of Digby's ' Observations/ there were no 

adverse criticisms of any 

note. Alexander Ross, that 
interesting old Southamp- 
ton schoolmaster, who 
seems always to have been 
ready for an intellectual 
tilt, wrote a criticism en- 
titled ' Medicus Medica- 
tus, or the Physician's 
Religion cured by a Leni- 
tive or Gentle Potion/ 

In England there were 
two reprints in 1645, and 
it appeared again in the 
years 1656, 1659, 1669, 
1672, and in 1682, the 
year of Browne's death. 


Very many received 

T E N E N T S, 

And commonly preCumed 


ByTnoMAS B R o vv N * Dr. of Phyfick. 

Bx Lihft tiSifere qi<* frudidertmt Autorei http tfl 
'" ~ :Jtrumconitit ttr* i ret/at ipfuft. 

Printed by T. H. for EthardVoJ, and arc 



A comparison of the early 
editions shows that all have the same frontispiece 
and are, with slight variations, reprints of that of 
1643. The work also began to be reprinted with 
the 'Pseudodoxia Epidemica' (third edition, 1659). 
The Latin editions followed each other rapidly. 
As I mentioned, it first appeared at Leyden in 1 644, 
and was reprinted the same year there and in Paris; 
then in 1650 in Leyden again, in 1652 in Strass- 
burg, and in the same place in 1665 and 1667. 


The most important of these editions was that of 
Strassburg, 1652, with elaborate notes by Moltkius, 
of which Guy Patin speaks as ' miserable examples 
of pedantry/ and indeed stigmatizes the commen- 
tator as a fool. The Dutch translation appeared in 
1655 and a French in 1668, so that altogether 
during the author's lifetime there were at least 
twenty editions of the work. 

In the seventeenth century there were in all 
twenty-two editions. In the eighteenth century 
there were four English editions, one Latin, and 
one German. Then a long interval of seventy- 
seven years elapsed, until in 1831 Thomas Chap- 
man, a young Exeter College man, brought out a 
neat little edition, my own copy of which is made 
precious by many marginal notes by S.T. Coleridge, 
who was one of the earliest and most critical among 
the students of Sir Thomas. In the same year the 
first American edition was published, edited by the 
Rev. Alexander Young, of Boston. In 1838 appeared 
an excellent edition by J. A. St. John, c traveller, 
linguist, author, and editor/ and in 1 844 Longman's 
edition by John Peace, the librarian of the City 
Library, Bristol. This edition was re-published in 
America by the house of Lea and Blanchard, 1 Phila- 
delphia, the only occasion, I believe, on which the 
' Religio ' has been issued by a firm of medical pub- 
lishers. In 1845 appeared Pickering's beautiful edi- 
tion, edited, with many original notes, by the Rev. 
Henry Gardiner, in many ways the most choice of 
nineteenth century issues. In 1862 James Ticknor 

They did not issue an edition in 1848, as mentioned by Green- 
hill on the authority of J. T. Fields. 


Fields, the well-known Boston scholar and publisher, 
brought out a very handsome edition, of which, for 
the first time in the history of the book, an edition 
de luxe was printed on larger paper. In 1 869 appeared 
Sampson Low and Co.'s edition by Willis Bund; 
and in 1878 Rivington's edition edited by W. P. 
Smith. Then in 1881 there came what must always 
remain the standard edition, edited by Dr. Green- 
hill for the Golden Treasury Series, and reprinted 
repeatedly by Macmillan and Co. To his task Dr. 
Greenhill brought not only a genuine love of Sir 
Thomas Browne, but the accuracy of an earnest, 
painstaking scholar. Since the year 1881 a dozen 
or more editions have appeared, of which I may 
mention the excellent one by Dr. Lloyd Roberts, 
of Manchester. I may finish this dry summary by 
noting the contrast between the little parchment- 
covered surreptitious edition of 1642 and the sump- 
tuous folio of the Vale Press. In all, including 
those which have appeared with the collected works, 
there have been about fifty-five editions. Browne 
states that the work had also been translated into 
High Dutch and into Italian, but I can find no 
record of these editions, nor of a German transla- 
tion, 1680, mentioned by Watt. 

Space will allow only a brief reference to Browne's 
other writings. ' Pseudodoxia Epidemica : or, In- 
quiries into very many received Tenets and com- 
monly presumed Truths/ appeared in 1646 in this 
small folio (Fig. 4) . In extent this is by far the 
most pretentious of Browne's works. It forms an 
extraordinary collection of old wives' fables and 
popular beliefs in every department of human know- 




ledge, dealt with from the standpoint of the science 
of that day. In a way it is a strong protest against 
general credulity and inexactness of statement, and 
a plea for greater accuracy in the observation of 
fa<5ts and in the recording of them. Walter Pater 
has drawn attention to the striking resemblance be- 
tween Browne's chapter on the sources of Error and 
Bacon's doctrine of the Idola shams which men 
fall down and worship. He 
discusses cleverly the use of 
doubts; but, as Pater remarks, 
' Browne was himself a rather 
lively example of entertain- 
ments of the Idols of the 
Cave Idola Specus and, 
like Boyle, Digby, and others, 
he could not quite free him- 
self from the shackles of al- 
chemy and a hankering for 
the philosopher's stone.' The 
work was very popular, and 
extended the reputation of 
the author very widely. In- 
deed, in 1646 Browne was 
not known at large as the 
author of the ' Religio,' as his name had not ap- 
peared on the title-page of any edition issued at that 
date. The Pseudodoxia was frequently reprinted, 
a sixth edition being published in 1672, and it 
appeared in French both in France and in Holland. 
Equalling in popularity among certain people 
the c Religio,' certainly next to it in importance, is 
the remarkable essay known as ' Hydriotaphia 


A Difcourfe of the Sepulchral! 
Urnes lately found to 

3^ <R F O L l(. 

Together with 

The Garden of Y ft V S, 

QuincunciaU, Lozenge, or 

Net- work Plantations of the An- 
cients, Artificially, Naturally, 

MyAically Confidered. 

With Sundry Obfcrvatiom 

By fbomoi Brotrne D of Phyfick. 

& O 2^. T> O N, 

Printed lor Ht*. Brome at the Signe of the 
Gun in Ivy-lane. 1^58. 




Urne-Burial : or, A Discourse of the Sepulchrale 
Urnes lately found in Norfolk' (1658). Printed 
with it is ' The Garden of Cyrus/ a learned dis- 
course on gardens of all forms in all ages. Natur- 
ally, when an unusual number of funeral urns were 
found at Walsingham, they were brought to the 
notice of Browne, the leading antiquary of the 
county. Instead of writing a learned disquisition 
upon their date he thought them Roman, they 
were in reality Saxon with accurate measurements 
and a catalogue of the bones, he touches upon the 
whole incident very lightly, but, using it as a text, 
breaks out into a noble and inspiring prose poem, 
a meditation upon mortality and the last sad rites of 
all nations in all times, with learned comments on 
modes of sepulchre, illustrated with much anti- 
quarian and historical lore. Running through the 
work is an appropriate note of melancholy at the 
sad fate which awaits the great majority of us, upon 
whom the iniquity of oblivion must blindly scatter 
her poppy/ 'The greater part must be content to 
be as though they had not been, to be found in the 
register of God, not in the record of man.' 

Nowhere in his writings does the prose flow with 
a more majestic roll. Take, for example, this one 
thought: ' If the nearness of our last necessity 
brought a nearer conformity unto it, there were a 
happiness in hoary hairs and no calamity in half 
senses. But the long habit of living indisposeth us 
for dying, when avarice makes us the sport of 
death, when even David grew politically cruel, and 
Solomon could hardly be said to be the wisest of 
men. But many are too early old and before the days 


2 3 

of age. Adversity stretcheth our days, misery makes 
Alcemena's nights, and time hath no wings unto it.' 
Closely connected in sentiment with the ' Urn- 
Burial' is the thin folio pamphlet the rarest of all 
Browne's works, printed posthumously in 1698 
' A Letter to a Friend on the Occasion of the Death 
of his Intimate Friend' (Fig. 6). It is a splendid 
dissertation on death and 
modes of dying, and is a 
unique study of the slow pro- 
gress to the grave of a con- FRIEND 

sumptive. It is written in 

1 . j , Ujjon occasion of the 

his most picturesque and char- 
acteristic vein, with such a 
charm of diclion that some 

. . , . , Intimate Fnend. 

critics have given it the _ 

place of honour among his By & teamed 

works. Pater, in most enthu- sir THOMAS BROWN, Knight. 

siastic terms, speaks of it with Doctor of Ph * fick ' Utc of Na ck - 
the c Urn-Burial ' as < the best 
justification of Browne's liter- 

. , 

ary reputation. 

The tender sympathy with , FIG - 5- TITLE-PAGE OF 


the poor relics ox humanity 

which Browne expresses so beautifully in these 
two meditations has not been meted to his own. 
' Who knows the fate of his bones or how often 
he is to be buried?' he asks. In 1840, while 
workmen were repairing the chancel of St. Peter 
Mancroft, the coffin of Sir Thomas was accident- 
ally opened, and one of the workmen took the 
skull, which afterwards came into the possession of 
Dr. Edward Lubbock, who deposited it in the 

Printed for Char'taBrcme t the Gun *t the 

o fs /*/* church.^. I69 a 


Museum of the Norfolk and Norwich Infirmary. 
When I first saw it there in 1872 there was on it 
a printed slip with these lines from the ' Hydrio- 
taphia ' : c To be knaved out of our graves, to have 
our skulls made drinking bowls, and our bones turned 
into pipes, to delight and sport our enemies, are 
tragical abominations escaped in burning burials.' 
The skull has been carefully described by Mr. 
Charles Williams, to whom I am indebted for the 
loan of photographs. 

In addition to the ' Letter to a Friend,' there 
are three posthumous works, ' Certain Miscellany 
Trails' (1684), edited by Archbishop Tenison, 
and 'Posthumous Works,' 1712, containing chiefly 
papers of antiquarian interest. In the same year, 
1712, appeared the ' Christian Morals,' edited by 
Archdeacon Jeffrey of Norwich, from a manuscript 
found among Browne's papers. Probably a work of 
his later life, it forms a series of ethical fragments 
in a rich and stately prose which, in places, presents 
a striking parallelism to passages in the Hebrew 
poetry. The work is usually printed with the ' Re- 
ligio,' to which in reality it forms a supplement. 

Of the collected editions of Browne's works, the 
first, a fine folio, appeared in 1686. In 1836, Simon 
Wilkin, himself a Norwich man, edited the works 
with the devotion of an ardent lover of his old 
townsman, and with the critical accuracy of a 
scholar. All students of Sir Thomas remain under 
a lasting debt to Mr. Wilkin, and it is pleasant to 
know, that through the kindness of his daughter- 
in-law, Mrs. Wilkin, of Sidmouth, a Sir Thomas 
Browne Library has been founded in connexion 


with the Castle Museum, Norwich, in which Mr. 
Simon Wilkin's collections have been placed. A 
three-volume edition of the works is in course of 
publication by Grant Richards. 1904-5. 


Critics from Johnson to Walter Pater have put 
on record their estimate of Browne and of his place 
in literature. Among these for keenness of appre- 
ciation Pater takes the first rank. Lamb and Cole- 
ridge dearly loved the old Norwich physician, in 
whom they found a kindred spirit. In America the 
New England writers, Ticknor, Fields, Holmes, and 
Lowell were ardent students of his works. Lowell 
in particular is fond of apt quotations from him, and 
in one place speaks of him as ' our most imaginative 
mind since Shakespeare.' But no one has put so 
briefly and so clearly the strong characters of our 
author as the French critic, Taine: 'Let us con- 
ceive a kindred spirit to Shakespeare's, a scholar 
and an observer instead of an a6tor and a poet, 
who in place of creating is occupied in comprehend- 
ing, but who, like Shakespeare, applies himself to 
living things, penetrates their internal strufture, 
puts himself in communication with their aftual 
laws, imprints in himself fervently and scrupulously 
the smallest details of their figure ; who at the same 
time extends his penetrating surmises beyond the 
region of observation, discerns behind visible phe- 
nomena a world obscure yet sublime, and trembles 
with a kind of veneration before the vast, indistinft, 


but populous abyss on whose surface our little 
universe hangs quivering. Such a one is Sir Thomas 
Browne, a naturalist, a philosopher, a scholar, a 
physician, and a moralist, almost the last of the 
generation which produced Jeremy Taylor and 
Shakespeare. No thinker bears stronger witness to 
the wandering and inventive curiosity of the age. 
No writer has better displayed the brilliant and 
sombre imagination of the North. No one has 
spoken with a more elegant emotion of death, the 
vast night of forgetfulness, of the all devouring pit 
of human vanity which tries to create an immortal- 
ity out of ephemeral glory or sculptured stones. No 
one has revealed in more glowing and original ex- 
pressions the poetic sap which flows through all the 
minds of the age/ 

The growing popularity of Browne's writings 
testifies to the assured position he holds, if not in 
the hearts of the many, at least in the hearts of that 
saving remnant which in each generation hands on 
the best traditions of our literature. We, who are 
members of his profession, may take a special pride 
in him. Among physicians, or teachers of physic, 
there is, perhaps, but one name in the very first 
rank. Rabelais stands apart with the kings and 
queens of literature. Among the princes of the 
blood there are differences of opinion as to their 
rank, but Sir Thomas Browne, Holmes, and John 
Brown of Edinburgh, form a group together high 
in the circle. Of the three, two were general prac- 
titioners ; Oliver Wendell Holmes only in the early 
part of his life, and for forty years a teacher of 
anatomy ; but all three have far closer ties with us 


than Goldsmith, Smollett, or Keats, whose medical 
affiliations were titular rather than practical. 

Burton, Browne, and Fuller have much in com- 
mon a rare quaintness, a love of odd conceits, and 
the faculty of apt illustrations drawn from out-of- 
the-way sources. Like Montaigne Burton even 
more Browne's bookishness is of a delightful kind, 
and yet, as he maintains, his best matter is not picked 
from the leaves of any author, but bred among the 
' weeds and tares ' of his own brain. In his style 
there is a lack of what the moderns call technique, 
but how pleasant it is to follow his thoughts, rip- 
pling like a burn, not the stilled formality of the 
technical artist in words, the cadencies of whose 
precise and mechanical expressions pall on the ear. 

As has been remarked, the ' Religio Medici' is a tour 
de force^ an attempt to combine daring scepticism 
with humble faith in the Christian religion. Sir 
Thomas confesses himself to be ' naturally inclined 
to that which misguided zeal terms superstition.' 
He ' cannot hear the Ave Maria bell without an 
elevation.' He has no prejudices in religion, but 
subscribes himself a loyal son of the Church of 
England. In clear language he says, ' In brief, 
where the Scripture is silent the Church is my text ; 
where that speaks it is but my comment. When 
there is a joint silence of both, I borrow not the 
rules of my religion from Rome or Geneva, but 
from the diftates of my own reason.' He is hard 
on the controversialist in religion c every man is 
not a proper champion for truth, nor fit to take up 
the gauntlet in the cause of verity,' etc. While he 
disclaims any ' taint or tindture ' of heresy, he con- 


fesses to a number of heretical hopes, such as the 
ultimate salvation of the race, and prayers for the 
dead. He freely criticizes certain seeming absurdities 
in the Bible narrative. His travels have made him 
cosmopolitan and free from all national prejudices. 
' I feel not in myself those common antipathies that 
I can discover in others, those national repugnancies 
do not touch me, nor do I behold with prejudice 
the French, Italian, Spaniard, or Dutch ; but where 
I find their adtions in balance with my countrymen's, 
I honour, love, and embrace them in the same de- 
gree. I was born in the eighth climate, but seem 
for to be framed and constellated unto all. I am no 
plant that will not prosper out of a garden; all 
places, all airs, make unto me one country ; I am 
in England, everywhere, and under any meridian.' 
Only the ' fool multitude ' that chooses by show he 
holds up to derision as ' that numerous piece of 
monstrosity, which, taken asunder, seem men, and 
the reasonable creatures of God ; but confused to- 
gether, make but one great beast, and a monstrosity 
more prodigious than Hydra.' He has a quick sym- 
pathy with the sorrows of others, and, though a 
physician, his prayer is with the husbandman and 
for healthful seasons. No one has put more beauti- 
fully the feeling which each one of us has had at 
times about patients : c Let me be sick myself, if 
sometimes the malady of my patient be not a dis- 
ease unto me ; I desire rather to cure his infirmities 
than my own necessities ; where I do him no good, 
methinks it is scarce honest gain; though I confess 
'tis but the worthy salary of our well-intended 


He has seen many countries, and has studied 
their customs and politics. He is well versed in 
astronomy and botany. He has run through all 
systems of philosophy but has found no rest in any. 
As death gives every fool gratis the knowledge 
which is won in this life with sweat and vexation, 
he counts it absurd to take pride in his achieve- 
ments, though he understands six languages besides 
the patois of several provinces. 

As a scientific man Browne does not take rank 
with many of his contemporaries. He had a keen 
power of observation, and in the c Pseudodoxia ' 
and in his letters there is abundant evidence that 
he was an able naturalist. He was the first to 
observe and describe the peculiar substance known 
as adipocere, and there are in places shrewd flashes, 
such as the suggestion that the virus of rabies may 
be mitigated by transmission from one animal to 
another. We miss in him the clear, dry light of 
science as revealed in the marvellous works of his 
contemporary, Harvey. Busy as a praftical phy- 
sician, he was an observer, not an experimenter to 
any extent, though he urges: 'Join sense unto 
reason and experiment unto speculation, and so give 
life unto embryon truths and verities yet in their 
chaos.' He had the highest veneration for Harvey, 
whose work he recognized as epoch making c his 
piece, " De Circul. Sang.," which discovery I prefer 
to that of Columbus.' He recognized that in the 
faculty of observation the old Greeks were our 
masters, and that we must return to their methods 
if progress were to be made. He had a much 
clearer idea than had Sydenham of the value of 


anatomy, and tells his young friend, Power of 
Halifax, to make Autopsia \\\Jidus Achates. 

That he should have believed in witches, and 
that he should have given evidence in 1664 which 
helped to condemn two poor women, is always 
spoken of as a blot on his character; but a man 
must be judged by his times and his surroundings. 
While regretting his credulity, we must remember 
how hard it was in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries not to believe in witches how hard, in- 
deed, it should be to-day for any one who believes 
implicitly the Old Testament! and men of the 
stamp of Reginald Scot and Johannes Wierus, who 
looked at the question from our point of view, 
were really anomalies, and their strong presentation 
of the rational side of the problem had very little 
influence on their contemporaries. 

For the student of medicine the writings of Sir 
Thomas Browne have a very positive value. The 
charm of high thoughts clad in beautiful language 
may win some readers to a love of good literature; 
but beyond this is a still greater advantage. Like 
the ' Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius ' and the ' En- 
chiridion ' of Epifletus, the ' Religio ' is full of 
counsels of perfection which appeal to the mind of 
youth, still plastic and unhardened by contact with 
the world. Carefully studied, from such books come 
subtle influences which give stability to character 
and help to give a man a sane outlook on the 
complex problems of life. Sealed early of this 
tribe of authors, a student takes with him, as com- 
pagnons de voyage,, life-long friends whose thoughts 
become his thoughts and whose ways become his 


ways. Mastery of self, conscientious devotion to 
duty, deep human interest in human beings these 
best of all lessons you must learn now or never 
and these are some of the lessons which may be 
gleaned from the life and from the writings of Sir 
Thomas Browne. 



HE industry and foresight of a London 
bookseller have preserved to us copies 
of nearly all the books and pamphlets 
printed in this country during the 
Civil War and Commonwealth. But 
very little light has yet been thrown on such points 
as the cost of printing or the number of copies that 
formed an edition. In many cases we do not even 
know the names of the printers of the books which 
Thomason preserved, owing to the lack of docu- 
mentary evidence. Most of the records of the 
London printing houses of the seventeenth century 
perished in the Fire of London, and it is therefore 
a matter for congratulation when any thing comes 
to light which will help us to realize the conditions 
under which the art of printing was carried on in 
those troublous times. 

The documents to which I am about to call 
attention were discovered at the Record Office 
amongst the Chancery Proceedings. They relate 
to a suit brought, to recover a sum of money due to 
him for printing, by Thomas Brudnell or Brudenell, 
a London printer, against the executors of John 
Partridge, a London bookseller, who died in 1649. 
The documents are five in number: 

i. The bill of complaint of Thomas Brudnell or 
Brudenell, stationer, i.e. printer, against Phile- 


mon Stephens, and Luke Fawne, stationers, i.e. 
booksellers, executors to the will of John 
Partridge, stationer, with whom was joined 
Susan Partridge, daughter of the deceased, a 
minor. This bill is dated the igth Febry. 
1650 i.e. 165^-. 

2. A schedule of the account put in by Thomas 
Brudnell for printing books for John Partridge, 
between the years 1644 and 1648. 

3. The reply of the defendants. 

4. A copy of the inventory of the goods of John 
Partridge, taken at his death, and lodged in 
the Court of Orphans by his executors according 
to the ancient custom of the city of London. 

5. A further reply by the defendants, no doubt 
in answer to a c replication ' by the plaintiff, 
which is not in the series. 

There was also a cross suit commenced by 
Stephens and Fawne, against Brudnell, to which 
he put in a reply as defendant. 

Before dealing with these documents, a word 
may be said as to the dramatis personae. Not very 
much is known about the chief personage, Thomas 
Brudnell or Brudenell. When Sir John Lambe was 
ferreting out information for his list of the master 
printers to be appointed under the Ad: of 1637, he 
learned that Brudnell had been taken into partner- 
ship by John Beale in 1621, and had afterwards 
set up in Newgate Market, taking as a partner 
Robert White. In addition to the work men- 
tioned in the bill under dispute, they were joint 
printers of a duodecimo edition of the Bible issued 
in 1647. 



John Partridge had been in business as a book- 
seller since the year 1623, his earliest address being 
the Sun in St. Paul's Churchyard, from whence he 
moved to the Cock in Ludgate Street, and later to 
a shop in Blackfriars, at the entrance of Carter 
Lane. At the outbreak of the Civil War he added 
a trade in astrological books to his other branches 
of bookselling, and in company with Humphrey 
Blunden of the Castle in Cornhill, became the 
publisher of most of the writings of John Booker 
and William Lilly, the astrologers. Another of the 
same name, perhaps a son, was renowned for his 
astrological predictions, and furnished Dean Swift 
with a subject for satire. 

Philemon Stephens was one of the large capitalist 
booksellers of that time, while Luke Fawne took 
an aftive part in the political unrest, being joint 
author with several other booksellers in publishing 
a remarkable pamphlet called ' A Beacon set on 
Fire/ in which attention was drawn to so-called 
Popish literature. Both men lived at that time in 
St. Paul's Churchyard, Stephens at the sign of the 
Golden Lion, and Fawne at the sign of the Parrot 
in the new rents. 

So much for the men, now for the dispute. 
Brudnell's bill of complaint set out that for four 
years past he had been printing books for John 
Partridge, who at the time of his death was Brud- 
nell's debtor in a sum of 362 iSs. for work done, 
particulars of which were set out in a schedule 
attached to the bill. He had made frequent appli- 
cation to the executors for payment, but could not 
get his money, and prayed relief. 


Then follows the schedule, the most important 
document 'of the series, which is given below: 

A true scedule of all such bookes as were printed by mee Thomas 
Erudnell for the vse of John Partridge w th the par- 
ticular names quantity es & -prices^ as follow eth. 

1644. Imprimis of the Collections of Prophesies 
4 sheetes printed att 3 severall tymes 4500 
of each sheete, whereof Mr Bishop did one 
of the sheets in the last impression beinge 
1000 w ch is to bee deducted soe then the 
remayninge is 34 Reame w ch att 55 per 

Reame is 08. 10. o. 

Of the Sarry [i.e. Starry] Messinger two 

sheetes printed 2000 of twoe impressions 

att 5^ per Reame comes to . . 2. oo. o. 

Of Englands recouerye 42 sheetes & the 

1500 printed of each sheete at I2s the 

sheete comes to 26. 2. O. 

1646. Anglicus, 6 sheetes printed 13500. beinge 

162 Reames at vjs v\\]d ,p reame comes to 54. o. O. 

1646. Booker's Bloudy Irish Almanack 4 sheetes 

6 J printed 3000 beinge 27 Reames att 

4* g reame comes to . . . 5. 8. o. 

1647. Anglicus. 6 sheetes printed 17.000 beinge 

204 reames att 6s %d p reame comes to . 68. o. o. 

A sheete of newes printed 5 reames att 55 

p Reame is . . . . . I. 5. o. 

Introducon to astrologye 1 1 o sheetes printed 

1750 of a sheete, beinge 385 reames att 5$ 

j) reame comes to 96. 5. o. 

1648. Anglicus 6 sheetes printed 18,500 beinge 

198 reames att vjs v'\\]d <p reame comes to 74. o. O. 
Military Discipline 1 6 sheetes, 1 500 printed 
being 18 ream att 45 <p reame comes to . 3-12. O. 
1648. Astrologicall predicions 10 sheetes 3000 
printed, then of 6 sheetes 2OOO more, againe 
of 6 sheetes 2000, the 4th tyme printed 

7 sheetes 1500 of each sheete w ch comes to 25. 16. o. 

Sum totall is 362. 18. o. 


No English document of this kind, of so early a 
date, has ever before been printed, and it serves as 
a basis of comparison between old and new methods 
and prices in the printing trade, as well as furnish- 
ing the bibliographer with some valuable informa- 
tion both as to the customs of the printing trade 
and the history of the books mentioned in the list. 
Of the eleven works which it contains, seven came 
from the pen of William Lilly the astrologer, and 
one from that of John Booker. Taking them in 
the order in which they occur, and studying the 
printed copies by the aid of the information this 
bill affords, many interesting points are brought 

The work, briefly mentioned as the Collection 
of Prophecies, bore the title, ' A Collection of 
Ancient and Modern Prophecies, Concerning these 
present Times, with modest Observations thereon,' 
and was published on the I4th November, 1645, 
without any printer's name in the imprint. It was 
a quarto of eight sheets, A-H in fours, so that 
Brudnell only printed a part of it, unless it is as- 
sumed that he had already rendered an account and 
been paid for the remaining portion, which seems 
unlikely. For the moment the question as to which 
of the eight sheets came from his press may be put 
aside. It will be more easily answered after an 
examination of some of the other works. Clearly 
there were three editions of the book. The first 
was perhaps an edition of two thousand copies, 
which was speedily sold out, and a second edition 
of fifteen hundred copies, not being sufficient to 
satisfy the public demand, a third impression of 


one thousand copies was put in hand; and Brud- 
nell's press being apparently busy with other work, 
he entrusted one of the four sheets allotted to him 
to a brother printer, Richard Bishop, to work off 
for him. So that this last edition came from three 
different presses. 

' The Sarry Messenger ' was of course a mistake 
for * The Starry Messenger/ published by William 
Lilly on I4th June, 1645. This was a quarto of 
seven sheets, A-G in fours, and the printer's name 
was omitted from the imprint, but Brudnell's por- 
tion of the work only consisted of two sheets. 
Copies of both the impressions are in the British 
Museum, and they are easily distinguished by the 
typographical variations. 

The third work mentioned in this list, as ' Of 
England's Recovery,' is by far the most important 
and the most interesting of any in the series, being 
none other than Joshua Sprigge's 'Anglia Rediviva.' 
Its presence in this bill under the date of 1644 is 
altogether misleading, as the book did not appear 
until 1647. The work was a folio, and the full 
title and collation are here given in order that the 
reader may understand what follows: 

Anglia Rediviva ; | Englands Recovery : | Being the | 
History | Of the Motions, Actions, and Sue | cesses of 
the Army under the Immediate | Conduct of His Excel- 
lency | S r Thomas Fairfax, K*. | Captain-General | Of all 
the Parliaments Forces | in England. | Compiled for the 
Publique good | By loshua Sprigge. M.A. | [Quot n ] | 
London, | Printed by R. W. for lohn Partridge, and are 
to be sold at the Parot in Paul's Church-yard, and the 
Cock in Ludgate-streete, 1647. 


Collation: A 4 leaves. B 4 leaves, b one leaf. B 2 one 
leaf, followed by two leaves unsigned; B 2 one leaf, B 2. 
one leaf, followed by two leaves unsigned ; C Y in fours. 
Z two leaves. A a V v in fours. X x 2 leaves. 

It will be seen that there is no hint of Thomas 
Brudnell's connexion with the printing in the im- 
print, but the R. W. unquestionably stands for his 
partner, Robert White, and an examination of the 
book proves that it was the joint production of both 
of them, the portion from sigs. Aa to Xx 2 being 
Brudnell's presswork. The work being a folio made 
up in double sheets, this would account for forty- 
one sheets. How the other part was made up is 
not quite clear. 

White's portion of the work was printed in good 
founts of roman and italic, well and regularly cast, 
the italic especially being a clear and artistic letter. 
Brudnell's type can be easily distinguished, being 
more irregular and somewhat thicker in face, while 
the compositor's work is noticeable for its slovenly 
appearance; but in his portion of the book, from 
pages 3 1 3 to 320, occur two particularly fine founts 
of great primer, roman and italic, amongst the best 
I have ever seen in any books of that time. That 
c Anglia Rediviva' was received favourably is clear 
from the fa6l that nearly the whole impression of 
fifteen hundred copies was sold out at the time of 
Partridge's death. 

The work described as 'Anglicus' was an astro- 
logical almanac, the title of which in subsequent 
years became c Merlinus Anglicus Ephemeris.' It 
was entirely printed by Brudnell, and has the 
printer's initials c T. B.' in the imprint. It was an 


ocftavo of six sheets (A 4 , B-F 8 , G 4 ). The first point 
that becomes clear on examining this book is 
that Brudnell possessed a stock of astrological signs. 
It is important to remember this, because there 
were few printers in London at that time who 
stocked these signs; in fact, Lilly himself tells us, 
while apologizing for the ' Errata ' in his c Christian 
Astrology,' that ' things of this nature are seldom 
printed with us, and the printers are unacquainted 
with this kind of learning.' That the work was of 
a difficult nature may be inferred from the in- 
creased price which Brudnell charged for it, 6s. %d. 
per ream instead of 5^. This book also shows that 
the printer possessed several good founts of roman 
and italic as well as a few large initial letters of a 
diaper pattern. These latter, however, seem to 
have been common, many other printers of that 
time using letters of the same kind. 

Booker's ' Bloudy Irish Almanac ' was the work 
of John Booker, another of the charlatans who had 
curried favour with the Roundheads by professing 
to foretell great victories for them. It appeared in 
March, 164!-, an ^ consisted of eight and a half 
quarto sheets signed A-H 4 , I 2 . The imprint ran, 
' Printed at London for John Partridge 1646.' But 
Brudnell only printed four and a half sheets, and 
in this case there is little or no difficulty in identi- 
fying his part of the work as sigs. E to H and the 
half sheet I. The division at this point is clearly 
marked. In the first place the type used in the 
first part is a better one than that in the second. 
Again, the pagination which begins on sig. B is 
correct to pages 24, the verso of the last leaf of 


sig. D, but the first page of sig. E is numbered 21 
instead of 25, and the compositor was at fault all 
through the sheet. But the best and most con- 
clusive proof of Brudnell's connection with this 
second half of Booker's ' Almanac ' is the use of 
astronomical signs in sigs. E and F. 

The largest work mentioned in this bill of Brud- 
nell's is that called the ' Introduction to Astrology,' 
which was the sub-title of Lilly's c Christian Astro- 
logy ' published in 1647. The on ty CO P V f tne 
work in the British Museum is badly cropped and 
imperfeCt, and appears to consist of 108 sheets, 
whereas Brudnell describes it as consisting of no 
sheets, and taking his figures as correCt, it is evident 
that he printed the whole book. In this case his 
name appears in full in the imprint, and conse- 
quently the work is useful as a help to the identi- 
fication of his printing material. There are, for 
example, two metal blocks used in it, the one 
measuring 95 x 35 mm., having as the design the 
rose, thistle, and fleur-de-lys crowned; the other, 
measuring 98 x 29 mm., being chiefly distinguished 
by the occurrence in it of two squirrels. But of this 
squirrel block there were at least two forms, one 
seen in the c Collection of Prophecies ' and ' Chris- 
tian Astrology,' and the other in the ' Starry Mes- 
senger.' One of these is much narrower than the 
other, and differs in details, and it would be rash to 
say that both belonged to Brudnell without further 
evidence, but the probability is that they did. 

One more book in this list remains to be noticed, 
and it appears to have been popular, going through 
no less than four editions in one year one of 


3,000 copies, two of 2,000, and one of 1,500. This 
was Lilly's ' Astrologicall Predictions of the Occur- 
rences in England. Part of the years 1648, 1649, 
1650,' a quarto bearing the imprint, 'Printed by 
T. B. for John Partridge and Humfrey Blunden. 
1648.' This, again, was entirely printed by Brud- 
nell and the two metal blocks alluded to above are 
found in it. Two copies of the ten-sheet edition of 
the ' Predictions ' are in the British Museum, and 
as both show many typographical variations, it 
looks as if the printer had more than one press. 
Thomason dated his copy Sept. 4th and Lilly's 
epistle to 'To the Reader ' was dated August 22nd. 
At present none of the smaller editions have been 

Having now examined most of the books in 
Brudnell's schedule, we may return to the first two, 
4 The Collection of Prophecies ' and the 'Starry 
Messenger.' Of the first he printed four sheets out 
of eight, and, after careful examination, we are in- 
clined to assign to him sigs. A, B, G and H, the first 
two showing his block with the squirrels; and the 
second two, because of the occurrence of astrologi- 
cal signs in them. But his share in the ' Starry 
Messenger' remains a mystery. It is in this that 
the variation of his squirrel block occurs on A2; 
but on the whole it seems more likely that the two 
sheets referred to in Brudnell's bill were the last 
two containing a reprint of a pamphlet by Geo. 
Wharton and Lilly's ' Postcript,' which were issued 
with it. 

One thing at least becomes clear, from a study 
of this printer's bill, and that is, that it was a 


common practice in the printing trade, during the 
first half of the seventeenth century, to entrust the 
printing of books and pamphlets to several printers 
instead of one only; and that the commonly ac- 
cepted belief that the absence of the printer's name 
from the imprint was due either to fear of the 
censor or the growing importance of the publisher 
is no longer tenable. The real reason was that no 
single printer could claim the printing. Nor is it 
any longer safe to assume that where a printer's 
name appears^ in the imprint, that he was the 
printer of the whole work, as has been shown in 
the case of ' Anglia Rediviva,' the work was actu- 
ally done by two. 

The figures of the various editions printed by 
Brudnell are interesting as showing how many 
copies were needed to meet the demand for work 
appealing to the masses of the seventeenth century. 
The master printers, by the rules of the Company 
of Stationers, were forbidden to keep any formes 
standing, except for a few classes of works such as 
Primers, Grammars, Almanacs and the ABC, and 
even those had to be distributed once a year. 
Books printed in brevier or nonpareil were limited 
to 3,000 and 5,000 copies, and all other books to 
1,500 or 2,000. (See Arber's ' Transcript,' II. 
23, 883; III. 22-26.) The steady growth in popu- 
larity of the astrological almanacs is shown in the 
rise of c Anglicus J from 13,500 in 1646 to 18,500 
in 1648. 

As regards Brudnell's prices I am indebted to 
Mr. C. T. Jacobi, of the Chiswick Press, for the 
following opinion : 


I assume that type-setting is not included in the charges 
made by Brudenell nor paper but that the prices were 
for actual presswork only. A ream is 500 sheets, but 
printed both sides means 1,000 impressions or pulls to 
each ream. The old wooden presses, with two men to each, 
could only turn out about 1,000 a day, so the prices, allow- 
ing for the value of money in those days, is certainly 
cheap, for $s. per ream means two men's labour for one 
day, apart from ink, management, wear and tear of presses, 
or profit on the job. I think myself the prices certainly 
are very low, and interesting to us moderns. 

John Booker, and the publisher of the book 
called c Military Discipline/ obtained an even better 
price, paying only 4^. per ream; and the work done 
on'Anglia Rediviva,' at 12s. a sheet for 1,500 
copies (3 reams) was at the same price. 

The reply of the defendants, Stephens and 
Fawne, to BrudnelFs bill of complaint was a total 
denial that John Partridge at the time of his death 
owed Brudnell anything like the sum mentioned; 
and that the plaintiff had admitted that he did not 
keep any regular accounts. Furthermore, they de- 
clared that they had fully administered the estate of 
the deceased and there was nothing left. In support of 
their statement they put in a copy of the inventory 
of John Partridge's goods and chattels at the time 
of his death, which in accordance with the ancient 
custom of the city of London, they had lodged in 
the Court of Orphans. 

In one respedt this is a valuable document, being 
anterior to any inventories possessed by the City 
of London at the present day. The record is 


An Inventorie Indented bearinge date the xxviij th day of 
lanuary, Anno Dni One Thousand six hundred fortie nine, 
of all and singular the goods chattells, rights & creditts, w ch 
late belonged to lohn Partridge, late cittizen and stationer of 
London deceased, scene valued and appraised by George 
Greene, Edward Blackmore, and lohn Macocke stationers, 
and Tho. Cranford joyner cittizens of London, sworne for 
the true valuation and appraisement thereof, before the 
right Worth Robert Tichborne Esq. Alderman of faring- 
don ward within London, wherein the Testator did in- 
habite at his decease, the particulars whereof doe hereafter 


The inventory took account of household goods, 
wearing apparel, stock in trade and property. It 
also showed the other side of the account, i.e., the 
sums paid out by the executors. The only part of 
the document of any interest is that headed 
' Bookes,' which I have transcribed: 

Item 9 1 bibles bound plaine and guilt att vj u v 8 vj d 

It. 2335 bibles in quires with Psalmes all att Ixxxxij 11 xv s 

It. 302 bookes of Lyllies Astrology xlv 11 

It. 440 bookes of Robdolagia in 1 2 xx s 
It. 320 bookes of the history of the lord 

Ffarfex xvj u 

It. 525 bookes of Lillie's Catastrophe in 4 xl s 

It. 148 bookes of Propheticall Merlyn. xl 8 

It. 602 bookes of Starry Messenger. xxi 8 

It. a parcell af old bookes in 4 8 & 12 at xx 8 

It. 30 Reames of waste paper. xlv 8 

It. 5 Copp[er] peeces engraven. xij s 

It. 8 old mappes, att ij 8 viij d 

It. a parcell of old bookes at 1 s 

Suma Clxxjj u xj 8 ij 
Chan. Proc. Mitford, 


The first two items show us what an immense 
trade was done in Bibles by the booksellers of the 
seventeenth century, when one is found with a 
stock of over 3,000. Some of these, doubtless, were 
the remainder of the duodecimo edition, printed 
for Partridge in 1647, by Robert White and 
Thomas Brudnell. The book referred to as the 
' history of Lord farfex ' was, I infer, the remains 
of Sprigge's ' Anglia Rediviva'; but on what basis 
this inventory was made is altogether puzzling. If 
Sprigge's book be the one referred to in this entry, 
the remainder was valued at exaftly one shilling per 
volume, whereas Lilly's 4 Astrology,' which was 
only a quarto, was put down at three shillings a 
volume, which must have been very nearly its 
wholesale publishing price. But yet more astonish- 
ing is the slump that had taken place in the ' Starry 
Messenger.' Of the second impression of 1,000 
copies, over 600 were on the publisher's hands at 
the time of his death, and they were not worth a 
halfpenny each. Sic transit gloria mundi ! 


4 6 




HE extension of the municipal library 
system to over four hundred towns 
has naturally brought with it many 
new problems. The experience of 
older institutions offers little or no 
guidance to municipal librarians, because the great 
libraries of the past were founded and managed in 
the interest of scholars, while the objedl of the 
municipal library is to help to give a liberal educa- 
tion to the people, to make, in fadt, not scholars 
but intelligent citizens. Hence its administrative 
methods must be different, and more particularly its 
selection of books must be carried out on different 
lines. If the main objedt of the library is educa- 
tional, the main objeft in the seleftion of the books 
should clearly be educational also: the question 
which it is proposed to consider is to what extent 
this is at present the case. It need hardly be said 
that the question is no new one. Time after time 
the critics of municipal libraries have accused their 

1 c The public library should be recognized as forming part of 
the national educational machinery.' Report of Library Association 
Committee on Public Education and Public Libraries, 1905. 


managers of employing public funds to circulate 
trashy novels. For the most part the librarians go 
their way unmoved, but sometimes they stop to 
point out rather tartly that more than one-half the 
novels circulated are fiftion of a high type; and to 
argue, very plausibly, that even their own statistics 
of circulation need judicious manipulation before 
c true ' percentages are calculable. Thanks to the 
mistakes of their critics they get off fairly well; 
but then at some quiet time, in their stridtly pro- 
fessional conferences, some well-known librarian, 
such as Mr. W. E. Doubleday, timorously puts in 
a word about ' The Fiftion nuisance and its abate- 
ment'; and Mr. Baker, the author of that useful 
manual, ' The Best Fiction,' backs him up. Com- 
placent librarianship neglects to thank these gentle- 
men for their seasonable words; calls them, in fact, 
'Jeremiahs.' But we cannot always rely on our 
outside critics making mistakes such as blunted the 
force of the onslaught by Mr. Churton Collins, and 
supposing that some well-informed outside critic 
should take up the attack we can imagine many 
inconvenient questions which he might ask. 

' Admitting,' such a critic might say, ' that more 
than one-half of the fiction on your shelves is good, 
what justification have you for circulating the rest ? 
Here is a typical catalogue. Under the name of 
Miss Worboise I find entries of works which deal 
with life like a girl-artist diffidently dabbling in 
water-colour. I am told that these books are in 
especially great demand. Next to her comes Mrs. 
Henry Wood, who spreads enlightenment by telling 
how all dark deeds are accompanied by super- 


natural manifestations of the most lurid kind. Miss 
Braddon, again, your readers' third favourite, uses 
her much greater knowledge of the world only to 
educate her readers, if she educates them at all, in 
the possibilities of sensation. Between them these 
three authors have published some 140 books. If all 
your four hundred municipal libraries possess single 
sets of each author's works, the number of copies in 
circulation in Great Britain is 56,000. If each copy is 
taken out 30 times a year, the total annual circulation 
of Miss Worboise, Mrs. Wood, and Miss Braddon 
through municipal libraries comes to 1,680,000 
issues. Although not all your libraries possess com- 
plete sets of these works, most of them do, and many 
of them have second and third sets, so that an esti- 
mate of a million and a half issues is at least no 
absurd exaggeration. If these authors really educate 
and enlighten, then you are doing a Great Work 
with their books alone. But when the municipal 
librarian comes to write a ' Guide to Fiction J he 
is far from enthusiastic about these novelists. He 
excludes Miss Worboise altogether, and seems 
curiously indifferent to the charms of Mrs. Wood 
and Miss Braddon. The popularity of these ladies 
is shared, to a greater or less extent, by Mr. Guy 
Boothby (the creator, according to c Best Fiction,' 
of ' gigantic adventurers, gory monsters, and super- 
natural beings'), Mrs. Hungerford ('frivolous, slangy, 
and smart '), Fergus Hume ( ( very cheap melo- 
drama'), Headon Hill, Florence Warden, Le Queux 
and Dick Donovan, names which many readers of 
' The Library ' will never have heard; while not all 
of them are enshrined in the monument to ' Best 


Fidtion.' What justification is there for issuing the 
books of these writers at the expense of the rates? 1 

To the critic who attacks us thus what answer 
can municipal librarians offer save that, since the 
books are in demand there are obviously many 
readers who like them ; and that as these readers 
contribute, dire&ly and indirectly, to the support of 
the libraries, they are entitled to have the books 
they like? Yet if this answer be accepted, what be- 
comes of the glorification of the public library as 
c part of the national educational machinery,' or of 
such utterances as that in which Mr. Doubleday de- 
clares that c the Public Library is, or ought to be, 
primarily educational in its work ? If it is not, so 
much the worse for the library : apart from this it 
has barely a sphere of existence/ Moreover, if this 
right of the uneducated to educate themselves by read- 
ing what they like is admitted, what answer can be 
given to the grumbles of the large number of rate- 
payers in every town who never come inside the 
library themselves, but tolerate the expense it im- 
poses on them because they believe in the talk about 
its educational influence? 

If we fall back on the plea that the hardworked 
clerk or typist requires rest and recreation of an 
evening quite as much as education, our critic at 
once retorts: 4 Your libraries then are not only edu- 

1 It is sometimes urged that the amount spent on novels is only 
from five per cent, to seven per cent, of the total annual income 
of any public library, so that the amount spent on bad novels would 
not be more than two per cent, or three per cent. But even two 
per cent, of its annual income is a large amount for any library to 
waste, and it must be remembered that a bad book costs just as 
much to catalogue and handle as a good one. 


cational but charitable, inasmuch as they draw funds 
from the common purse of the town to administer 
relief to the overworked. Your ex-president, Dr. 
Hodgkin, prophesied that in good time librarians 
would be recognized as the hierophants of litera- 
ture. You ought not to have taken it amiss had he 
called you literary relieving officers !' 

c I observe, also,' the critic might continue, c that 
not only do you offer this relief, but that at least 
one of your number boasts of providing books as 
quickly as any Circulating Library, which is trying 
to make a profit from the same business, and per- 
haps paying rates to support its gratuitous competi- 
tor.' Here is the latest boast to this effect taken 
from the 'Publishers' Circular' for Odtober 14, 

In our library we spend something like ^500 per annum 
on new books (and ours is not a very large town), and we 
like our books hot from the press. I am now compiling 
two lists of books for our autumn addition one list from 
your announcement columns of books actually published, 
and another from your advertisement pages of books an- 

It is only fair to say that some librarians make it 
a rule not to purchase fidlion until twelve months 
after publication, but it would be well to know if 
this competition with the circulating libraries in 
providing books ' hot from the press,' before there 
has been any good opportunity of testing their value, 
and in selecting them from c announcements ' before 
they have even been reviewed, is or is not to be 
recognized as part of a municipal librarian's ideal 


When driven into a corner by questions like 
these, shall we not do well to own that attempting 
too much is the most crying evil of public library 
administration ? In the home reading department 
alone we fail in every single aim. In no way can 
we supply all the light literature on demand. In 
no way can we buy all the new books c hot from 
the press,' nor provide a sufficient number of copies 
to satisfy all the readers who ask for them. In 
scarcely a single library is the collection of good 
' live ' general literature so strong as it should be. 
In scarcely any library, perhaps in none, is the 
technical collection complete to date, well arranged, 
properly catalogued and adequately advertised. 
The obvious remedy and the only remedy with- 
in our power is to impose some limits upon our 
activities. By ceasing to buy books hot from the 
press, by stocking the best fiction only, 1 we should 
in quite a short time save enough money to make 
our collection of good general literature as strong 
as it ought to be. The demand for a standard book 
ought to be met with as near an approach to cer- 
tainty as possible, and the money saved by ceasing 
to buy bad novels would be well spent on the pur- 
chase of additional copies of good ones, exaCtly in 
proportion to the demand. Probably, in a library 

1 c The really heroic plan would be to exclude fiction altogether. 
. . . But fancy a library without u Don Quixote," with no Scott, 
no Jane Austen. . . . Obviously exceptions would have to be 
made. The excluding line could not be maintained.' (Mr. W. E. 
Doubleday, in * Library World,' v. 5, 207.) The simple answer to 
this is that every librarian has some excluding line by which he 
keeps out the worst books of all; there can therefore be no diffi- 
culty in drawing the line higher up. 


issuing some five hundred volumes a day, only some 
15 a year would be required to buy an additional 
copy of every really good book asked for when the 
existing copies were all in use, and the encourage- 
ment to readers would be immense. 

Economy in other directions, again, might well 
lead to the purchase of many more books of the 
class which fall below the dignity of standard works 
but provide a useful and, as far as they go, an 
adequate treatment of popular subjects books of 
travel, small, well-illustrated biographies of great 
men, popular books of nature study, books on 
industries and inventions by competent writers, or 
on social questions and the home life of foreign 

While the general library is strengthened in this 
way, by limiting the money spent on expensive and 
little-used books for the reference library a good 
technical collection might be built up, and this 
again would prove a great attraction to the best 
class of readers. 

There is nothing new in the views here ex- 
pressed, but amid the temptations to stray into 
countless other paths we need daily to remind our- 
selves that a municipal library is a teaching institu- 
tion, differing only from other schools in its more 
liberal curriculum. As a teaching institution our 
motto should be the best and the best only, but the 
best without stint, and we should exclude any re- 
creative purpose which does not also make for 
education. Perhaps this is a narrow view, but then, 
despite the amazing economy with which most 
municipal libraries are managed, our means also are 


narrow. We may hope that Parliament will remove 
the rate limit, but the removal is more likely to 
benefit the richer districts than the poorer. More- 
over, in every district where a higher rate is pro- 
posed, there will be a close scrutiny of the work 
done on our present incomes, and unless we mend 
our ways, the educational value of this work will 
not always be easy to prove. 



As the writer of it has remarked, the article by 
a well-known municipal librarian which we have 
here printed contains little or nothing that is new. 
But it makes its points with courage and directness, 
and is thus so conducive to clear thinking that with 
the writer's permission we have used it to try to 
get some definite pronouncements on two questions 
on which not only every librarian, but every critic 
of library administration, and therefore every rate- 
payer, ought surely to make up his mind. 

The two questions which we would propound 
are: (i) does the educational usefulness, which 
every one is agreed that municipal libraries should 
possess, constitute their whole legitimate scope? 
(ii) is it inconsistent with educational usefulness for 
a library to circulate silly novels ? On each of these 
questions we find ourselves at issue with our con- 

As regards the first he appears to us to err from 
an excess of logic. Because the municipal library 


is the best of all adjuncts to the municipal schools, 
he would deny its right to any aims that are not 
directly educational, whereas in our view a muni- 
cipal library has also a right to consider itself, 
within limits which the ratepayers in each district 
must determine for themselves, a co-operative book- 
club. Undoubtedly, in so doing it comes under 
the censure which made Count Tolstoi declare 
that there is no more real liberty in England than 
in Russia, because residents in some English sea- 
side resorts are rated for the support of the muni- 
cipal band, whose performances they detest. But 
in England we have a way of looking to general 
effects, and if the general effects are good we 
acquiesce in many things which are not strictly 
logical. The performances of the Christchurch 
band are believed to make the town more attractive 
to visitors, the visitors help the hotels and the 
lodging-houses to pay a much larger share of the 
rates than would otherwise be possible, the burden 
on the private resident is thus lightened, and though 
part of this burden is for a band which he dislikes 
he is not really injured. We might point also to the 
logically quite indefensible conduct of the State in 
entering into competition with the banks by con- 
ducting a savings-bank business of its own, at times 
at a considerable loss, and again in remitting income- 
tax on premiums for life-insurance. The State 
justifies itself for this interference with private 
enterprise, this discrimination in favour of the 
methods of saving adopted by some of its taxpayers 
over those preferred by others, on the general 
grounds that the encouragement thus given to 


thrift benefits the whole community, and indiretly 
lightens the burden of taxation for those who make 
no direft use of them. 

In the same way a popular municipal library by 
providing a fresh centre of corporate life makes the 
whole district more attractive, even to the extent, 
it may be, of keeping up the value of house 
property, and thus indire6tly benefits all the rate- 
payers. To what point the venture should be 
pushed each community must determine for itself; 
but the trend of politics is not in favour of the man 
who objects to joining the majority of his fellow- 
citizens in any venture unless he sees that his own 
immediate share of the profit will be as great as that 
of the neediest of them. 

As our contributor observes, it is mainly because 
of the educational value of Free Libraries that well- 
to-do ratepayers acquiesce in supporting them, but 
if any community chooses to take the co-operative 
view of the function of the municipal library there 
is plenty of precedent for it. 

(ii) As regards the circulation of silly novels two 
points may surely be made. In the first place there 
are low forms in schools as well as high ones; and 
secondly, there is no compulsory Education Aft as 
applied to reading. If librarians want to educate 
their readers they must first get the readers and 
then educate them, and that only by gentle steps. 
* The best books and the best only ' has an exhilar- 
ating ring as a motto; but readers who will flock to 
read the best books are in little need of educating. 
The readers of penny novelettes are the lost sheep 
whom the librarian has to reclaim, and he will not 


reclaim them by an immediate course of George 
Meredith or even of Scott. Let him lead them gently 
on, as Mr. Crunden recommended in that remark- 
able series of articles on c What one American 
Library is doing ' in our first volume. Let him 
paste in his worst novels the names of others that 
are a little better, and in these the names of others 
that are a little better still, and so condu6t his sheep 
to whatever he may please to regard as the best 
pastures. Not all of them will follow his sugges- 
tions; only a few perhaps will be led from historical 
novels to histories, and from stories of mining life 
to mineralogy; but whatever movement there is 
will be in the right direction, and to tempt readers 
of the worst books to try others that are a little 
better is surely as educational a process as to supply 
the best books to those who are already educated 
enough to ask for them. 


The views which various distinguished corre- 
spondents have expressed on the foregoing papers 
are too diverse for us to flatter ourselves that any 
immediate unanimity will result from this discus- 
sion, though perhaps some of the letters we are 
privileged to print, notably Dr. Garnett's, may com- 
mand the admiration of both sides. Our own obje<5t, 
however, will have been well served if it is found 
that we have helped to emphasize the fa6t that the 
two sides already exist, and that neither the one nor 
the other has a right to argue as if it represented 


the unanimous opinion of those interested in mu- 
nicipal libraries. Far from this being the case it 
will be seen that each side can claim strong and 
able supporters. 

The place of honour among supporters of the 
educational view belongs to LORD AVEBURY, who 

I have read the article by Municipal Librarian and con- 
cur generally with what he says. He seems to take a very 
sensible view. 

I would by no means restrict the contents of Public 
Libraries to c severe ' works, and think that one of their 
most valuable uses will be to give variety, and brighten 
the lives of the dwellers in our towns. At the same time, 
I think that new books should not, indeed, be excluded 
but only bought in exceptional cases. This would, in 
the first place, be economical. The same expenditure would 
supply many more books. 

But what is even more important, it would reduce the 
number of second and third-rate books. My friends are 
good enough to read new books for me, and give me the 
result. This saves me a great deal of time, and makes my 
reading much more interesting. 

It seems satisfactory that from the reports of many 
libraries, the proportion of books on History, Geography, 
Science, etc., seems to be on the increase. 

The last President of the Library Association, 
PROFESSOR HODGKIN, follows strongly on the same 

Without trying to strain the intellectual note too high, 
I think that libraries supported by a compulsory rate 
should have a high conception of duty, and should not 
waste their ratepayers' money and their readers' time by 
providing mere rubbish for their consumption. 


It is, I admit, very difficult to be absolutely consistent 
and logical in this matter, but as the Municipal Librarian 
truly says : ' Every librarian has some excluding line by 
which he keeps out the worst books of all,' and it is only 
a question of drawing the line high enough up. 

What I am going to say is thoroughly illogical, but I 
should greatly limit, without wholly excluding, the Wor- 
boise-Wood-Braddon class of fiction. It seems to me 
monstrous to think of buying the whole output of these 
authors, or half or a quarter of it. I would have one or 
two specimen volumes ('Aurora Floyd,' I suppose, for 
Miss Braddon, and 'East Lynne' for Mrs. H. Wood; I 
do not know the names of any of the other lady's novels), 
and I should stop there, saying virtually to my readers: 
' Here is a specimen of the sort of fiction these ladies 
write. If you care for more of it, you can go to a circu- 
lating library or buy a cheap edition for yourself; we 
don't think it is good enough to load our shelves with it.' 

The argument of the pleader for elasticity does not 
convince me. I think there is a justification for the State 
taxing the well-to-do citizen to provide intellectual food 
for his poorer neighbour, but not to provide him with a 
pipe of intellectual opium. 

MR. SIDNEY LEE is equally emphatic: 

I have read with interest the remarks of A Municipal 
Librarian on c The Municipal Librarian's Aims in Book- 
buying,' and the editor's criticism of his views. My sym- 
pathies are with A Municipal Librarian. I do not think 
that public funds ought to be applied to the provision of 
such frivolous amusement as ephemeral fiction affords. 
Public taste in literature seems to me to be at the moment 
at a low ebb. Municipal libraries constitute in my mind 
a public danger, if those who choose the books for them 
are content to echo the voice of the majority, or deem 
themselves under some obligation to satisfy the demands 
of prevailing ignorance rather than to seek to counteract or 


diminish it. No sensible man or woman can object to fic- 
tion of genuine literary excellence. But I believe that the 
municipal library will not prove of much service to the 
community unless the money available for the purchase 
of books be fairly evenly distributed over all departments 
of sound literary endeavour. The function of bookbuying 
for municipal libraries should be exercised solely by the 
fitly trained librarian. I think it would be a wise rule to 
buy no work of fiction until it had been published for at 
least a year. Every step taken to render the empty novel 
more difficult of access to the uneducated, is as much to 
the public good as every step taken to make literature 
that has stood the test of time easier of access. The like- 
lihood that a young uneducated reader, who finds it at 
the outset easy to procure a worthless book, will be in- 
duced to improve his taste hereafter, is very small. For 
the municipal library to seek to compete with the popular 
circulating library, is to pervert altogether the Municipal 
Library's just aim. If the tired clerk or typist cannot find 
recreation in reading books of some literary value, I judge 
it in their own interest best for them to give up reading 
altogether, and find recreation in some other way. 

On the other hand the present President of the 
Library Association, MR. JENKINSON, while asking 
to be allowed to stand outside the controversy, re- 
cognizes quite clearly that 'certainly there are two 
ideals/ the first and the one most to be encouraged 
being 'to help the poor but aspiring student/ the 
second 'to amuse/ 

versity of Birmingham, now of Glasgow, another 
President of the Library Association, writes very 
vigorously in favour of the double standpoint. 

It would in my judgement be quite preposterous to re- 


gard the sole objects of the library (municipal) as educa- 
tional. ( Man does not live by bread alone/ and as 
Aristotle said, c It is not becoming in a gentleman to be 
always on the look-out for what is useful.' I have myself 
many books which were purchased with quite different 
ends in view. By all means help your serious minded 
readers and cajole the frivolous into greater seriousness if 
you can, but let us preserve our freedom, cultivate 
patience, and avoid these efforts to hustle folk into Para- 

A veteran in the library cause, MR. J. PASSMORE 
EDWARDS, maintains that public libraries should 
have a triple aim ' useful/ in the following letter, 
obviously referring to technical literature. He 
writes : 

I am in no way an authority on the suitability of books 
for public libraries; but such libraries, if they answer their 
intended purpose, should be educative, recreative, and use- 
ful. The employments, opinions, and desires of boroughs 
and districts which provide libraries, differ from each 
other; and as each maintains its own library, each has an 
equal right to select its own books, whatever critics may 
say to the contrary. Public libraries are essentially demo- 
cratic in origin, aim, and result. 

The note sounded in this last sentence is repeated 
and emphasized in a letter from MR. SIDNEY 

The question with which c The Library ' need concern 
itself is not whether Public Libraries have or have not the 
right to purvey recreative or amusing books at the expense 
of the rates. Why should not the citizens collectively pro- 
vide themselves with recreative or amusing literature, if 
they choose, at whatever level of taste or culture they may 


have attained? It is not even c Municipal Trading/ The 
use of the municipal organization to enable the citizens to 
supply themselves with novels if they want novels is 
exactly on a par with their use of it to provide themselves 
with art galleries, flat stone sidewalks, street-watering in 
dusty weather, swimming baths, open spaces or Town 
Halls. All these things (and everything else that the local 
or national government has ever provided) are objected to 
by one or other involuntary contributor to their cost. 
Every one of them can be shown to be unnecessary to the 
existence of the State, for States have existed without 
them. The short answer to such objectors is that they 
prove too much; that their belated Administrative Nihil- 
ism necessarily condemns the very existence of Public 
Libraries as much without fiction as with fiction. There 
can be no more justification for compelling dissentient 
ratepayers to bear the cost of books of which this or that 
sententious critic approves as useful and desirable, than of 
books of which such a critic disapproves. There is abso- 
lutely no argument, on grounds of economic or political 
science, why public libraries should not purvey recreative 
or amusing books, if the ratepayers so desire. 

The practical question is whether the librarians, and 
members of library committees, are doing all they can to 
make their institutions as useful to the community as 
possible. There is, of course, a demand for fiction. There 
would be a demand for the literature that contravenes 
Lord Campbell's Act, if librarians would consent to supply 
it. What the committees and librarians ought to do is, to 
regard as their masters and rulers the citizens of the town, 
not in their capacity of borrowers of books, but in that of 
electors at the polls. The Public Library Committee and 
its librarian ought, that is to say, to carry out fearlessly the 
trust that is imposed upon them; to do what they them- 
selves think best for the community as a whole, subject 
only to securing the necessary public assent, as manifested 
at the annual election of town councillors. 


Now, there are various things which public libraries are 
not, so far as I know, usually doing, and to which I should 
like their attention directed. They would, in my judge- 
ment, be open to serious criticism if, merely pandering to 
the crowd of frivolous readers who are not their rulers, 
they were to purvey inferior fiction, to the detriment of 
their other functions. Are our public libraries, for instance, 
beyond reproach in the performance of their duty as cen- 
tres for the collection of all local printed matter not only 
books about the place and books printed in the place, but 
also pamphlets, reports, and publications of local societies, 
minutes of local governing bodies, documents connected 
with the local theatre, prison, workhouse, churches and 
chapels, schools, bazaars, lectures, etc.? Has each of our 
public libraries chosen its own subject to specialize upon, 
taking care to bewell provided and up-to-date in that subject? 

Are they doing everything that can be expected from 
them in the service of the local schools and colleges, the 
local continuation classes, the local University Extension 
courses, and any other lectures delivered in the place ? 
Are they, each of them, the best source for information on 
the principal local industry ? 

Public libraries must, in fact, choose what position they 
will take up. They are quite within their rights, if the 
local electors will stand it, in becoming wholly or princi- 
pally purveyors of fiction for frivolous readers. But if 
they do this and in so far as they do this to the neglect 
of more serious duties, they forfeit their claim to any 
higher position than would be filled by a municipal peep 

We have now printed three opinions on each 
side of the discussion, and are fortunate in having 
still three others in which the authors, without 
concealing their personal sympathies, aim perhaps 
rather more at bringing about an accord, than at 
awarding vidtory to either side. 


The first is from MR. JOHN BALLINGER, who 
takes as his motto, * the best attainable/ Mr. Bal- 
linger writes : 

The whole question turns largely upon what a public li- 
brary is. If it is an adjunct to other educational institutions, 
and that only, then the scope is narrowed down to a fine 
point, and the plea for e the best and the best only,' may 
be realized. But would such a library j ustify its existence 
as a separate rate-supported institution, with a staff of 
trained officials ? Would it not be better and cheaper to 
supply to each educational institution the books suited to 
its needs? 

The basis of the public library is wider, and its aims 
higher. When the schools and colleges turn their students 
out into the world more or less equipped for the life be- 
fore them the schools and colleges have finished with them, 
and they are left to their own devices. They have all been 
taught to read, and to look to that as a road to acquiring 
knowledge, and a means of recreation. A favoured few 
have reached the higher planes, and may be left to indulge 
their cultivated tastes. But what of the many? They are of 
all grades. There are many stages of education, and many 
degrees of the human mind. Is the public library, sup- 
ported by the contributions of all, to provide only for a 
class, and that class the favoured few who need its supplies 
and assistance least? 

I believe with all my heart that the habit of reading is a 
blessing. If a book enables a sufferer to forget pain, a 
tired worker his cares, or a woman her household worries, 
then it gives refreshment to soul and body, which is so 
much to the good. Why then trouble about the exact 
place on the literary plane of the book which refreshed 
the spirit? We do not condemn preachers who fail to 
reach the standard of Liddon or Spurgeon. No one 
inquires whether the visitors to a park admire only the 
choicest flowers. Nor do we hear objections to Museums 


and Art Galleries because many of the visitors are mere 
idlers, and utterly fail to appreciate the higher scientific 
and artistic aims. For one serious student in the majority 
of museums a library can produce a hundred or more. 

I would gladly level up the standard of the books 
admitted to public libraries, if it could be done without loss 
of readers. To exclude what is pernicious is the most that 
can be attained under existing conditions, and I doubt 
whether the conditions are not becoming worse instead of 
better. The decline in the quality of the reading matter 
supplied by newspapers and magazines is considerable, and 
has a very injurious effect upon the reading public. 

All these things must be taken into account in giving 
an opinion. There are so many stages in the work of a 
public library, from the humble but most useful provision 
of a branch reading room and library in a poor suburb, up 
to the reference library. To despise any link weakens the 
whole chain. Let us ask ourselves what would happen to 
the readers of Mrs. Henry Wood's novels if these were 
withdrawn. Would they read George Meredith instead ? 

To know the world of readers in a large provincial 
town makes one very cautious about dogmatizing on the 
subject. If by levelling up we can be sure of carrying our 
humbler readers with us, or if the gap we leave will be 
filled by something better, by all means level up. Failing 
assurance of this let us go on doing our best, reaching 
higher slowly, remembering that as there are many degrees 
of men's minds so there must be many steps on the ladder 
of learning, and above all that in a weary world rest and 
refreshment are good for the soul. 

The following letter from DR. RICHARD GARNETT 
seems to us so admirable, that the upholders of both 
views will think their own labour well bestowed in 
having evoked it. 

If the questions propounded in c A Plea for Elasticity ' 


are to be understood and answered in their strict literal 
sense it seems impossible to return any but an affirmative 
reply to the first and a negative to the second. But ques- 
tions and answers are subject to so many qualifications that 
a mere yes or no would be merely misleading. It is cer- 
tainly the fact that a public library is as much an educa- 
tional institution as a public school is. But it is equally the 
fact that recreation is an important though a subordinate 
part of education, and that both the school and the library 
must recognize it as such. The danger of taking too 
narrow a view of the functions of a library is shown by the 
decay of mechanics' institutes, due in great measure to 
their libraries and their arrangements in general being of 
too exclusively educational a character. The craving of 
human nature for amusement cannot be safely ignored. 
No one would object to a public library's possessing books 
on chess, cricket and billiards : and it seems illogical to 
admit recreative books from which the reader may obtain 
a knowledge of games, and refuse books from which he may 
in some measure obtain a knowledge of life. 

This remark, however, concedes that in selecting novels 
for a public library some attention should be paid to their 
educational value. It is plainly incompatible with the func- 
tions of a library to circulate c silly ' novels. But the libra- 
rian's censorship should be exercised in no narrow or 
pedantic spirit. The works of the three authoresses first 
mentioned in c A Municipal Librarian's ' paper, are by no 
means c silly,' but are adapted with much skill to meet the 
taste of a large body of readers unable to appreciate fiction 
of a higher class, and are actually useful in so far as they 
depict phases of modern life with spirit and accuracy. It is 
doubtful whether as much can be said for the other writers 
mentioned : still they should not be condemned unheard : 
and it must be remembered that even a bad historical 
novel, or one whose scene is laid in a foreign country, may 
be of service by conveying information and stimulating 



In fact, the evil is not so much that the public read too 
many novels as that they read too few other books. The 
issues of novels from free libraries are not excessive in 
themselves, but appear so from their disproportion to the 
issues of other classes of literature. If twice as many books 
of information were issued, the circulation of fiction would 
cease to excite remark. Even as things are, it is to be 
borne in mind that standard works, as respects lending 
out, are at a disadvantage with novels because so many 
are reserved for the reference library: and that the return 
and reissue of novels are rapid, while standard works are, 
or should be, retained a considerable time for careful read- 
ing. The librarian, therefore, who desires to disarm the 
adversaries of free libraries, and the opponents of increased 
rating provision for them, of what must be admitted to be 
a specious argument, should proceed rather by way of 
encouragement of good literature than by discouragement 
of the less valuable; though even this, within judicious 
and reasonable limits, may have its place. Much, as sug- 
gested by the writer of C A Plea for Elasticity/ can be 
effected by the personal influence of the librarian. To the 
excellent suggestion that the inferior novel might be made 
a machine for pushing on the novel of a better class, may 
be added that slips could be inserted directing the readers 
of serious novels such as c Hypatia ' or c John Inglesant ' 
to books illustrative of their subjects; also to biographies 
of the authors, and in the case of historical or topographical 
novels to lives of the principal characters, or accounts of 
the countries described. But the best way of all will be to 
elevate the status of the library by rendering it as far as 
possible part and parcel of the daily life of the community; 
associating it with public lectures, meetings, exhibitions, 
and all intellectual movements of non-political and unsec- 
tarian character; and especially cultivating intimate rela- 
tions with that most useful agency, the National Home 
Reading Union. 

The actual discouragement of inferior fiction is a laud- 


able undertaking, but requires caution and discrimination. 
A public institution must not run absolutely counter to 
public opinion: and it is to be feared that, while the 
readers of novels are much in earnest about getting them, 
the denouncers of fiction are frequently indifferent to all 
library questions, except the keeping down of the library 
rate. Deferring the purchase of new novels for a year or 
even longer is, unless public opinion be too adverse, an 
excellent measure. It allows the appetite for popular 
novelties to subside, it gives time to sift the wheat from 
the chaff, and relieves the finances of the library. The 
librarian, also, who is pressed to buy a second copy of a 
novel, can always defend himself upon financial grounds, 
pointing out that within a few years this copy will be 
worth nothing to the library, and next to nothing else- 
where. It would be well if the Library Committee would 
allocate a definite sum to be spent annually in the purchase 
of fiction, and never exceeded: only this must not be ad- 
justed according to the extent of the issues, but rather in 
the reverse ratio. 

Lastly, to end the discussion in an atmosphere 
of peace, MR. R. S. FABER, the President of the 
Bibliographical Society, volunteers, instead of offer- 
ing advice, to tell a story, for the truth of which 
he pledges himself: 

Some years ago I was talking to a man of scholarly 
tastes and wide reading about the very subject now under 
discussion, and he said to me, c Would you like to see my 
library?' I naturally thought he meant his own private 
collection, but it turned out that he referred to a free 
library which he had built, endowed, and furnished with 
an excellent supply of books, solely at his own expense, in 
a thickly-populated district in one of our largest towns. I 
gladly accepted his offer and made an appointment with 
him to visit the place at an early date. I may say that my 


preconceived notion of a free library was based more or 
less upon the old-fashioned Mechanics' Institute, and I 
rather expected to see a somewhat unattractive building, 
stored with equally unattractive dust-laden volumes. What 
was my surprise at finding myself before a really beautiful 
bit of architecture, standing within a neatly-kept piece of 
ground, scarcely to be termed a garden, for exigencies of 
space did not permit of that, but still enough to form a 
very pleasant and restful border of green and to allow a 
circulation of air. The interior was in harmony with the 
outside; all was bright and cheerful and in the most re- 
fined taste, yet perfectly simple and thoroughly practical 
in every detail. Under the guidance of my friend and the 
librarian, I inspected all the arrangements and got as good 
an idea of the contents of the shelves as time allowed. I 
recollect being struck by the admirable collection of works, 
both printed and in manuscript, treating of the immediate 
locality and of the entire county in which the library was 
situated, and by the librarian's remark that this was one of 
the best used departments under his care. ' And what of 
fiction? ' I asked. c I suppose that is your trouble here as 
I have been told it is in most free libraries/ He laughed 
and replied, c So it was at first, but we have nearly said 
good-bye to fiction now; our people seldom ask for any, 
unless it be real literature as well.' I congratulated him on 
what seemed to me a singularly happy state of things, and 
after quitting the library I questioned my friend about it. 
c Yes,' he said, c I think I may now feel I have attained the 
object I had in view when beginning this library. I wanted 
to try and put within the reach of my poorer neighbours 
some of the great pleasures and advantages I had derived 
from really good books myself. As often happens, how- 
ever, all went well except for what, to me, was < the one 
little rift in the lute.' I had aimed at getting people to 
read what was worth reading; instead, they crowded to 
my library to ask for scarcely anything but fiction, and 
that more often than not of the poorest sort, so poor in- 


deed that we had not got it to give them. Needless to say, 
my disappointment was great. By rare good fortune, my 
librarian was not only a man of books, but a man of 
immense power and tad: in influencing others. I might 
say of him as was said of Robert Stephenson, ' he was not 
only an engineer of works, but an engineer of men.' He 
set to in some mysterious way of his own, and the result 
is what you have seen and heard to-day. We have more 
readers than ever, and the books they read are books 
worth reading. True, some are fiction, but the very best; 
and there is a constant demand for works of information 
and of helpfulness in the practical life of our commercial 
and artisan population/ 

Home I went, meditating on my day's experiences and 
on how the persevering efforts and influence of two men 
(my friend's modesty had prevented him from alluding to 
his own share in the work) had so satisfactorily put to 
flight that great bugbear, free library fiction, in at least one 
place and for at least their own time. 

We wish that Mr. Faber's respeft for his friend's 
modesty had not obliged him to suppress his name, 
but the moral of this story, the immense influence 
of an enthusiastic librarian on the reading of a 
whole community, is one which can hardly be too 
strongly emphasized. 

We hope to recur to some of the issues raised in 
this discussion in our next number. 



JN a review of my * Printers' Hand- 
book/ etc. in the last issue of * The 
Library' (Oftober, 1905), my opinion 
was asked as to whether the ink used 
by the early printers in Italy in print- 
ing with roman types was the same as they used 
for gothic, it being suggested that they may have 
deliberately imitated the effect of a more fluid ink 
used for cursive writing, instead of the stronger 
ink of the monastic bookhand. The whole ques- 
tion of the inks used in early printing is a very 
interesting one, and I am pleased to offer some re- 
marks on the subject. 

I think that the fact that the inks used in some 
of the fifteenth-century Italian volumes is of a 
somewhat brownish tone is due more to accident 
than design. At that early period, notwithstand- 
ing the brilliancy of the black ink used by Guten- 
berg and his immediate successors, the secret of 
making such inks was not generally known. As 
suggested in your review, the precise amount of 
ink applied does affect the density, or what we 
printers term c colour,' and again, a thin-faced type 
of roman character as compared with one of the 
gothic order, although printed in the same ink, 
will give a different effect. 

This difference may be observed more or less in 
sample books issued by the modern typefounder. 


In such books will be found side by side specimens 
of both thick and thin faces in design, which 
doubtless have been printed at the same time and 
in the same ink. If only by an optical illusion, 
these thin faces exhibit a greyish impression as 
compared with the more solid black effecSt of the 
stronger or heavier faces. 

As explained in my work under review, many 
of the incunabula exhibit under a magnifying glass 
a mottled appearance, probably due to the imper- 
fel incorporation of the carbon with the varnish 
the latter being the medium employed in the 
combination. Insufficient boiling or burning of 
this necessary oil for this varnish, together with 
the introduction of sundry minor elements, fre- 
quently prevented the essential blending of these 
two fadtors varnish and colouring matter with 
the result that after a time the printed letters would 
sometimes either show a decided yellow tinge round 
the rims of the letters, or the ink itself would have 
a tendency to turn brown. Or it might be that 
both these defeats would be exhibited. 

Prior to the invention and use of movable 
types, the block books were most probably printed 
with a kind of writing ink. To this, in some cases, 
was added a gummy substance, in order to make 
the ink take to the block, and at the same time to 
give off a fairly good impression. Indeed, traces of 
iron stains have been detected in the ink employed 
in some block-books, thus proving the use of a com- 
pound, partaking more of the writing kind, and 
not a pigment, or paint, as it were, consisting of 
varnish and carbon. 


It is quite possible that many of the early printers 
with movable types had not discovered the art or 
mystery of making suitable pigments, and in the 
experimental stages produced a composite ink which 
partook of the more fluid character, and the absence 
or insufficiency of the essential carbon may account 
for the undecided blackness of the inks employed. 

Moxon, in his * Mechanick Exercises as applied 
to the Art of Printing/ 2 vols., 1683, is our first 
authority on printing inks, and he quotes two 
Dutch methods of making these inks. His account 
is somewhat long, but it is interesting and very 
quaint in its many instructions. Briefly, to make a 
proper and workable ink, well matured linseed oil 
of the best quality was needful. The most important 
point in its manufacture was, as already said, that 
it should be thoroughly well boiled and burned in 
this process. 

Moxon tells us, 1T 23, pp. 75-80, in vol. i of his 

The providing of good Inch, or rather good Vamisb for 
Inck y is none of the least incumbent cares upon our Master- 
Printer, though Custom has almost made it so here in 
England; for the process of making Inck being as well 
laborious to the Body, as noysom and ungrateful to the 
Sence, and by several odd accidents dangerous of Firing 
the Place it is made in, Our English Master Printers do 
generally discharge themselves of that trouble; and instead 
of having good Inch, content themselves that they pay an 
Inck-maker for good Inch, which may yet be better or worse 
according to the Conscience of the Inck-maker. 

That our Neighbours the Hollanders who exhibit Pat- 
terns of good Printing to all the World, are careful and 
industrious in all the circumstances of good Printing, is 


very notorious to all Book-men; yet should they content 
themselves with such Inch as we do, their Work would 
appear notwithstanding the other circumstances they ob- 
serve, far less graceful than it does, as well as ours would 
appear more beautiful if we used such Inc k as they do : for 
there is many Reasons, considering how the Inck is made 
with us and with them, why their Inck must needs be better 
than ours. As First, They make theirs all of good old 
Linseed-Oyl alone, and perhaps a little Rosin in it some- 
times, when as our Inck-makers to save charges mingle 
many times 'Trane-Oyl among theirs, and a great deal of 
Rosin; which Trane-Oyl by its grossness, Furs and Choaks 
up a Form, and by its fatness hinders the Inck from dry- 
ing; so that when the work comes to the Binders, it Sets 
off; and besides is dull, smeary and unpleasant to the Eye. 
And the Rosin if too great a quantity be put in, and the 
Form be not very Lean Beaten, makes the Inck turn yellow: 
And the same does New Linseed-Oyl. 

Secondly, They seldom Boy I or Burn it to that consistence 
the Hollanders do, because they not only save labour and 
Fewel, but have a greater weight of Inck out of the same 
quantity of Oyl when less Burnt away than when more 
burnt away; which want of Burning makes the Inck also, 
though made of good old Linseed Oyl, Fat and Smeary, 
and hinders its Drying; so that when it comes to the 
Binders it also Sets off. 

'Thirdly, They do not use that way of clearing their 
Inck the Hollanders do, or indeed any other way than meer 
Burning it, whereby the Inck remains more Oyly and 
Greasie than if it were well clarified. 

Fourthly, They to save the Press -man the labour of 
Rubbing the Blacking into Famish on the Inck- Block, 
Boy I the Blacking in the Famish, or at least put the Black- 
ing in whilst the Varnish is yet Boy ling-hot, which so Burns 
and Rubifies the Blacking, that it loses much of its brisk 
and vivid black complexion. 

Fifthly, Because Blacking is dear, and adds little to the 


weight of Inck, they stint themselves to a quantity which 
they exceed not; so that sometimes the Inck proves so un- 
sufferable Pale, that the Press-man is forc'd to Rub in more 
Blacking upon the Block; yet this he is often so loth to do, 
that he will rather hazard the content the Colour shall give, 
than take the pains to amend it: satisfying himself that he 
can lay the blame upon the Inck-maker. 

Having thus hinted at the difference between the Dutch 
and English Inck, I shall now give you the Receipt and 
manner of making the Dutch Varnish. 

They provide a Kettle or a Caldron, but a Caldron is 
more proper. This Vessel should hold twice so much Oyl 
as they intend to Boyl, that the Scum may be some con- 
siderable time a Rising from the top of the Oyl to the top 
of the Vessel to prevent danger. This Caldron hath a 
Copper Cover to fit the mouth of it, and this Cover hath 
an Handle at the top of it to take it off and put it on by. 
This Caldron is set upon a good strong Iron Brevet, and 
filFd half full of old Linseed Oyl, the older the better, and 
hath a good Fire made under it of solid matter, either Sea 
Coal y Charcoal or pretty big Clumps of Wood that will 
burn well without much Flame; for should the Flame rise 
too high, and the Oyl be very hot at the taking off the 
Cover of the Caldron, the fume of the Oyl might be apt to 
take Fire at the Flame, and endanger the loss of the Oyl 
and Firing the House: Thus they let Oyl heat in the 
Caldron till they think it is Boyling hot; which to know, 
they peel the outer Films of an Oynion off it, and prick the 
Oynion fast upon the end of a small long Stick, and so put 
it into the heating Oyl: If it be Boyling-hot, or almost 
Boyling-hot, the Oynion will put the Oyl into a Fermenta- 
tion, so that a Scum will gather on the top of the Oyl, and 
rise by degrees, and that more or less according as it is 
more or less Hot: But if it be so very Hot that the Scum 
rises apace, they quickly take the Oynion out, and by de- 
grees the Scum will fall. But if the Oyl be Hot enough, 
and they intend to put any Rosin in, the quantity is to 


every Gallon of Oyl half a Pound, or rarely a whole Pound. 
The Rosin they beat small in a Mortar^ and with an Iron 
Ladle, or else by an Handfull at a time strew it in gently 
into the Oyl lest it make the Scum rise too fast; but every 
Ladlefull or Handfull they put in so leasurely after one 
another, that the first must be wholly dissolved before they 
put any more in; for else the Scum will Rise too fast, as 
aforesaid: So that you may perceive a great care is to keep 
the Scum down: For if it Boyl over into the Fire never 
so little, the whole Body of Oyl will take Fire imme- 

If the Oyl be Hot enough to Burn, they Burn it, and 
that so often till it be Hard enough, which sometimes is 
six, seven, eight times or more. 

To Burn it they take a long small Stick, or double up 
half a Sheet of Paper, and light one end to set Fire to the 
Oyl; It will presently Take if the Oyl be Hot enough, if 
not, they Boyl it longer, till it be. 

To try if it be Hard enough, they put the end of a Stick 
into the Oyl, which will lick up about three or four drops, 
which they put upon an Oyster shell, or some such thing, 
and set it by to cool, and when it is cold they touch it with 
their Fore or Middle-Finger and Thumb, and try its con- 
sistence by sticking together of their Finger and Thumb; 
for if it draw stiff like strong Turpentine it is Hard enough, 
if not, they Boyl it longer, or Burn it again till it be so 

When it is well Boyled they throw in an Ounce of 
Letharge of Silver to every four Gallons of Oyl to Clarifie 
it, and Boyl it gently once again, and then take it off the 
Fire to stand and cool, and when it is cool enough to put 
their Hand in, they Strain it through a Linnen Cloath, 
and with their Hands wring all the Famish out into a 
Leaded Stone Pot or Pan, and keeping it covered, set it by 
for their use; The longer it stands by the better, because 
it is less subject to turn Yellow on the Paper that is 
Printed with it. 


This is the Dutch way of making Varnish, and the way 
the English Inch-makers ought to use. 

Note, First, That the Varnish may be made without 
Burning the Oyl, viz. only with well and long Boyling it; 
for Burning is but a violent way of Boyling, to consolidate 
it the sooner. 

Secondly, That an Apple or a Crust of Bread, &c. stuck 
upon the end of a Stick instead of an Oynion will also make 
the Scum of the Oyl rise: For it is only the Air contained 
in the Pores of the Apple, Crust, or Oynion, &c. pressed 
or forced out by the violent heat of the Oyl, that raises 
the many Bubbles on the top of the Oyl: And the connec- 
tion of those Bubbles are vulgarly called Scum. 

Thirdly, The English Inck-makers that often make Inck, 
and that in great quantities, because one Man may serve 
all England, instead of setting a Caldron on a Brevet, build 
a Furnace under a great Caldron, and Trim it about so 
with Brick, that it boils far sooner and more securely than 
on a Brevet; because if the Oyl should chance to Boyl 
over, yet can it not run into the Fire, being Fenced round 
about with Brick as aforesaid, and the Stoking-hole lying 
far under the Caldron. 

Fourthly, When for want of a Caldron the Master- 
Printer makes Varnish in a Kettle, He provides a great 
piece of thick Canvass, big enough when three or four 
double to cover the Kettle, and also to hang half round the 
sides of the Kettle: This Canvass (to make it more soluble) 
is wet in Water, and the Water well wrung out again, so 
that the Canvass remains only moist : Its use is to throw 
flat over the Mouth of the Kettle when the Oyl is Burn- 
ing, to keep the smoak in, that it may stifle the Flame 
when they see cause to put it out. But the Water as was 
said before, must be very well wrung out of the Canvass, 
for should but a drop or two fall from the sides of it into 
the Oyl when it is Burning, it will so enrage the Oyl, and 
raise the Scum, that it might endanger the working over 
the top of the Kettle. 


Subsequent writers on the art of typography up 
to the commencement of the nineteenth century, 
including both Johnson and Hansard, usually quoted 
Moxon as their authority for the making of print- 
ing inks. Moxon, in writing of this Dutch method, 
describes very fully the method of preparing the 
varnish from oil, but, curiously enough, omits all 
mention of any colouring matter, either as to mate- 
rials, quality or quantity to be used. The assump- 
tion is that the colour was always mixed in as re- 
quired by the printer at the last moment, and this 
may largely explain the great variation in colour 
observed in English books printed during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, many of which, if 
not deficient in colour, frequently exhibit a dirty 
black appearance, possibly due to an excess of car- 
bon, or it may have been that this colouring matter 
was not sufficiently mixed or ground in thoroughly 
by the pressman, preparatory to its use in printing. 


7 8 


ERHAPS the literary event most 
looked for in Germany during the 
past three months was the publication 
of a new novel by Gustav Frenssen, 
the author of ' Jorn Uhl,' one hundred 
and ninety thousand copies of which have now been 
sold. After many puffs preliminary in which the 
title of the novel was announced as e Aus einer 
kleinen Stadt,' and some delay in publication, it 
appeared towards the end of November last as 
c Hilligenlei,' the name of the small town which is 
the chief scene of the aftion. Frankly speaking, 
the book is a disappointment. It has all the faults 
of c Jorn Uhl/ few of its excellences, and little of 
its charm. ' Hilligenlei ' is, in fa<5l, a polemic, a 
plea for a religious faith freed from all dogma, a 
faith that shall be neither Catholic nor Protestant, 
but shall rest on the latest researches of advanced 
theologians like Harnack, Weinel, and Baumgarten. 
Oddly dragged in, a life of Christ written by the 
chief character, Kai Jans, fills a hundred pages to- 
wards the end of the book. In this, following 
Strauss and Renan, the humanity of the Saviour is 
insisted on, and a list of the works of modern 
German theologians on which the historical accuracy 
of the narrative rests is given at the end of the 
novel! The Gospel story is denuded of all poetry 


and imagery, and we turn back with pleasure to 
the beautiful version of it in Rosegger's c I. N. R. I.' 
The upshot of Frenssen's narrative is that, after all, 
our faith is the same as that of Him ' who was the 
most noble of the children of men.' 

This is our faith: we feel and understand and believe that 
the hidden eternal power is kindly, true, and holy. And 
we stand before it with the shy love of a child. We trust 
it, rejoice in it, and take refuge in its arms. And from 
this relationship we gain a calm joy, high esteem of our 
own and of others' souls, wide-open, observant eyes, 
strength for progress, for helping others, and a glad hope 
for the future of humanity. 

The story of the novel suffers from its episodic 
character. There is no real unity. The persons flit 
in and out and have an irritating habit, like those 
of the French seventeenth-century romances, of 
telling, in season and out of season, long tales either 
of their own experiences, or of the ancient, chiefly 
legendary, history of their native town. The book 
reflects a life without joy either in frivolous pleasures 
or in honest work; in the hearts of all the men and 
women there lurks a dull hopelessness that is uni- 
versally true of no life. Certain passages, however, 
delight us by their descriptive power or by their 
humour. A storm at sea in a sailing ship is finely 
depicted; and as an example of the author's humor- 
ous realism we may quote a little scene in the office 
of the local paper. The editor is deciding what 
pieces of news are to be inserted. His assistant puts 
them before him. 

c Skipper Tarns has bought a wherry in Finkenwarder. 


That 's the fifth which has found a home in Hilligenlei. 
Harbourmaster Jau says that it 's a fine ship.' 

4 That 's of no interest. Anyone can buy a wherry,' said 
Heine Wulk. 

c Pe Ontjes Jau has passed his pilot's examination in 

c I can't bear Jau. What does Hilligenlei care about 
his affairs?' 

c The drain in the Kirchstrasse is stopped up since 
yesterday evening; the dirty water remains in the street 
and cannot run away.' 

Heine Wulk shook his head violently. c What 's that 
to do with us?' he asked. c If we put that in, the mayor 
will be annoyed, and the policeman will be disagreeable, 
and cause me trouble. That 's all nothing for us. What 
else is there ? ' 

c Dicksen, the merchant, has found his wedding ring 
which he lost twenty years ago in his garden.' 

c There, now, that's interesting. We'll put that in. 
Don't you see, little touches that illustrate human life, 
that 's the sort of thing for us.' 

c And Birnbaum, the innkeeper, is exhibiting a bottle 
full of peas. Whoever guesses the correct number nearest 
is to have a dozen of beer as a prize.' 

c There, that 's capital. There 's what you call humour 
in that. Just expand it a bit and put some go into it. You 
must let it be understood that Birnbaum shows both wit 
and intelligence in offering us this sport, and that such an 
exercise, while it makes for a pleasant social gathering 
helps to brighten our minds and hearts. You might end 
the paragraph with a few lines of poetry, with a humorous 
rhyming couplet. Now, get to work.' 

Hilligenlei is, I think, intended by Frenssen to 
be a sort of symbol for the whole world. The name 
is really a form of ' Heilig Land/ holy land. The 
town has a small harbour, nearly filled up with 


sand, and its inhabitants lead a narrow, sleepy exist- 
ence. There is a mere semblance of activity in its 
rulers, and the people dream of an old legend which 
tells that a Danish treasure ship is sunk in the har- 
bour, that some day it will be recovered, and that 
then a holy time will follow, without taxes, or dis- 
tress, or toilsome labour. The longing for this good 
time is inborn in all the natives of Hilligenlei; each 
man or woman understands it differently, but each 
believes in the past and seeks it in the future or in 
the distance. As a rule the feeling fades with the 
ending of youth; believers become doubters, strivers 
become tired or content, or so attached to an active 
life that they fear rest and peace. Sometimes one 
of them retains his child's longing, and the childish 
eyes that are always looking for the holy time, and 
he * is a prophet, a foolish sort of creature so long as 
he lives, but a power when he is dead.' 

The book is remarkable in its way, and we have 
not noted here half the interesting things in it. 
But it remains a series of loosely joined fragments, 
and a plea for freer thought rather than a novel 
with an artistically developed plot. The characters, 
well drawn as many of them are, lose by their 

Georg Engel's c Hann Kliith, der Philosoph ' is a 
much more artistic piece of work. It also is a tale 
of sea-faring folk, and follows the fortunes of three 
brothers, children of a pilot, and a girl, his adopted 
daughter. The characters develop quite natur- 
ally, their sorrows and joys interest us, we grow to 
love Hann, who, though the least gifted of the 
brothers, does best in the end, and to sympathize 



with poor, passionate Lina, who goes through much 
tribulation. The glimpses of their childhood are 
delightful. Here is a fragment of talk between the 
little Hann and Lina on the day of the funeral of 
Hann's father: 

4 Lina, sweet,' he began, 4 did you hear what old Kuse- 
mann said? Do you know what a soul is?' 

4 No don't/ replied the little girl, frightened, and 
pulling at her black frock. 4 But old Kusemann said the day 
before yesterday that it was gray.' 

4 Yes, it's gray,' agreed the boy sorrowfully; c it must 
have some sort of colour. Pigs are yellow and roses red, 
and so souls may well be gray.' 

4 Father's soul is now in Heaven,' said Lina mysteri- 
ously. 'Look! up there! where the pink cloud moves; 
he is certainly sitting up there and looking down to see the 
cattle fed here. He always did that. Do you think he likes 
it up there?' 

4 I'm sure he does,' Hann affirmed seriously. 

4 How do you know ? ' asked Lina, quickly. 

Hann rocked himself to and fro for a while as if he did 
not quite dare to speak out. Then he leaned forward, 
glanced suspiciously at the cow-house, and at last pushed 
up so close to Lina that their two faces almost touched. 

As a rule Lina did not allow him to come so near, and 
when he did pushed him away. 

4 1 know he likes it,' came at last shyly from the boy, 
who sighed as if burdened with a secret. " But, you 
mustn't tell Paul.' 

4 What, Hann?' 

He sighed again deeply, then said quickly: * I had a peep 
into Heaven lately.' 

4 You ? ' 

4 Yes, me.' 

4 What with?' 

4 Old Kusemann's got a tube in his tower room, and he 


can look into Heaven through it. And he showed it me, 

< Hann, Hann, what did you see ?' 

< It was all bright and moving to and fro, and there were 
gray specks flying all around. Those were souls. Old 
Kusemann explained it perfectly.' 

The book abounds in the comedy and tragedy or. 
everyday human life set by the sea-shore where the 
land is unfruitful and existence often a hard struggle. 
Its theme is that the dreamer who is content with 
little, and kind to his neighbour, may make more 
of his life than the successful merchant or preacher. 
An English version is in course of preparation, and 
should find many readers among those who know 
no German. 

Novels by two writers whose former books we 
deemed worthy of praise scarcely sustain their re- 
putation. Hermann Hesse's ' Unterm Rad ' falls 
far below his ' Peter Camenzind,' as does Ottomar 
Enking's c Patriarch Mahnke,' below his delightful 
' Familie P.C.Behm.' Hesse relates the very dull 
story of a boy who overworked at school, became 
in consequence the victim of a nervous illness, and 
finally died after his first attempt at dissipation. 
The Black Forest scenery, which forms the back- 
ground, is beautifully described, and there are some 
attractive passages on the delights of fishing and 
bathing. But no one wins our sympathy, the 
picture is overdrawn, and if it is intended as a hit 
at German educational methods it misses its mark, 
for clearly here the system in general was not at 
fault, it was simply unsuited to this particular boy 
who was in no way called upon to follow it. In 


' Patriarch Mahnke,' the moral preached on almost 
every page is ' Have the courage to be yourself; 
weak, undecided people must suffer; strong, self- 
reliant, determined people succeed.' But there 
is little humour or feeling in the story, and most 
of the characters make haste unnecessarily to be 

Ompteda's last novel, c Herzeloide,' is a weak, 
sentimental love-story. Its hero is an officer whose 
sole recreation when relieved of his military duties, 
seems to be thinking about and making love. 
6 Maria-Himmelfahrt,' by Hans von Hoffenthal, is 
a well-written story of a misguided husband and an 
unhappy marriage. When his eyes are opened to 
the error of his ways, he returns to his faithful, 
loving wife, only to find her on her deathbed! 

Sudermann's new play, ' Stein unter Steinen,' 
cannot be said to add to his reputation. It went 
fairly well on the stage because of the superb adting 
and the wonderfully realistic setting of a stone- 
mason's yard where the chief action passes. But it 
is dull reading. It deals with the difficulty of re- 
instating discharged prisoners in respectable society, 
a question of high social importance, and one which 
may be suited to dramatic treatment. But it must 
be a very different treatment from that employed 
by Sudermann. German dramatists seem for the 
moment to have lost their powers of invention. 
Hauptmann based his ' Elga ' on a story of Grill- 
parzer's, Hugo von Hofmannsthal has modernized 
' Elektra ' and Otway's ' Venice Preserved,' and 


Richard Beer-Hofmann's ' Der Graf von Charolais ' 
is a version of Massinger's ' Fatal Dowry.' There 
is the precedent of Shakespeare for writing up an 
old play and for not inventing his plots, but he 
illumined all he did with his genius. Great plays 
like the ' Elektra ' and c Venice Preserved ' ought 
not to be thus treated. 

* * + * * 

In ' Reisen in Celebes ausgefiihrt in den Jahren 
1893-6 und 1902-3,' two vols., by Paul and Fritz 
Sarasin, we have a book to invite the aCtive 
traveller to new pastures as well as to delight the 
geographer who prefers not to stir from his arm- 
chair beside the fire. There are scarcely any English 
books on Celebes, the central island of the Eastern 
Archipelago, and this should become the standard 
authority. Although excursions are made into 
purely scientific provinces, it is not a scientific 
book. The primary objeCt of the authors is to 
describe the many and various experiences of their 
journey, the impressions made on them by what 
was for the most part virgin nature, and by the 
natives whose special customs and ethics will soon 
vanish before the invasion of Europe and Islam. 
Some portions of the book have already appeared 
in the publications of the Berlin Geographical 
Society, but even those are practically re-written, 
and the whole work may correctly be said to be 
the outcome of a four years' exploration of Celebes, 
and eight years' scientific work in connection with 
the expedition at home. It is certainly the most 
attractive book of travel we have come across 


recently. It contains some fine descriptive prose, 
while the two hundred and forty ordinary illustra- 
tions, the dozen colour-prints, and the eleven maps 
are most alluring, and make us long to set off at 
once on a similar journey. For those who do go the 
book will be helpful, for it is full of information, 
both practical and scientific. 

While our better class magazines are dying out, 
or being popularized and cheapened to suit the 
' tasteless multitude/ it is interesting to note the vast 
improvement in German periodical literature. ' Die 
Neue Rundschau ' offers each month one hundred 
and twenty-eight pages by the best contemporary 
writers poets, critics, novelists, philosophers and 
promises in thefuture, with home-grown matter of an 
interesting nature, the letters of Aubrey Beardsley, 
translations from Maeterlinck, Brandes, Bernard 
Shaw, and George Meredith ( c The Tale of Chloe ') . 
The excellently illustrated magazines ' Velhagen 
und Klasings Monatshefte/ and ' Westermann's 
Monatshefte ' appeal to persons whose taste is perhaps 
less ' cultured,' but good for all that; the beauty of 
the coloured illustrations is beyond praise. In a 
number of the first-named periodical which lies 
before us, an oil-painting, a water-colour, and a 
pastel are each so admirably reproduced that the 
veriest tyro in matters of art could entertain no 
doubt of the texture of the original. The letter- 
press is entertaining and informing; a capital review 
of current fidtion from the pen of Carl Busse is 
printed each month. 


Paul Bourget is still at the head of living French 
novelists, and his last book, entitled " Les deux 
Soeurs," will rank, as a psychological study, with 
any of his previous work. Of the two sisters, one 
is a childless widow, the other married and ap- 
parently happy in her husband and child. Indeed, 
she earnestly desires her widowed sister to marry 
again, for the first marriage had not been a success, 
and she wants her to know what happy married life 
is like. At Ragatz, where her little girl is taking 
the cure her husband's work kept him in Paris 
she met a prominent member of Marchand's expe- 
dition, and at once determined that he was the 
man to become her sister's husband. But her 
schemes fail because, although her sister falls in 
love with him, and is ready enough to marry him, 
he falls in love with herself, and, to her great sur- 
prise, she finds that she returns the feeling, and that 
in her calmly happy married life she never knew 
what passionate love meant. Here is one of those 
' complications sentimentales ' so dear to Bourget's 
heart. But although it means plenty of suffering, 
they all do what is right. The relations between 
the two women are very cleverly sketched, and 
again prove Bourget's insight into the female heart. 

An irritating custom prevails among French 
publishers and some English ones they omit to 
indicate on the title-page whether a book contains 
a single story or several. Thus, to our great surprise, 
we found that ' Les deux Sceurs J did not occupy 
the whole volume, but was followed by a series of 
short stories having for general title, ' Le coeur et 
le metier/ There are five tales, each dealing with 


a case of conscience, where a man's heart comes 
into confli6t with his vocation. For instance, a 
young do6lor attending a man mortally ill, cannot 
save him, but can, by his skill and knowledge, pro- 
long his life a few hours, or may be days. By no 
desire of his own the physician learns a family 
secret, so far known only to the patient and his 
wife. If divulged, and the sick man means to 
divulge it ere he dies, it will ruin the happiness and 
the careers of their four sons. So that if the sick 
man died before he had the opportunity of telling 
the fatal secret, much misery would be spared. 
What ought the do6lor to do? Bourget has no 
doubts ; he must think of the honour of his profes- 
sion, and pay no heed to his patient's family affairs. 
The hero of ' Le Negre ' (negre is the current 
French slang for a literary ' ghost ') is an adtor who 
has written a play, but can get no manager to accept 
it. To save his brother from bankruptcy, he sells the 
play to a millionaire on the condition that the man 
of wealth may produce it as his own. The first 
night proves it a great success, and to render the 
irony of the situation more acute, the a<5tor plays 
the chief part. During the evening he declares, 
despite the millionaire's extra bribes, that he will 
reveal the truth to the public at the end of the 
play, but he relents in time, remembering that 
after all a bargain is a bargain. Bourget's other 
' cases of conscience ' are less interesting than those 
we have chosen to describe. 

# * * # * 

The last three months has seen the production 


of many new French plays. Among the most 
notable are Richepin's 'Don Quichotte'; Daniel 
Lesueur's ' Le Masque d'Amour,' based on her 
novel of that name; Edmond Haraucourt's ' Les 
Oberle,' founded on Rene Bazin's famous novel ; 
Henry Bataille's ' La Marche Nuptiale ' ; Henry 
Bernstein's c La Rafale ' ; and Jules Lemaitre's 
' Bertrade.' The two last-named plays are the 
most interesting; but we can here only deal with 
' Bertrade ' as c La Rafale ' (produced November 
4th) is not yet published. Lemaitre's play has for 
subject the aristocracy and money. The theme has 
been treated before by Dumas fils, Emile Augier, 
and others. Lemaitre's treatment of the subjecl: is 
more brutal, perhaps, than theirs, but not less true 
to life, and the charm and finesse of his style carry 
him through what is, it must be confessed, by no 
means a pleasant play. The hero, the Marquis de 
Mauferrand, has run through his own fortune, his 
daughter's dowry, and some money belonging to 
his sister, the Comtesse de Lauriere. He is deeply 
in debt, and, as his solicitor tells him, his assets are 
nil less three millions. The only thing is to marry 
his daughter Bertrade to his millionaire friend, 
Chaillard, the self-made man, the snob who apes 
the manners and vices of the aristocracy. But Ber- 
trade is in love with her cousin, De Tarane, who 
is willing to marry her without a dot^ and she refuses 
to save the honour of the Mauferrands by becom- 
ing M me Chaillard. To complicate matters further, 
a Parisian danseuse, who had been the Duke's mis- 
tress, turns up after thirty-five years, rich and 
respectable, the widow of an Austrian baron. There 


is a capital scene between them when they discuss 
old times and the lost glories of the Second Empire. 

Le Marquis. Je le revois dans tous ses details, le temps 
ou il faisait si bon vivre . . . 

La Baronne. Le second Empire. 

Le Marquis. Les dix-huit annes de corruption. 

La Baronne. On etait jeune. 

Le Marquis. Gai. 

La Baronne. Insouciant. 

Le Marquis. Et pourtant sentimental. 

La Baronne. On soupait. 

Le Marquis. On buvait encore du vin. 

La Baronne. On se levait tard. 

Le Marquis. Les magasins de boulevard etaient eclaires 
jusqu'a minuit. 

La Baronne. Quelle jolie petite ville que le Paris de ce 
temps-la ! 

Le Marquis. On vivait entre soi. 

La Baronne. On connaissait tout le monde. 

Le Marquis. On attelait correctement. 

La Baronne. II y avait au Bois des equipages parfaits. 

Le Marquis. La rue etait tranquille. 

La Baronne. Pas de tramways. 

Le Marquis. Pas d'autos. 

La Baronne. Les journaux etaient decents. 

Le Marquis. Les livres etaient ecrits en 

La Baronne. On n'tait pas bte. 

Le Marquis. II n'etait pas question de socialisme, ni 
d'internationalisme ni de toutes ces machines-la. 

La Baronne. On etait patriote. 

Le Marquis. Et fier d'etre Fran^ais. 

La Baronne. On assistait a des entrees de troupes 

Le Marquis. On 6tait moral. 

La Baronne. Le roman et le theatre respiraient le me- 
pris de 1'argent. 


Le Marquis. Et, pourtant, on en avait. 

La Baronne. Dans les comedies, les fils de famille 
allaient, au dernier acle, se regenerer en Afrique. 

Le Marquis. Le livre le plus immoral etait Madame 
B ovary. 

La Baronne. Ah ! la crinoline ! 

Le Marquis. Les It aliens! 

La Baronne. Les cent-gardes ! 

Le Marquis. Tortoni! 

I^a Baronne. Le Grand-Seize ! 

Le Marquis. La Belle Helene. 

La Baronne. Les romans d'Oclave Feuillet ! 

Le Marquis. La delicieuse petite exposition de 1867 ! 

La Baronne. Oh ! tous 9a ! tous $a ! 

Le Marquis. Malheureusement c,a a mal fini. (^a devait 
etre. Politique exterieure stupide. 

But the Baroness, unknown to the Marquis, has 
bought up all his debts, and has him in her power. 
Her object is to compel him to marry her, in order 
to escape the poverty with which he is threatened. 
He is at first horrified at the notion of such a 
union; but gradually brought face to face with 
ruin, is inclined to give way. Bertrade dissuades 
him, and as he cannot endure the notion of poverty 
and disgrace, he shoots himself. The play is not 
as good as * La Massiere.' No one is particularly 
sympathetic. Even Bertrade, with all her virtue 
and high sense of honour, is a somewhat melodra- 
matic figure, the Marquis is only a half-hearted 
scoundrel, Chaillard too devoted to money-getting 
to love a penniless aristocrat. The dialogue is, of 
course, of great excellence, and, needless to say, the 
acting at the Renaissance Theatre of Paris, deserves 
the highest praise. 


A volume of criticism by Rene Doumic is cer- 
tain to provide enjoyments, and his fifth series of 
' Etudes sur la Litterature Franfaise ' is as success- 
ful in that respeft as the rest of his writings. The 
critic spreads his net widely. From Corneille and 
' Le decor de la tragedie de Racine,' we come to 
6 La decouverte de 1'Angleterre au xviii 6 Siecle,' 
and ' Quel est 1'auteur des ecrits de Diderot? ' and 
then to certain reflections on the contemporary 
novel, those in one essay, entitled ' Le Roman Col- 
leclif/ being particularly illuminating. Doumic 
asks what is the history of the novel in the last 
half-century? There was the romantic and senti- 
mental novel, represented by George Sand and 
Octave Feuillet. Their work was superseded by the 
realistic school, by the novel of observation as 
written by Zola, Daudet, Maupassant, who all 
painted contemporary society, but ' dans la curiosite 
qu'ils affichaient pour toutes les formes de la vie, il 
en est une qu'ils avaient totalement oubliees: la vie 
de 1'esprit/ And so the psychological novel arrived 
to fill the gap. A more frivolous type, the work of 
Halevy, Gyp, and Lavedan and their peers, lived 
side by side with these, and when irony was the 
mode, Anatole France and Maurice Barres pro- 
vided it; but they, too, all dealt with contemporary 
life. The world was born yesterday. One faculty 
found itself left out in the cold imagination. A 
reaction, however, followed, and people began to 
have a taste for all that told of the past, for history, 
for memoirs, a taste for which the new science of 
collective psychology is largely responsible. Men 
now perceive that in addition to the psychology of 


individuals, there is a psychology of revolutionary, 
of imperial, of monarchical, of republican France; 
a psychology of the army, and a psychology of the 
Chamber of Deputies. 

Certaines phenom&nes ne s'expliquent dans ces groupes 
que par 1'echange et par le contact, et deviennent 1'objet 
mme d'un roman qui envisage la colledtivite. Ainsi 
retour a I'histoire pittoresque, progres de la psychologic 
collective, tel est le double mouvement d'ou est sorti le 
roman collectif. 

The collective novel, then, is a new designation 
for what we have been accustomed to call the 
historical novel. Doumic bases his criticism on 
the series of novels by Paul Adam, Paul and Viftor 
Margueritte, and Maurice Barres, entitled respect- 
ively: c Le Temps et la Vie ' (' La Force; L'Enfant 
d'Austerlitz ') ; ' Une Epoque ' (' Le desastre; Les 
Tronfons du Glaive; Les Braves Gens'); and c Le 
Roman de Fenergie nationale' ('Les Deracinees; 
L'appel au soldat; Leurs figures'). The whole 
essay is most suggestive and well worth carefully 
reading and pondering over. 

The following recently published books deserve 

c Histoire de Corot et de ses ceuvres (d'apres les 
documents recueillis par Alfred Robawt) ' par Etienne 

This is a shorter and more accessible life than that to be found 
in Robawt's four quarto volumes. 

6 Une reine de douze ans. Marie Louise Gabrielle 
de Savoie, Reine d'Espagne,' par Lucien Perey. 

One of the historical monographs in which the French excel. 


Although Marie Louise was queen for so short a time her life is 
well worth study. She was so overshadowed by Mme. des Ursins, 
that in most histories she is relegated to the background. But she 
won the hearts of the Spanish people, and her memory lived long 
in Spain. Percy restores her to her rightful position. 

c Les deux Frances et leurs origines historiques,' 
par Paul Seippel. 

A clear exposition of the relations between Catholic France and 
political France, based on the axiom c la crainte de Rome est reste 
la religion du Gaulois.' Seippel's aim is to prove that religious 
collectivism must lead to economic collectivism. 

'Jean Calvin. Les hommes et les choses de son 
temps,' par E. Doumergue. Vol. III. 

The third volume of the monumental work on Calvin now in 
course of publication. It deals chiefly with Calvin's town, house, 
and street. 

c La Litterature contemporaine ( 1 905) . Opinions 
des ecrivains de ce temps, accompagnes d'un index 
des noms cites/ par Georges Le Cardonnel et 
Charles Vellay. 

A series of interviews with well-known poets, novelists, drama- 
tists, and critics, with the objecl: of eliciting their views on current 
literature. The commentary so provided will be most useful to 
anyone dealing with contemporary French literature. 

' Epilogues Reflexions sur la vie/ Troisieme 
serie, 1902-1904, par Remy de Gourmont. 

Brief comments on men and matters delightfully written and 
full of suggestive thought. The subjects are too numerous to 
particularize, but almost every question that has interested French 
thought in the two years indicated, from love and divorce to 
nationalism and the philosophy of Herbert Spencer finds a place. 

' Die Kultur der Gegenwart. Ihre Entwicklung 


und ihre Ziele,' Herausgegeben von Paul Hinne- 

A kind of encyclopaedia, among the contributors to which we 
note the best names in German scholarship. Parts I and II (only 
Divisions I, 4, 8 of Part I are now ready) will deal with philo- 
sophy, literature, music, art, anthropo-geography, government, 
society, law, agriculture, and economics. In every case a sketch 
is given of the systems that led up to present conditions. Parts III 
and IV will deal with natural science and its place in civilization, 
mathematics, medicine; with the technics of building, machinery, 
manufactures, and agriculture; with trade and means of com- 

' Der Kampf um den Entwickelungs-Gedanken.' 
Von Ernst Haeckel. 

Three lectures delivered in Berlin (Haeckel is professor at Jena 
University) April, 1905, in response to an invitation to give some 
popular scientific discourses. Lecl:. I, * Der Kampf um die Schop- 
fung,' deals with the doctrine of descent and belief in a church. 
Lecl:. II ( c Der Kampf um den Stammbaum ') deals with the 
relationship of man to apes and the descent of vertebrate animals. 
Lecl:. Ill (* Der Kampf um die Seele ') deals with immortality and 
the idea of God. 

c Wer ist's ? Unsere Zeitgenossen ' zusammen- 
gestellt und herausgegeben von Hermann A. L. 

This is modelled on the English * Who's Who ? ' and includes 
a certain number of non-Germans, who are persons of importance 
in their various countries. 

' Geschichte von Livland.' Von Dr. Ernst 
Seraphim. Vol. I. 

This belongs to the excellent series edited by Armin Tille under 
the general title of < Deutsche Landesgeschichten.' Although 
Livonia is no longer ( Deutsches Land,' German civilization still 
prevails there, and it is intended to include in the series every 
country that has a German population. This volume recounts the 
quite early history of Livonia, and then takes us through the 
Middle Age and the time of the Reformation up to 1582. 


c Das Volkerrecht,' systematisch dargestellt von 
Dr. Franz von Liszt. 

A new and revised edition of Dr. Liszt's great and authoritative 

c Heinz Trewlieb und Allerlei Anderes.' Von 
Julius Stinde. 

A posthumous volume of short stories. It contains a portrait of 
the author who died last August, and an interesting introduction 
describing the man and his work by Marx Moller. 




HE Life of Charles Lamb, by E. V. 
Lucas. In two volumes, with forty 
illustrations. (Methuen and -Co., 
London, 1905. 2is. net.) 

Once in a while every critic is 
faced by a book that disarms him. Nothing but 
praise is left to him, and his only fear is of its in- 
adequacy to the merit of its objecl. His only justi- 
fication for putting pen to paper is to have some 
share in spreading abroad the knowledge of the 
new treasure that has come to light. Mr. Lucas's 
' Life of Charles Lamb ' is emphatically one of these 
books. To lovers of Lamb it is a treasure beyond 
price, and it cannot fail to call into his circle many 
of those who have never felt his spell. 

Really good biography is an extraordinarily rare 
thing. Boswell still stands on a height absolutely 
alone. It is not that he has told us authentic facls 
about Dr. Johnson, summed up his work, or analyzed 
his mind. One hardly remembers that he even tried 
to do any of these things. His supreme achieve- 
ment is that he shows us a man long dead so that 
we know him better than we know most of our 
living friends. We know him almost as well as 
Boswell did, and if we had more brains than Boswell 
we should know him even better. No higher praise 
can be given to Mr. Lucas than to say that the 



merit of his book is of the same character as the 
merit of BoswelFs. His whole aim is to give us a 
living pidture of Charles Lamb as his friends knew 
him during his life. This object is attained by a 
masterly use of the great body of biographical 
material that fortunately survived him. Charles 
Lamb's own letters are the principal mine in which 
he has dug. The diaries and letters of friends and 
acquaintances and the autobiographical touches that 
are elicited from the Essays by Mr. Lucas's skilful 
hand, are all utilized to form a composite picture 
of wonderful vividness and charm. Mr. Lucas takes 
infinite pains to suppress himself. He never attempts 
to describe an incident or analyse a characteristic 
when it can possibly be done for him by someone who 
knew Lamb personally. The result is that in read- 
ing the book we are taken back a century and more, 
and but rarely reminded of the length of years that 
separate us from that household that formed so 
potent an attraction for some of the greatest minds 
in literature. 

It needs such a work as this to enable one to 
realize just how great Lamb was as a man. We 
knew his charm as a writer and as a companion. 
But only a faithful record of his daily life through 
fifty years can do justice to the greatest achievement 
of all his devotion of his life to his unhappy sister. 
To make such a sacrifice on impulse under the stress 
of emotion was not perhaps so hard. To carry it 
out to the end as Lamb did was a greater thing even 
than to write ' Elia.' 

There are some few points on which Mr. Lucas 
feels it necessary to depart from his rule of letting 


the story tell itself, and becomes a controversialist 
on Lamb's behalf. One of these is the charge that 
the c Confessions of a Drunkard ' were the personal 
experiences of the writer. There is no difficulty in 
sharing Mr. Lucas's conclusion that the not un- 
common belief that Lamb was a drunkard is founded 
on a gross exaggeration of the fails. He quotes 
with approval that manly outburst of Mr. Birrell's 
in ' Obiter Difta ' : 

One grows sick of the expressions, c poor Charles Lamb,' 
c gentle Charles Lamb/ as if he were one of those grown-up 
children of the Leigh Hunt type, who are perpetually beg- 
ging and borrowing through the round of every man's 
acquaintance. Charles Lamb earned his own living, paid 
his own way, was the helper, not the helped ; a man who 
was beholden to no one, who always came with gifts in his 
hand, a shrewd man, capable of advice, strong in council. 
Poor Lamb indeed ! Poor Coleridge, robbed of his will ; 
poor Wordsworth, devoured by his own ego; poor Southey, 
writing his tomes and deeming himself a classic ; poor 
Carlyle, with his nine volumes of memoirs, where he 

c Lies like a hedgehog rolled up the wrong way, 
Tormenting himself with his prickles ' 

call these men poor if you feel it decent to do so, but not 
Lamb who was rich in all that makes life valuable or 
memory sweet. But he used to get drunk. This explains 
all. Be untruthful, unfaithful, unkind ; darken the lives 
of all who have to live under your shadow, rob youth of 
joy, take peace from age, live unsought for, die unmourned 
and remaining sober you will escape the curse of men's 
pity, and be spoken of as a worthy person. But if ever, 
amidst what Burns called c social noise,' you so far forget 
yourself as to get drunk, think not to plead a spotless life 
spent with those for whom you have laboured and saved ; 


talk not of the love of friends or of help given to the 
needy : least of all make reference to a noble self-sacrifice 
passing the love of women, for all will avail you nothing. 
You get drunk and the heartless and the selfish and the 
lewd crave the privilege of pitying you, and receiving your 
name with an odious smile/ 

Mr. Lucas is privileged to be the first of Lamb's 
biographers to tell the full details of that pathetic 
incident in his later life, his proposal to Miss Fanny 
Kelly, the aftress. A single day saw the beginning 
and the end of the affair Lamb's first letter, Miss 
Kelly's frank and kind refusal, and his acknowledg- 
ment. Here it is: 


Tour injunctions shall be obeyed to a tittle. I feel 
myself in a lackadaisacal no-how-ish kind of a humour. I 
believe it is the rain, or something. I had thought to have 
written seriously, but I fancy I succeed best in epistles of 
mere fun; puns and that nonsense. You will be good 
friends with us, will you not ? Let what has past break no 
bones between us. You will not refuse us them next time 
we send for them ? 

Yours very truly, 
C. L. 

Do you observe the delicacy of not signing my full 
name ? 

N.B. Do not paste that last letter of mine into your 

' I doubt,' says Mr. Lucas, c if there is a better letter 
than that in English literature; or in its instant 
acceptance of defeat, its brave, half-smiling admis- 
sion that yet another dream was shattered, one more 

REVIEWS. 1 01 

From a thousand priceless Lamb stories which 
Mr. Lucas has gathered, we must indulge in the 
pleasure of quoting just one. Speaking of Words- 
worth's ' Peter Bell/ he says : ' The lines 

Is it a party in a parlour, 
All silent and all damned ? 

which Wordsworth afterwards expunged, seem to 
have clung to Lamb's memory, for there is a story 
of his shouting the words at a solemn evening gather- 
ing seen through a window in passing : " A party 
in a parlour, all silent and all damned!" he cried, 
shaking the railings the while.' 

Though this is a life of the man and not an 
appreciation of his literary work, yet Mr. Lucas 
allows himself the privilege of a few remarks on the 
position occupied by the Elia essays in the history 
of English literature. 

Yet it is still perhaps not clear why Lamb holds the 
place that is his in English literature and in our hearts. 
Why is c Elia ' so treasured a volume ? The answer, I 
hope, is to be read again and again between the lines of 
this book. I have failed utterly if it is not legible there. 
In a few words it is this because c Elia ' describes with 
so much sympathy most of the normal feelings of man- 
kind, because Lamb understands so much, and is so cheer- 
ful to the lowly, so companionable to the luckless. He is 
always on the side of those who need a friend . . . our 
prose literature probably contains no book so steeped in 
personality ... in tolerance, in the higher cleanliness, in 
enjoyment of fun, in love of sweetness, in pleasure in 
gentlemen, in whimsical humour, Lamb and Shakespeare 
have much in common. . . . 

Lamb found the essay a comparatively frigid thing ; he 


left it warm and companionable. . . . Let me end this 
chapter by remarking that it is significant of the universality 
and particularity of c Elia ' that everyone thinks that 
he knows Lamb a little more intimately, and appreciates 
him a little more subtly, than any one else. 

One thing is certain. Mr. Lucas has written the 
Life of Charles Lamb, and he has done it for all 
time in such a fashion that it need never be attempted 
again and probably never will be. 

' Sea Power in its Relations to the War of 1 8 12.' 
By Captain A. T. Mahan, D.C.L., LL.D., United 
States Navy. In two volumes. London, Sampson 
Low, Marston and Co. 1905. 

With this work Captain Mahan completes the 
series of studies of the influence of sea power upon 
history as he first conceived it. Its subject is the 
least important and the least interesting of all the 
ground that he had to cover, but in spite of these 
limitations in his material Captain Mahan has done 
full justice to his supreme reputation in his own 
field of study. In one direction at least he has con- 
solidated that reputation. Hitherto he has dealt 
with the achievements of the British Navy against 
other European Powers. Impartiality in such work 
was not difficult to attain. Now he has given us a 
detailed investigation of the only naval war between 
his own country and Great Britain, a war which 
has always been peculiarly dear to the American 
patriot of the flamboyant and unhistorical type, and 
he has triumphantly proved his power of maintain- 
ing a rigidly judicial attitude without the slightest 
trace of national bias. This is scarcely the place for 


detailed criticism of such a voluminous work, but 
it will be read with pleasure and profit by every 
student of history and must find a place in every 
reference library worthy of the name. A second 
edition should corredt the title of the plate facing 
page 52, vol. ii. 

'Book-Prices Current.' Vol. XIX. (Elliot Stock.) 
At the end of his preface to this volume of ' Book 
Prices Current/ Mr. Slater makes the melancholy 
pronouncement that the average of 2 ijs. ^d. for 
the 42,477 lots sold in last season's au&ions must 
be considered c anything but satisfactory.' Mr. 
Slater compiles his work so much more in the in- 
terests of the dealer than of the collector or amateur 
that his unhappiness at the presumed depreciation 
of his patrons' stocks is intelligible and even praise- 
worthy. For ourselves, from many points of view 
we should be glad to see a further considerable fall. 
On paper, indeed, there has been no fall at all in 
this last season as compared with its predecessor, 
but a rise of nearly eight shillings a lot. This, how- 
ever, as Mr. Slater shows, is due to the competition 
for Shakespeareana and a handful of other rare books 
which three or four American collectors bid for 
against each other, with undiminished vigour. 
Sixty-nine such books fetched 100 or more a- 
piece, and realized between them 24,351 out of 
the season's total of 121,327, or just 20 per cent, 
of the whole. Yet, as some fashionable books come 
up for sale every season, and this year's average is 
15 per cent, higher than that of its predecessor, 
the fall in value of ordinary books cannot have been 

io 4 REVIEWS. 

very great, and we think that the book-market is 
probably in a healthier condition than it was when 
prices were at their highest in 1900-1. Interesting 
sales were by no means numerous during the season. 
Mr. John Scott's collection, notable for its books 
about Mary Queen of Scots and other works speci- 
ally attractive to Scotsmen, was the greatest event 
of the year. Its 3,523 lots fetched 18,259 or a 
little over 5 apiece; Prof. Corfield's collection of 
bindings did still better, 466 lots fetching 5,010. 
In Mr. E. J. Stanley's sale, 485 lots fetched 2,145, 
the respectable average (about 4 guineas) being 
probably due to the prevalence of ' old French 
morocco ' in the descriptions. The books of Mr. 
Louis Huth sold at Christie's were also in excellent 
condition, but the prices realized (1,887 for 371 
lots) may have been influenced by the enormous 
sums paid for his other collections. Mr. Frederick 
Clarke's nine hundred books averaged thirty shill- 
ings apiece, and Mr. Joseph Knight's couple of 
thousand a guinea. The other sales of the year 
were almost exclusively those miscellaneous collec- 
tions which have figured so largely in the pro- 
grammes of recent seasons, and which certainly 
have done nothing to raise the credit of London as 
the world's best book-market. Mr. Slater's volume 
has the merits and defedts we have noted in so 
many of its predecessors. It is well printed and a 
good guide on many questions of price, but the 
antiquarian notes are poor, and the index still en- 
tirely neglec5ls the interests of the antiquarian col- 
ledlor. Even when the sale-catalogue enters a book 
under ' Pynson ' instead of the name of its author, 


because it was as a specimen of Pynson's printing 
that it appealed to purchasers, Mr. Slater's index 
gives no reference from Pynson. Under the head 
of Bindings the index mentions modern works 
which sell for a pound or thirty shillings apiece, 
but ignores the books to which old bindings have 
given an additional value of fifty times as much. 
A still more serious defeft will be pointed out by 
Mr. Peddie in our next number, when he gives 
his annual resume of the sale-prices of incunabula. 
Perhaps, a couple of years hence, when ' Book-Prices 
Current ' has come of age, it will mend its way 
and enter on a new course. But we have no great 
hope of such a reformation, much as we desire it. 

c Catalogue of Fifteenth-Century Books in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and in Marsh's 
Library, Dublin, with a few from other Collections.' 
(With illustrations.) By T. K. Abbott. Hodges 
Figgis and Co., Dublin; Longmans, London. 1905. 
Pp. yi. 225. 

Dr. Abbott deserves both praise and thanks for 
this excellent catalogue of incunabula at Dublin. 
The number of books he registers is only 606, and 
this is not large enough to have enabled him to 
attempt such a series of identifications as Mr. 
Proftor accomplished in the case of the adespota 
at the British Museum. Dr. Abbott, however, 
has taken up another line and worked it very 
thoroughly. He has given abundant information 
about the previous ownership of the volumes, tran- 
scribed the manuscript notes, and measured both 
pages and texts. He has also described all the 


watermarks in these books with great care, and 
given an index to them which, small though the 
collection is, will be found really useful. How 
carefully the index is made may be judged from 
the fa<5l that twenty-four different varieties are re- 
corded of the bull's head and shaft. At present it 
is not easy to see what conclusions can safely be 
drawn from watermarks, but until more biblio- 
graphers have worked at them in faith, the possi- 
bility of obtaining information from them cannot 
be said to be exhausted. Dr. Abbott also gives a 
chronological index, another of printers and places, 
and yet another of former owners. After taking so 
much pains over his text it is sad to find his two- 
page preface defaced by the statement that 'Ussher's 
whole Library was purchased for the College in 
1 60 1 (sic) by the English army in Ireland.' It is 
hardly correct either to say that Marsh's Library 
' contains the entire library of Bishop Stillingfleet,' 
if, as we believe, the Bishop's manuscripts went 
elsewhere. The most important former owners of 
the incunabula appear to have been Dr. Claudius 
Gilbert, Vice-Provost (d. 1742), Mr. F. W. Con- 
way, proprietor of the ' Dublin Evening Post,' 
and H. G. Quin (d. 1805), whose books are made 
additionally interesting by notes of the prices paid 
for them. For Wendelin of Speier's c Virgil ' Mr. 
Quinn paid no less than 200. 

c Catalogue of Early Printed and other Interest- 
ing Books, Manuscripts, and Fine Bindings.' 
Offered for sale by J. and J. Leighton, 40, Brewer 
Street, Golden Square, London, W. 8vo, pp. 1738. 


We have sometimes wondered whether the fre- 
quent issue of profusely illustrated catalogues may 
not in the end result in the books advertised be- 
coming too well known, so that the appetite of 
book-lovers may be sated by the descriptions and 
piftures in the catalogues, just as many readers 
learn all they want to know from reviews of a new 
work without troubling to read the book itself. 
However this may be, there can be no question 
that illustrated catalogues are very fascinating, and 
that the pictures in them often supply students 
with valuable clues to the history of both cuts and 
types. This being so, we can heartily congratulate 
Messrs. Leighton on having produced a catalogue 
which, with its 1,350 facsimiles, must be con- 
sidered to have established a new record in such 
matters. The facsimiles are of varying degrees of 
merit, but they are all good enough to serve their 
purpose, and many are as sharp and clear as could 
be wished. Moreover, they are all taken from 
books well worth illustrating, and the variety and 
range of the 6,209 works registered is very re- 
markable. The catalogue lends itself admirably to 
a most pleasing sport which we can recommend 
to moderately expert bookmen. Put your hand 
over the description of any of the books illustrated, 
and ask your friend to name the place of imprint, 
printer, and date by the help of the cut. With 
ten marks as a maximum for each answer, and 
questions and answers taken in turn, a pair of 
friendly combatants may spend a very amusing 
hour over such a contest. 


' Heroic Romances of Ireland/ Translated into 
English prose and verse, with preface, special in- 
troductions and notes. By A. H. Leahy. Vol. I. 
Nutt. 5J. net. 

Good luck to Mr. Leahy. He is giving us what 
is much needed some trustworthy information as 
to the charafter of the Irish sagas. His introduc- 
tions really explain what his text proceeds to illus- 
trate though, to make the whole thing absolutely 
clear, juxtaposition of the more striking variants is 
needed. Yet most of us know the story of Deirdre 
and the Sons of Usnach in the later and from an 
Irish point of view more developed form, which, 
for instance, Lady Gregory has followed. Here Mr. 
Leahy renders for us the version given in the Book 
of Leinster, and many will incline to prefer this, the 
older and more epic story. In it is no question of 
sorcery or enchantment ; a soothsayer indeed prophe- 
sies fatal beauty for the child that was yet in the 
womb of Feidlimid's wife, but the rest of the story 
moves by mere nature. Deirdre escapes from the 
confinement where King Conor is rearing her for 
himself: she flies with Naisi and his troop, who 
become soldiers of fortune, wandering and warring; 
and at last when they return to Ulster it is only 
because nowhere else can security be found for these 
fierce fighters and their precious jewel, coveted by all 
the kings of the Gael. Security is offered and they 
come back; here is no word of Deirdre's prophetic 
foreboding. But when we praise the plain tale, let 
it be allowed that nothing can surpass the beauty 
of invention which in later times was broidered 
about it. The coming of Fergus MacRoy, his shout 


heard in the distance by Naisi and Deirdre as they 
sit at the chess-board, and her vain attempts to 
fend off the inevitable meeting all this is a chief 
glory of Irish romance, not less than that other 
drama which passes while Deirdre sits again at chess 
with her lover, but now in Emain Macha. This 
passage at least must always be held as essential to 
the story in its accomplished form. Here in the 
older version we get probably the actual truth on 
which this romance was built. The sons ofUsnach 
returned under the protection of Fergus; Fergus 
'sold his honour for ale'; and as the exiles stood 
on the level meadows round Emain, and the women 
sat on its ramparts, Eogan, son of Durthacht, came 
with his warriors towards them. 

And Eogan greeted them with a mighty thrust of his 
spear, and the spear broke Naisi's back in sunder and 
passed through it. The son of Fergus made a spring, and 
he threw both arms around Naisi and he brought him be- 
neath himself to shelter him, while he threw himself down 
above him; and it was thus that Naisi was slain, through 
the body of the son of Fergus. Then there began a murder 
through the meadows so that none escaped who did not 
fall by the points of the spears or the edge of the sword, 
and Deirdre was brought to Conor to be in his power, 
and her arms were bound behind her back. 

That is strangely unlike the tale created by later 
imagination of the long fight round the guest-houses, 
the rout of Conor's armies, and the sally of the Sons 
of Usnach, carrying Deirdre amid their linked 
shields and battling forward in triumph till a druid 
mist was thrown about them that clogged their 
going like waves of the sea. One may choose, but 

I 10 


it is well to have both; and the beauty of Deirdre's 
lament in the older saga exceeds if possible that in 
the mediaeval romance. Mr. Leahy gives it in 
literal prose, as well as in verse; and he is wise, for 
verse translation always tames the spirit out of these 
barbaric lays. His renderings in rhyme are no 
worse and no better than the average; his prose is 
very satisfactory, and it is a pity that a literal ver- 
sion was not in all cases (as it is in several) supplied 
for the poems. 


Crerar Library, Chicago, is engaged in 
the now common occupation of whist- 
ling for a millionaire. His object is the 
establishment of an Institute of Biblio- 
graphy, and he shows his modesty in asking for a 
million of dollars, not of pounds sterling. The ' two 
particular works' which the projected Institute 
should start with are our old friends c a catalogue of 
all existing serial publications, literary, scientific, 
and technical, and a comprehensive bibliography 
of bibliographies.' If the Institute can be financed 
we have no doubt that it would do some useful 
work; whether the utility would be proportionate 
to the expenditure is another matter. Even as it is, 
the writings of all but the best American authorities 
on any subject are marred by a mania for stringing 


together quotations from their predecessors. If an 
exhaustive study of the existing literature of a sub- 
je6l were recognized as indispensable before a man 
might be allowed to set pen to paper, originality 
would become rarer than it is. Moreover it is a 
question whether the work spent in accumulating 
bibliographical information which would never be 
used might not exceed the work at present wasted 
for lack of bibliographical information that the 
same ground has already been adequately covered. 

In the November number of the c Zentralblatt fur 
Bibliothekswesen ' Dr. Haebler explains another 
bibliographical scheme. This is for a General Cata- 
logue of Incunabula, for which aid has already been 
promised by the Prussian Government. The lines 
on which Dr. Haebler proposes to work are excel- 
lent and his plea that the honourable duty of super- 
intending such a General Catalogue belongs to the 
land of Gutenberg will meet with no opposition 
from us. But we do plead, and plead earnestly, that 
a work which ought to be definitive should not be 
too hastily begun. Dr. Haebler remarks that it is 
a matter for congratulation that Dr. Copinger's 
Supplement to Hain offers so little obstacle to the 
produftion of a really satisfactory work. Is he quite 
sure that this obstacle may not be offered by his 
own scheme ? New incunabula are being brought 
to light at a rate which cannot possibly last for 
more than a few years, but which while it continues 
is a strong reason against the premature inception 
of a General Catalogue. Moreover, our sporting 
instindt inclines us to suggest that Mile. Pellechet's 


c Catalogue generate des Incunables des Biblio- 
theques publiques de France ' ought to be allowed 
to hold the field for a reasonable time before it is 
superseded. If its new information is eaten up 
volume by volume as it comes out, a great dis- 
couragement will be given to bibliographical enter- 
prise. Mr. Gordon Duff, again, has been engaged 
for upwards of twenty years on a catalogue of 
English incunabula, holding it back year after year 
from publication in order to make it as com- 
plete as possible. Is he to be asked to give up his 
information before he has published it himself, or is 
the General Catalogue of Incunabula to be super- 
seded as regards English books perhaps within a 
few months of its publication? The point to be 
remembered is that the additions to Hain's Reper- 
torium, since the original work was based on the 
contents of a German library, will come mainly 
from other countries. More work is being done all 
over Europe on incunabula than has ever been done 
before. Ten, or even five years hence, the time for 
a General Catalogue may have come, but to start 
it now when new incunabula are being discovered 
every day, and when work on smaller projedts is 
still incomplete, would obviously be premature. 
We earnestly hope, however, that the land of 
Gutenberg will bring itself up to date by produc- 
ing a General Catalogue of the incunabula in the 
Public Libraries of Germany at the earliest possible 
moment, and we wish that we saw any chance of a 
work of the same scope being undertaken here in 

Second Series, 

No. 26, VOL. VII. APRIL, 1906. 




HREE and a quarter years ago in 
December, 1902 I published, by 
way of supplement to the Oxford 
facsimile of the Shakespeare First 
Folio, a ' Census ' in which were 
enumerated all extant copies of the First Folio 
that were then known to me. Long before my 
work was published, I had circulated appeals for 
co-operation wherever there seemed any likelihood 
that information would be forthcoming. The 
generous assistance, which was given me both in 
this country and abroad, enabled my record to reach 
the large total of one hundred and fifty-eight copies. 
Whatever the defefts of the research, I may fairly 
claim to have achieved a greater measure of com- 
pleteness than had characterized earlier explorations 
in the same field. Some eighty years before, the 
garrulous bibliographer Thomas Frognall Dibdin 
declared (in his * Library Companion ') that no 
more than twenty-six copies of the volume had 



come under his notice. Thomas Rodd, the chief 
London bookseller of the first half of last century, 
claimed (in 1840) to have compiled a list of eighty 
copies, but unfortunately he did not print his re- 
sults, and they have vanished. The bibliographical 
publisher, Henry George Bohn, in 1863 described 
somewhat cursorily and confusedly in his new edi- 
tion of Lowndes' c Bibliographer's Manual,' thirty- 
nine copies. In 1897 contributors to 'Notes and 
Queries,' under Mr. Holcombe Ingleby's enthusi- 
astic leadership, enumerated fifty copies. 1 It was 
my fortune to increase that number by as many 
as one hundred and eight copies, of which none, as 
far as I know, had been publicly described before. It 
should be understood that I took account of copies 
in all conditions of cleanliness and completeness. 

My ' Census ' demonstrated two points, both of 
which had long been vaguely suspe6led. In the 
first place, it plainly appeared that, although extant 
exemplars in a fine state were few, yet perfeft First 
Folios, far from being ' excessively rare,'fwere more 
numerous than perfeft copies of other great books 
of the same era. In the second place, it became 
obvious that, as soon as we embodied in one system- 
atic survey the more or less imperfeft copies of this 
great collection of Shakespeare's plays, it was difficult 
to point to a publication of the early seventeenth 
century which had more triumphantly faced the 

1 Supplementary efforts to describe copies that had found their 
way to America did not prove more exhaustive. Mr. Justin Winsor 
in 1875 gave very careful descriptions of eighteen copies in the 
United States of America, and in 1888 Mr. W. H. Fleming wrote 
very fully of thirteen copies in the city of New York. 


perils of physical decay, and all the wear and tear of 
handling, to which popular books are always liable. 
To a large extent it was pioneer work in which 
I engaged in 1902, and errors and omissions were 
inevitable. In spite of the unexpected length to 
which my list ran, there was no ground for treating 
it as exhaustive. Within a month of its publication 
three owners, who had failed to communicate with 
me earlier, wrote to me of copies which had escaped 
my observation. Other collectors at later dates 
gave me similar proofs of the imperfections of my 
record. Although the new information does not 
materially affect any published results, it forms an 
indispensable supplement to the already printed 
record. I therefore readily accept the invitation of 
the editors of c The Library ' to give their readers 
some account of the copies, of the existence of which 
I was ignorant in 1902, and generally to bring my 
results up to present date. 


At the outset I take the opportunity of making 
some minor corrections. I have to confess three 
errors in my account of copies now in America 
which already figure in the 'Census/ 

Of these errors I reckon the most important to 
be that touching the condition of the copy which 
is now the property of Mrs. Leiter of Washington 
(No. LIII.). 1 I had been informed by a member 
of the owner's family that the preliminary leaf, 

The numbers in roman numerals enclosed in brackets through- 
out this article, represent the position allotted to the cited copies 
in my * Census.' 


headed c A catalogve of the seuerall Comedies, 
Histories, and Tragedies contained in this Volume,' 
was missing. But a recent examination of the copy 
by Mr. Hugh Morrison, of the Congress Library at 
Washington shows that the leaf was present though 
in an unusual place. The copy ought therefore to be 
numbered in the class of forty-three perfeft exem- 
plars instead of in the first division of the second class 
of eighty imperfeft exemplars, in which to my re- 
gret I located it. 1 It is less important to note that 
I somewhat depreciated the condition of the First 
Folio in the Newberry Library at Chicago (No. 
CXVIL). I inspe&ed that copy on my visit to the 
library on 4th April, 1903, and discovered that several 
preliminary leaves following the title-page which I 
had reported, from the information given me by a 
correspondent, to be in facsimile, were in their 
original state. My description of the fly-leaf and 
title-page as modern reproductions was, however, 
confirmed, and consequently the Newberry copy, 
although it was entitled to a somewhat higher place 
than I had bestowed on it, does not merit promotion 
above the second division of my second class. I had 
placed it in the third division of that class. If I 
had unwittingly undervalued the Leiter and the 
Newberry copies, I fear I had overvalued a third 
American copy. In the case of the First Folio 
(No. XXXVIL), which belongs to Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan of New York, much detailed evidence 
has recently come into my hands to show that I 
had over-estimated its historic interest. Already 

1 I have already acknowledged this mistake in the 'Athenaeum ' 
for January I3th of this year. 


I had reason to believe that the book had been per- 
fedted from the somewhat damaged copy, lacking 
the portrait and title, which had belonged to the 
late Leonard Lawrie Hartley. But I did not know 
what I have been lately told on good authority, that 
the old binding stamped with the arms of Robert 
Sidney, second Earl of Leicester (1595-1667), which 
now distinguishes the book, is a recent substitute, 
derived from some other ancient tome, for a differ- 
ent old binding, stamped, it is said, with a bishop's 
armorial bearings, which covered the volume when 
Mr. Hartley was its owner. 1 

Before I deal with the newly-discovered copies, 
it becomes me to notice such changes as death 
or some less imperative circumstance has wrought 
in the ownership of copies which I have already 
described. At least fourteen of my entries are 
thereby affefted. Five owners, whose names figure 
in my * Census,' have died since the work was 
printed, viz.: Lord Glanusk (No. LXXVIIL), 
Lord Leigh (No. LXXXIL), the Rev. Sir Richard 

1 Mr. Henry R. Davis of Clissold House, Clissold Park, London, 
who has followed the history of Mr. Morgan's copy very closely, 
owns the millboards of its original binding, which was, he tells me, 
stripped off after Mr. James Toovey bought it for 250 at the 
Hartley sale on igth April, 1887. Owners of the volume preceding 
Mr. Hartley, whom I overlooked, included Sir John Sebright of 
Beechwood, Hertfordshire, whose collection was dispersed in 1807, 
and Robert Willis, F.R.S. (1800-1875), the well-known archaeolo- 
gist and Professor of Mechanics at Cambridge. The copy seems to 
have been sold by Professor Willis at Hodgson's sale room on 8th 
April, 1872, for 20 105., the smallness of the sum being due to 
some unjustifiable misconception about a leaf in the middle of 
the volume. Hartley appears to have been the purchaser on that 
occasion. The volume is numbered 478 in the sale catalogue of the 
third portion of the Hartley Library, 1887. 


Fitzherbert, Bart. (No. LXXVIL), Mr. W. Hughes 
Hilton of Sale, Cheshire (No. CIX.), and Mr. 
L. Z. Leiter of Chicago and Washington (No. 
LIU.). But in all these cases the copies still remain 
in the hands of the family of the former owner, so 
that little alteration in my printed text is at present 
needed. Three copies, which belonged to book- 
sellers in 1902, viz.: those assigned respectively in 
my c Census ' to Mr. Charles Scribner of New 
York (No. XIII.) ; to Mr. William Jaggard of 
Liverpool (No. CXI.); and to Messrs. Pearson and 
Co. of London (No. CXLVIII.) are now in private 
libraries. Messrs. Pearson sold their copy to a New 
York bookseller who has since died. Six further 
copies in private libraries have lately acquired new 
owners by public or private sale. Of these, one 
was already in America, and still remains there in 
different hands; five, which were in England in 
1902, have since crossed the Atlantic to add bulk and 
dignity to the growing American cohort of copies. 
The most interesting of these migrations is that 
of the First Folio which is numbered X. in the first 
division of my first class. This Folio was acquired 
by Mr. Bernard Buchanan MacGeorge of Glasgow 
in Messrs. Christie's Sale Room, July, 1899, for 
what was then the record price of 1,700. The 
copy remained in Mr. MacGeorge's library until 
June, 1905, when it passed into the great Shake- 
spearean collection of Mr. Marsden J. Perry of 
Providence, Rhode Island. The transaction in- 
cluded the transfer of the Second, Third, and Fourth 
Folios, as well as the First, and for the four volumes 
Mr. Perry paid the unheard-of sum of 10,000. 


All the books were in good condition. The Second 
Folio came from the Earl of Orford's library, and 
was acquired by Mr. MacGeorge for the high 
price of 540 in 1895. It is not easy, in a nego- 
tiation carried through on such princely terms, to 
determine the precise value set by Mr. Perry on Mr. 
MacGeorge's First Folio apart from the later Folios. 
The record prices hitherto fetched at public sales for 
each of the four volumes are at present as follows : 

FIRST FOLIO. 1,720 for the Dormer-Hunter 
copy (No. XIII.) at Christie's 27th July 

1901. (This copy was subsequently acquired 
by Mr. Charles Scribner of New York, and 
has since been sold by him at an enhanced 
price to a private American collector.) 

SECOND FOLIO. 690, at Sotheby's, 2ist March, 

1902, for a copy with the rare 'John 
Smethwick ' imprint. (This was acquired 
by Mr. Perry of Providence.) 

THIRD FOLIO. 755 for Lieut.-Col. E. G. Hib- 
bert's copy at Sotheby's, April, 1902. 
(This exemplar had the two different title- 
pages dated 1663 and 1664 respectively.) 

FOURTH FOLIO. 215 at Sotheby's, 8th Decem- 
ber, 1903, for a copy with an exceptional 

Thus at public sales the four Folios in their 
rarest states have not fetched a larger aggregate sum 
than 3,380. Mr. Perry last year trebled that 
record. We must therefore credit him with hav- 
ing purchased the MacGeorge First Folio (viewed 
separately from its three companions) for some 


gigantic sum not less than 6,000. This figure is 
reached by valuing the accompanying Second, 
Third, and Fourth Folios at three times the highest 
public sale rate, and then deducting their total from 
the 10,000 which Mr. Perry paid Mr. MacGeorge 
for the four. It is impossible to estimate the cost of 
Mr. Perry's First Folio at any lower sum. It is 
familiar knowledge that the First Folio, which Mr. 
Perry has now secured for 6,000 or more, was 
originally bought in 1623 for i. Far greater is 
the appreciation of the original quarto edition of 
Shakespeare's ' Titus Andronicus,' which, published 
in 1 594 at sixpence, was sold last year for 2,000. 
But, in view of Mr. Perry's great venture, the First 
Folio bids fair to become the most expensive (ab- 
solutely) of all printed books. 

I know fewer details respecting the transfer to 
American owners of four other copies, which stand 
in my 'Census' of 1902 associated with the name 
of English owners, but have since been sold to 
American colleftors. None of the four are of first 
rate importance. All were placed in the second 
division of my second class of (imperfect) copies. 
Lord Tweedmouth's copy (No. XC.) passed pri- 
vately to America through Mr. Quaritch some two 
years ago. The remaining three were disposed of 
at public auction two at the same sale to the same 
American collector. The better of these two belonged 
to Mr. W. G. Lacy (No. LXXX.), and was sold in 
June, 1903, for 385. The Rev. R. H. Roberts' 
copy (No. LXXX VI.), which was issued in reduced 
facsimile in 1876, was sold on the same occasion 
for the small sum of 150. Both these copies 


were acquired by Mr. H. C. Folger of New 
York, a colle&or who has purchased of late years 
more examples of the volume than any one before 
him. 1 The copy, belonging in 1902 to Mrs. Charles 
Hilhouse (No. LXX VI ILz.), fetched on 2ist March, 
1903, at Sotheby's, 305; I only know of its present 
owner that he is an American citizen. One of the 
American exemplars which I recorded has changed 
hands recently at a public sale. On 3rd February of 
the present year, Mr. Henry Gardner Denny of 
Roxbury, Boston, U.S.A., sold his set of the four 
Folios for 1,790 ($8,950). The purchaser was a 
collector of New York. Mr. Denny's First Folio, 
(No. CXIX.), which I placed in the third division 
of my second class, may fairly be reckoned to have 
brought more than 1,000. 


With the copies which have been made known 
to me since 1902 I break fresher ground. Fourteen 
copies in all have come within my survey since the 

1 I failed in 1902 to trace the present owner of two Folios (Nos. 
CXXII. and CXL.), which I noticed as having long been in 
America in private libraries which had been recently dispersed. 
Both, I have ascertained since, came into Mr. Folger's possession. 
But even thus, as the following pages will show, the list of Mr. 
Folger's purchases of First Folios is far from exhausted. In this con- 
nection I ought to mention that the fine Folio (No. XLI.) which 
was sold at Sotheby's at the dispersal of Lt.-Col. Edward George 
Hibbert's library on I2th April, 1902, for 1,050, was not traced in 
my * Census ' beyond Messrs. Pickering and Chatto's shop in Pic- 
cadilly. Mrs. Dean Sage of Albany, New York State, informed me 
in April, 1903, that her late husband acquired it shortly before his 
death in the previous year, and that it remains in her possession. 


c Census ' was printed. The full total of extant 
copies known to me, which previously stood at 158, 
is thereby raised to 172. All save one of these 
fourteen 'new' copies were in 1902 in the United 
Kingdom; only one was then in America. But the 
American demand for First Folios, which has long 
been the dominant feature in their history, has 
shown during the last three years no sign of slacken- 
ing. It will therefore surprise no one to learn that 
these thirteen English copies are now reduced to 
eight. Five of them have crossed the ocean during 
the past three years. 

Information respefting nine of the ' new ' copies 
was sent to me by their present owners. Five of the 
remaining ' new ' copies came to light, as far as I was 
concerned, in Messrs. Sotheby's sale rooms. One of 
the newly discovered fourteen copies is owned by a 
public institution, the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland. The thirteen others are, and always have 
been, in private hands. It is perhaps matter of 
congratulation that, despite the recent activity of 
American buyers, the most interesting of recently 
discovered copies still remain in this country. Only 
one of the ' new ' copies which have lately found 
homes in America has any title to be considered of 
first-class rank. 

I arrange the new copies in order of value and 
interest, and number them consecutively. 

(I.) LADY WANTAGE'S COPY. The finest of the 
'new' copies belongs to Lady Wantage of Lockinge 
House, Berkshire, and I cordially thank her for 
forwarding the book to my house in order to facili- 
tate this inquiry. 


The history of the ownership can be traced back 
to the eighteenth century. At the back of the last 
leaf is scribbled, in handwriting of that era, the words 
' Miss Stodart 1761.' There is another almost con- 
temporary sign of association with a Scot. On the 
third leaf (which contains the dedication) is the 
autograph signature of e Andrew Wilson, M.D.* 
He was a Scotsman who practised medicine success- 
fully in London for many years before his death 
there on 4th June, 1792. 

The next private owner whose name is ascertain- 
able is Sir Coutts Trotter, the grandfather of the 
late Lord Wantage. Sir Coutts, who was a senior 
partner in Coutts' Bank, and was created a baronet 
at George IV's coronation (September 4th, 1821), 
probably acquired his First Folio towards the close 
of his life. Nothing is known of his connexion 
with it until the end of 1835. According to some 
interesting correspondence which is preserved along 
with the volume, and has been sent to me by Lady 
Wantage, Sir Coutts at that date lent his copy to 
a book-loving friend, John Halkett, of Richmond 
Hill, who, after carefully examining it for himself, 
obtained a full report of its condition from his 
friend, John Field, a well-known contemporary col- 
leftor of dramatic literature. Field's report, which 
is dated December 28th, 1835, pronounced the 
book to be perfe6t, with very trifling reservations, 
which chiefly concerned marginal fra<5tures. He 
declared it to be ' a most beautiful copy indeed,' and 
thought that ' with the exception of two or three 
copies ' (among which he mentioned the Grenville 
copy, now in the British Museum), 'this is the 


finest I ever saw, or I believe in existence/ But 
it was in damaged binding, and in its existing 
state was probably not worth, in Field's opinion, 
more than 60. Field recommended that the binder, 
Charles Lewis, c the only man to be trusted with 
such a book/ should be employed to repair it. Sir 
Coutts Trotter, a few days after he received Field's 
report from Halkett, begged the latter to keep the 
book as a mark of his esteem. But Halkett mag- 
nanimously declined the suggestion, on the just 
ground that Coutts' descendants a hundred years 
later would greatly value its possession. The binder, 
Lewis, died 8th January, 1836, in the course of 
the discussion. Halkett advised Sir Coutts to send 
the book for binding to Herring, a binder hardly 
less famous than Lewis, and to consult his friend, 
Thomas Grenville, the greatest collector of the day, 
if he wanted further counsel. But nothing had 
been done with the book by the date of Sir Coutts' 
death, ist September, 1837. Then the volume 
became the property of Sir Coutts' only daughter, 
Anne, wife of Colonel James Lindsay, a cousin of 
the Earl of Crawford. In 1864 Lord Lindsay, the 
eminent bibliophile (afterwards twenty-fifth Earl 
of Crawford) carefully re-examined the Folio, and 
sent on August ist a full description of it to Mrs. 
Lindsay, its owner. He declared the copy to be ' a 
very fine one, sound, and in good preservation 
throughout,' in spite of some c drawbacks,' of which 
the most important was the removal of most of the 
blank portions of the fly-leaf containing Ben Jonson's . 
verses. Mrs. Lindsay seems to have left the volume 
unrepaired to her second son, Colonel Robert James 


Loyd-Lindsay, who became first Lord Wantage, and 
whose widow is the present owner. It remained in 
the condition in which Lord Lindsay saw it in 
1864, until 1902, when it was elaborately repaired 
and richly bound in red levant morocco by Messrs. 
Riviere. A leather case was at the same time made 
for its safe keeping. 

The measurements, which are I2|- x 8-f- inches, 
are highly satisfactory ; the highest dimensions 
known are 1 3-|- by 8-f- inches. The recent restora- 
tion mainly affe<5ts the fly-leaf and title-page. The 
original print of Ben Jonson's verses, save the sub- 
scribed letters B.I., which were torn off, has been 
carefully mounted on a new leaf; the missing letters 
B.I. are supplied in facsimile. The letterpress round 
the portrait on the title-page has been repaired, but 
the impression (from a late state of the plate) is crisp 
and clear. The last leaf is perfedt, though it shows 
signs of having been much creased. Several small 
holes in the margins have been repaired. The 
pagination, text, and signatures show no variation 
from the standard collation offered by the majority 
of extant copies. There are none of the singularities 
of typography which are occasionally met with. 
Manuscript notes of the early eighteenth century 
are scribbled at the end of some of the plays. On 
the last page of ' Macbeth,' ' Hamlet/ and c Julius 
Caesar ' are manuscript lists of the c dramatis per- 
sonae.' At the end of' Lear ' is a list of characters in 
the succeeding tragedy of ' Othello,' and at the end 
of ' Antony and Cleopatra ' appear these verses: 

Not the Dark Palace nor the Realms below, 
Or the Furious Purpose of her Soul, 


Bouldly she looks on her superior woe 

Which can nor fear nor Death Controwl. 

She wil not from her fancy'd Pride desend 

Disgrac'd a Female Captive by his side 

His pompous triumph to atend 

She bouldly Runs in Death and bids her Sorrows end. 

Signs are abundant that the secftion of tragedies 
in the volume has been at one time or another care- 
fully studied. Lady Wantage's copy clearly belongs 
to the second division of my first class of perfedt 
copies. Had the fly-leaf not suffered injury, it would 
have merited a place among the fourteen enviable 
copies of the first division. 

less distinguished a place in the second division of 
the first class is due to the Duke of Norfolk's copy. 
Former bibliographers have referred to a copy in 
the possession of the Duke of Norfolk of their day. 
But when I made inquiries respecting it in 1901, I 
was informed that the only early edition of Shake- 
speare's collected works then known to be in the 
Duke's possession was a Third Folio. 1 Shortly after 
the publication of my ' Census ' the Duke, with great 
courtesy, informed me that a First Folio had just 
come to light at Arundel, and more recently he was 
kind enough to send the copy to the British Museum 
for my inspection. The dimensions are 12^- x 8y 
inches. The verses on the fly-leaf have been cut out 
of the original leaf and inlaid on a new leaf. The 
outer edge of the title-page has been roughly renewed, 
and the last two figures of the date, 1623, have been 

1 In my * census ' I gave seven instances (p. 12, note 3) in which 
a later Folio had been wrongly described as a First, and I mentioned 
the Duke of Norfolk's Third Folio among these copies. 


cut away and inserted in facsimile. The corner edge 
of p. 83 (Histories) has been renewed, and the last 
leaf has been slightly repaired. Though the size of 
the copy has been considerably reduced by the 
binder, the outer edge of p. 79 of the Comedies is 
rough and uncut. The impression of the portrait is 
good and clear. The volume is plainly bound in 
dull purple morocco. 

Inside the cover is pasted the book-plate of 
Bernard Edward, twelfth Duke of Norfolk (1765- 
1842); he was a man of some literary tastes, and 
probably acquired the volume soon after his acces- 
sion to the title in 1815. 

This copy has a special claim to notice, in that 
one of its leaves figures in an unrevised state. It is 
a leaf in ' Hamlet,' ordinarily numbered 277 and 
278. All who have carefully examined the First 
Folio are aware that the type was occasionally cor- 
refted while the sheets were passing through the 
press. An uncorredted or a partially corrected sheet 
was at times suffered to reach the binder's hands. 
Consequently minute differences distinguish different 
copies of the book. In the cited leaf of ' Hamlet ' 
there appear, in the Duke of Norfolk's copy, at 
least twelve misprints, which were removed before 
the majority of extant copies were made up. Among 
the one hundred and seventy-two extant copies, 
these twelve misprints only appear, as far as my 
knowledge goes, in the copy belonging to Mr. 
Marsden Perry of Providence, U.S.A. But a second 
copy, formerly in the possession of Thomas Amyot, 
of which the present whereabouts are unknown, was 
credited with the like distinction by the editors of the 


Variorum Shakespeare of 1821 (vol. xxi, pp. 449- 
50). Curiously enough a thirteenth misprint 
(' Foredo ' for c for do/ p. 278, col. 2, line 3) char- 
acterizes those two copies, but this is corrected in the 
Duke of Norfolk's copy. Hence it is clear that, 
though leaf 277-8 of the Duke's First Folio repre- 
sents an early setting of the type, it cannot be 
reckoned among quite the earliest. The corrector 
of the press had just begun to occupy himself with 
this leaf before itwas printed off for the Duke's copy. 1 
The twelve divergences between the partially cor- 
recfted text and the standard collation of the majority 
of First Folios extant are as follows: 



Page number < 277 ' for < 273.' 

Col. i, 1. 9 from end 'iowles' 'iowlos.' 
Page 278 

Col. 1,1. 17 'sir, his' c sirh, is.' 

1.20 c years' c yearys.' 

1. 41 c one thing' c o-n thing.' 

1. 30 from end c Coffin ' c Cooffin.' 

Col. 2, 1. 30 < Bride-bed' 'Brid-bed.' 

c maid ' c maide.' 

1. 43 * emphasis ' ' emphasies.' 

3 , 1. 52 c wisenesse' c wisensse.' 

1. 4 from end ' forbeare ' c forebeare.' 

last line * Crocodile ' ' crocadile.' 

I have not noticed in the Duke's copy any other 
discrepancies with the standard collation, save that 
in the stage direftion respefting the death of c King 

1 The Marquis of Bath's copy (No. L.) indicates a later stage in 
the correction of the same leaf. Half of the errors here enumerated 
have been removed, and half have been suffered to remain. 


Lear/ on the last page of that tragedy, the ' e ' in 
He dis is separated from the initial letter of the 
word, and stands in complete isolation. 

(III.) BISHOP GOTT'S COPY. The present Bishop 
of Truro, Dr. John Gott of Trenython, possesses a 
copy which he inherited from his father, William 
Gott, of Wyther Grange, Yorkshire. He describes it 
as quite perfect, but I have not had the opportunity 
of inspecting it personally. 1 The size is 12\ x 8| 
inches, and the volume was rebound in red morocco 
half a century ago. 

which fetched the highest price since 1902 in a 
London sale room was sold at Sotheby's, 20 June, 
1904, for 950. It was then purchased by Messrs. 
Pickering and Chatto, and passed to Mr. George C. 
Thomas, of Philadelphia, through Messrs. Stevens 
and Brown, the American agents. 

A note on the fly-leaf records that the volume 
was purchased in 1772 for five guineas. The old 
russia binding dates from the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. The fly-leaf, the title-page, and 
the dedication leaf have all undergone some damage, 
but have been repaired. The margin of some other 
preliminary leaves, as well as the last leaf, has been 
mended. It is a small copy, measuring 1 2\ x 8 

The other newly-discovered copies make no claim 

The bishop also tells me that he possesses a large number of 
original Shakespeare quartos, including 'Hamlet,' loil'j 'Love's 
Labour *s Lost,' 1598 ; ' Romeo and Juliet,' 1599 ; ' Midsummer 
Night's Dream,' 1600 (the two editions); 'Merchant of Venice,' 
1600 (Roberts' 410); 'Henry V.' (3rd edition), 1608; 'King 
Lear,' 1608, with some other volumes hardly less valuable. 


to perfection. The next five belong to the second 
class of (imperfefl) copies, but one of these (No. V. 
below) is of unique historic interest. 

(V.) THE ' TURBUTT ' COPY. This exemplar, now 
known as the c Turbutt ' copy from the surname of 
its recent owners, was the aftual First Folio which 
was forwarded in sheets by the Stationers' Company 
to the Bodleian Library at Oxford on the publication 
of the volume late in 1 623. The sheets were sent to 
William Wildgoose, an Oxford binder, to be bound 
on 1 7 February, 1 623-4. On its return to the library 
it received the press mark, 82 17 Art., and was, ac- 
cording to custom, chained to the shelf. 

On the publication of the Third Folio in 1664, 
the volume was sold as ' superfluous ' by order of 
the curators. It was bought by Richard Davis, an 
Oxford bookseller, and, early in the eighteenth 
century, it found its way into the library of Richard 
Turbutt of Ogston Hall, Derbyshire, whose great 
great grandson is the present owner. 

It is a large copy, measuring I3yx8|- inches. 
The fly-leaf is missing. The title-page is mounted; 
the letterpress below the engraving has been cut 
away. The portrait, although it is inlaid, is a fine 
impression of the Droeshout engraving in its second 
(shaded) state. The binding, which is much rubbed 
in places, is of smooth brown calf. The leather 
strings have been removed, but signs of the chain 
which originally linked it to its shelf survive. The 
pages are much worn, but, with the important ex- 
ception of the fly-leaf, all the leaves are present. 1 

1 Mr. Gladwyn M. R. Turbutt, son of the present owner, sent 
me from Ogston Hall a full account of this volume on a6th 


Mr. Falconer Madan, the sub-librarian of the 
Bodleian Library, exhibited the volume, and fully 
described its pedigree at a meeting of the Biblio- 
graphical Society on 20 February, 1905. An 
elaborate account of c The Original Bodleian copy 
of the First Folio of Shakespeare (The Turbutt 
Shakespeare) ' was prepared jointly by Mr. Falconer 
Madan, Mr. G. M. R. Turbutt, and Mr. Strickland 
Gibson, and was printed at the Clarendon Press, 
with plates, in the spring of last year. An appeal 
has been made to Oxford graduates for a sum of 
money sufficient to purchase the volume and restore 
it to the Bodleian Library. Its value is estimated 
at 3,000, and all English book-lovers hope that 
this effort to secure the volume for Oxford in per- 
petuity may prove successful. 

(VI.) THE 'BixBY* COPY. This copy now belong- 
ing to Mr. W. R. Bixby of St. Louis, Missouri, 
U.S.A., has a long ascertainable pedigree. It was 
in successive possession of two established families 
in the County of Durham from the middle of the 
seventeenth to the end of the nineteenth century. 
An entry in contemporary handwriting runs thus: 
'Liber G. Spearman Dunelm. 1695.' The refer- 
ence is to Gilbert Spearman, who published in 1728 
an c Inquiry into the Ancient and Present State of 
the County Palatine of Durham/ and died in 1738. 

December, 1902, some three weeks after my ' Census ' was pub- 
lished. He was not then aware of its association with the Bodleian 
Library. This was discovered early in 1905, when the book was 
taken to the Library by Mr. Gladwyn Turbutt for examination 
by Mr. Falconer Madan, the sub-librarian. A careful inspection of 
the binding by Mr. Strickland Gibson of the Bodleian Library, 
disclosed the early history of the volume. 


The Spearmans resided through the eighteenth 
century at Oldacres, Sedgefield in the County of 
Durham. From them the book passed to the family 
of Sutton of Elton in the same county, by whom it 
was sold privately, in a very poor condition, to the 
firm of Ellis of Bond Street in May, 1900. It came 
into their hands a ' mere wreck.' The fly-leaf had 
disappeared, and the title and last leaf were damaged. 
The volume was carefully repaired, and bound by 
Riviere, the fly-leaf being supplied in facsimile. 
Messrs. Ellis and Elvey priced it in their catalogue 
of November, 1901, at 900, an d next month 
it was acquired by its present owner through 
Messrs. Stevens and Brown, the American agents of 
London. It measures i2^-x8|- inches, and may 
be placed among satisfactory copies of the second 

This copy was for some years in the stock of the 
late Mr. F. S. Ellis, of Bond Street. It was made 
up from one or two fragmentary copies which he 
had acquired at various times. It was purchased at 
his sale in 1885 for 97, by a Scottish collector, 
Sir Thomas Dawson-Brodie of Idvies, N.B. 

It was a comparatively large copy, measuring 
13x8 inches. The fly-leaf, with the preliminary 
leaf ' To the Memorie ' were, like the letterpress 
of the title-page, in facsimile, but an original im- 
pression of the portrait was inlaid in the restored 
title. Some two hundred pages were supplied with 
new margins, and the last leaf had undergone re- 
paration. It was bound by Bedford. It fetched at 
the sale of the library of Sir Thomas Dawson-Brodie, 


on 1 8 March, 1904, the sum of 465, or nearly five 
times as much as it cost Sir Thomas. It is now the 
property of Mr. H. C. Folger, junr., of New York. 
(VIII.) THE c A. B. STEWART ' COPY. This copy 
belongs to the widow of Alexander Bannatyne 
Stewart of Rawcliffe, Langside, Glasgow. At the 
end of the volume is an autograph signature of 
'Tho: Bourne', who was possibly an early owner. 
In the middle of the nineteenth century it was in 
the hands of the London bookseller Joseph Lilly, 
a. mighty trader in First Folios. Other London 
booksellers through whose hands it passed were 
Basil Montagu Pickering of Piccadilly, and F. S. 
Ellis of Bond Street, Before 1 878 Ellis sold it, with 
copies of the three other Folios, for the moderate 
sum of three hundred guineas to the late Alexander 
Bannatyne Stewart, of Glasgow, whose widow is 
the present owner. The copy measures 1 2^- x 7-^ 
inches. The fly-leaf verses, the letterpress portion 
of the title, and the last two leaves are in facsimile. 
The corners of pages 291-292 of c Winter's Tale' 
have been torn away. The volume is richly bound 
in red morocco. According to the report sent to 
me, which I have not yet been able to test by per- 
sonal examination, there is a singular discrepancy 
at one point between this copy and all others which 
have been collated. The signatures and the water- 
mark of the leaves containing the play of c Troilus 
and Cressida ' are normal (and unlike those of any 
of the later folios) but the pagination of the piece 
(1-29) is unique. Ordinarily, the pages of' Troilus ' 
are (save in two instances) unnumbered in the First 
Folio. The next play, c Coriolanus,' starts in the 


Stewart, as in normal copies, with a new and in- 
dependent pagination (i seq.). 1 

(IX.) THE c ScoTT-FoLGER * COPY. The large 
library of the late John Scott, C.B., of Halkshill, 
Largs, Ayrshire, who was by profession a ship- 
builder, contained a restored copy of the First Folio, 
of which all the preliminary leaves and last leaf 
were in facsimile. It measured i2\ x j\ inches, and 
was richly bound by Roger de Coverley. It fetched 
at the sale of the Scott library on 5 April, 1905, the 
sum of 255, and was acquired by the American 
colleftor, Mr. H. C. Folger. 

The remaining five ' new' copies are all defective, 
and would fill places in my third class. 

COPY. The copy belonging to this Society was de- 
scribed by Mr. W. K. Dickson, Secretary of the 
Society, at a meeting of the Society held at Edin- 
burgh on 1 2th February, 1906. 

It was presented to the Society, according to the 
minute-book, by Miss Clarke of Dunbar, on 2nd 
November, 1784. It was bound in dark brown 
morocco by Messrs. Orrock and Son, of Edin- 
burgh, about 1870. The fly-leaf and portrait title- 
page have been rebacked and mended. Seven 
leaves have disappeared. Three of the preliminary 
leaves are missing, viz., the dedication, the verses 
to the ' memorie of the deceased Authour,' and the 
list of adtors. Four leaves of the text are missing 
two of 'Romeo and Juliet,' pp. 53-6 of the 
Tragedies, and the last two of the whole volume, 

1 I have to thank Mrs. Stewart's son-in-law, Mr. David Laid- 
law of Polmont, Stirlingshire, for all this information. 



viz., pp. 397-9 of c Cymbeline.' The margins of 
some thirteen leaves are injured. 

It is a small copy measuring i 2-- x 7^ inches. 
The rare misprints, 307 for 309, and 309 for 307, 
in c King Lear ' are the chief discrepancies from 
the standard collation. 

ternal literary history gives this copy, despite its 
inferior condition, great interest. It belonged to 
Charles Knight, whose edition of Shakespeare was 
the most popular of all editions in the nineteenth 
century. Knight studied the First Folio with ex- 
ceptional zeal. His copy of the volume, which now 
belongs to his grandson, Mr. W. C. Knight-Clowes, 
has peculiar fascination for students. Mr. Clowes 
has been good enough to lend the book to me for a 
long term of months. Its imperfections are, unfor- 
tunately, very palpable, and it cannot be placed above 
third-class copies in any catalogue raisonne. Of 908 
original leaves 27 are lost; 88 1 alone survive. All 
but three of the preliminary leaves have disappeared, 
and the edges of those that survive are damaged. 
Other missing leaves are two leaves of ' The Taming 
of the Shrew,' two leaves of ' Henry VIII,' one 
leaf of 'Troilus' (1f), two leaves of ' Romeo and 
Juliet,' two leaves of ' Hamlet ' (pp. 3, 4), and the 
last twelve leaves of ' Cymbeline,' with which the 
volume ends. All the missing leaves, including six 
in the preliminary seftion, have been supplied from 
the facsimile typed reprint of 1807. The lost leaf 
of the 4 Merry Wives ' is bound out of its due place, 
and has been needlessly supplied in duplicate from 
the 1807 reprint. 


The dimensions are I2 T 5 x 8f inches. The volume 
has been roughly rebound in stamped russian leather 
at a comparatively recent date. There are no textual 
singularities. A few pages are defaced by manu- 
script notes, for the most part senseless scribble, in 
seventeenth century handwriting. On the lower 
part of page 204 of the Histories at the end of 
the play of ' Richard III ' appear in one hand 
the name ' the Lady Sarah Hearst/ and in another 
hand, ' the Ladie Ann Grey,' and c The Lady Mary 
Bucckinham.' Below the prologue to c Troilus ' is 
written the couplet: 

When malt is cheap againe, mark w* I say 
Weele laugh, and drink, and make an hallo wday. 

To Eaccus & Ceres. 

belonged to Mr. W. G. Thorpe of the Middle 
Temple, a somewhat eccentric student of Shake- 
speare, who died in the previous year in 1903. It 
measures 1 2-| x 7! inches, and is bound in russia. 
The fly-leaf, title, and five of the seven preliminary 
leaves are, together with the five last leaves, in fac- 
simile by Harris. Three other leaves are supplied 
from the second edition of 1632. Thus fifteen of 
the original leaves were missing. It was acquired 
by Messrs. Sotheran for Mr. Folger of New York 
for 181, at the sale of Mr. Thorpe's library at 
Sotheby's on i8th April, 1904. 

(XIII.) THE WALLER COPY. A large but de- 
fective copy, measuring 1 3 x 8^ inches, fetched 
420 at Sotheby's sale rooms on 2gth July, 1904, 
when it was bought by Mr. Waller. The portrait- 


title was wanting, together with the first leaf of 
'Troilus and Cressida,' and the last leaf of the 
volume. There were several signs of injury by 
fire. The margins of forty .leaves were burnt, in 
seventeen cases with injury to the text. Other de- 
fects appeared in both the preliminary leaves and 
the text of the plays. 

(XIV.) MR. H. R. DAVIS COPY. The copy be- 
longing to Mr. H. R. Davis, of Clissold House, 
Clissold Park, London, N., is in bad condition. It 
measures i2jx8J inches. The fly-leaf verses, the 
portrait-title, three preliminary leaves, and about 
seventy leaves of the text, including six at the end, 
are missing. The volume is unbound. A manuscript 
note on p. 229, in early seventeenth-century hand- 
writing, is addressed to Viscount Cholmondeley and 
his wife Katherine, and signed by Robert Shakerley, 
a kinsman, and another. The copy would seem, 
soon after its publication, to have been acquired by 
a member of the family of Robert Cholmondeley, 
who was created Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells 
in 1628, and Earl of Leinster in 1645.! 


The general distribution of copies of the First 
Folio is altered slightly, but rather significantly, by 
recent investigations and changes of ownership. In 
1902 there were one hundred and sixteen First 

L Three exemplars, in addition to those named above, have been 
sold in London sale rooms since 1902, but they were in so frag- 
mentary a condition that they must be excluded from any catalogue 
of substantial interest. The late Mr. William Henry Button of 
Newcastle, Staffordshire, possessed 291 leaves of one copy, and 64 
leaves of another, and these fragments were both sold at Sotheby's 


Folios in the United Kingdom, including the thir- 
teen newly discovered copies which were then in 
Great Britain, although I did not know of their 
existence; fifty-one were in the United States of 
America (including one then unknown to me); 
three were in the British colonies, and two were on 
the continent of Europe. In addition to the five 
newly discovered copies, which have been sold to 
American citizens since 1902, five other copies, 
which I noticed in my ' Census' as being in 1902 
in English hands, have within the same period 
suffered like transportation. Thus, to-day, the 
British total stands at one hundred and six, a de- 
crease of ten since 1902, and the American total 
stands at sixty-one, an increase to the same extent. 
The totals for the British Colonies and for the 
European Continent are unaltered. 

To Scotland I did, in 1902, an involuntary in- 
justice, which the progress of time has now, as it 
happens, to a large extent repaired. I assigned only 
three copies to Scotland one to Glasgow Univer- 
sity, another to Mr. MacGeorge of Glasgow, and a 
third to Mr. W. L. Watson, of Ayton, Abernethy. 
But at the date at which my c Census ' was published, 
I was ignorant that no less than four other copies 
were in the Northern Kingdom; one of these be- 
longed to a public institution, and three were in pri- 
vate hands. Thus, seven copies were, according to 
my present information, in Scotland in 1902. Of 
these, only four remain there to-day, viz., those re- 

on 8th December, 1903, for the sums of 41 and .19 respectively. 
A third fragmentary copy was sold for ^52 ioi. to Mr. Quaritch 
on 1st December, 1902. 


speftively in the libraries of Glasgow University, 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, of Mr. 
W. L % Watson, of Abernethy, and of Mrs. A. B. 
Stewart, of Langside. The three remaining Scottish 
copies are now in America. The MacGeorge copy 
went to Mr. Perry, of Providence, and both the Scott 
and the Brodie copies to Mr. Folger, of New York. 

These two gentlemen, Mr. Perry and Mr. Folger, 
are now the keenest collectors of Shakesperiana in 
the world. Mr. Folger is to be congratulated on 
having acquired in the last few years as many as 
eight copies of the First Folio in all a record 
number for any private collector. 

If the tide continue running so strongly towards 
the West, the present ratio in the distribution of 
copies of First Folio will not be long maintained. 
Thirty-two of the British copies are in public 
institutions, and in their case the likelihood of 
further change of ownership is small. But one can 
predicate no fixity of tenure of the larger number 
of seventy-four copies which still remain in private 
hands on this side of the Atlantic. Probably half 
of these are destined during the next generation to 
adorn the shelves of private collectors in America. 
Somewhere about 1915 America and Great Britain 
will in all likelihood each own the same number of 
copies some eighty-three apiece. No diminution 
of the American demand during the next quarter 
of a century looks probable at the moment. The 
chances are that at the close of that epoch the exist- 
ing rates of American and British copies, sixty-one 
to one hundred and six, will be exaftly reversed. 




|N an article contributed to the 
' Times ' of the 27th of last December 
Mr. Sidney Lee announced the dis- 
covery of a new and interesting men- 

tion of Shakespeare in the household 

books of the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir Castle. 
It appears that in 1613 Thomas Screvin, steward 
of Francis, sixth Earl of Rutland, made the follow- 
ing entry under the general heading of ' Paymentes 
for howshold stuff, plate, armour, hammers, anvyles, 
and reparacions ' : 

c Item, 3 1 Martii, to Mr. Shakespeare in gold 
about my Lord's impreso xliiij s; to Richard Bur- 
bage for paynting and making yt, in gold xliiij s 
iiij li. viij s.' 

This 'impreso,' or more correftly 'impresa,' which 
we may define for the moment as a device or em- 
blem with a motto, was invented, or possibly se- 
lefted to grace the first appearance of the Earl at 
the annual tilting match held at Whitehall on the 
' King's Day,' i.e., the 24th of March, the anni- 
versary of King James's accession, but unfortunately 
no description of it appears to have come down 
to us. 

Mr. Lee discourses with his usual excellence 
about all that is known, or can at present be con- 


jedtured, respecting the circumstances under which 
Shakespeare and Burbage undertook this work, 
pointing out the friendship between the Earls of 
Rutland and Southampton, and the probability that 
Shakespeare was also known at Belvoir, through 
the dowager Countess of Rutland, a daughter of 
Sir Philip Sidney. But he seems to feel rather sad 
at the thought that Shakespeare should have wasted 
his time and energy on such a trivial matter as an 
impresa. Doubtless in the seventeenth century 
this ' futile fashion ' of having an impresa deserves 
the harsh words which Mr. Lee showers un- 
sparingly upon it, and may perhaps be compared to 
the assumption of crests and mottoes in our own 
day. From his point of view it is ' a foolish rage of 
which the beginnings are traced to Imperial Rome,' 
but a more extended investigation will show that 
the impresa is of much higher antiquity, and is as- 
sociated with classical authors of whom not even 
Shakespeare need be ashamed. 

Before quoting these ancient writers it will be 
well to give the definition of a true impresa from 
the earliest modern writer on the subject, Paolo 
Giovio. In his work, entitled, c Dialogo dell' Im- 
prese Militare et Amorose,' Rome, 1555, Giovio 
says that a true impresa consists of two parts, the 
device or emblem which is called the body, and 
the motto which is called the soul, and that the 
one should be complementary to the other, so that 
neither should have a perfe<5tly evident meaning 
without the other. It is this combination of body 
and soul, symbolical in itself, that so much attracted 
cultivated minds in the sixteenth and seventeenth 


centuries, and caused numbers of Italian dilettanti 
to colledl impresas, and many to write about them 
as well. Among the number was the poet Tasso, 
whose dialogue was printed at Naples; it is now of 
extreme rarity, and no copy appears to exist in 
England. The mediaeval knight had no impresa in 
the strict sense of the word, but merely a device or 
badge, for it was not until the revival of learning 
and the study of the Greek dramatists that the real 
impresa was discovered. And here, as so often 
happens, the first is among the best. In the c Seven 
against Thebes ' of Aeschylus, written about five 
centuries before the Christian era, the hero Capa- 
neus is described as bearing on his shield the device 
of Prometheus carrying a torch, with the motto, 
K^ru iroXiv, ' I will burn down the city.' Now here 
we have an example of a true impresa. The figure 
of Prometheus is a splendid emblem and might 
convey many noble significations, but the motto at 
once determined the impresa or enterprise which 
the hero had undertaken. And be it noted that the 
motto of a true impresa should not exceed three 
words. But the impresa of Tydeus has an even 
more direcft bearing upon the modern revival, es- 
pecially when it is remembered that the early 
Italian writers say that impresas should have a 
handsome chara&er, and that the ground on which 
the principal emblem is placed should be filled with 
appropriate ornament. To quote from Paley's 
translation: ' On the outside of his shield he bears 
this arrogant device, a sky wrought on it all blaz- 
ing with stars; but a bright full moon in the centre 
of the shield, the queen of stars, the eye of night, 


shines conspicuous.' This impresa is intentionally 
left without a motto to enable Eteocles in his 
answer to turn the device against the enemy: c As 
for this night, which you say is pictured on his 
shield glittering with stars in the sky, it may per- 
chance become prophetic to him by a special 
meaning. For if night should fall upon his eyes in 
death, then indeed to the bearer of it this arrogant 
device would rightly and justly sustain its own 
name.' The impresas of the other chiefs are also 
given, and it is at once evident that they were in 
no case family badges, nor were they supposed to 
be designed by the warriors who bore them; for 
when describing the device on the shield of Hippo- 
medon the Messenger says: c the designer, who- 
ever he was, proved himself to be no common 
artist.' A good Impresa, therefore, was as much 
sought after and as highly prized in ancient Greece 
as in the Italy of the cinquecento or the England of 
King James I. 

Turning now to the ' Phoenician Virgins ' ot 
Euripides we find that the seven chiefs have im- 
presas, but not identical with those in Aeschylus, 
and the entire absence of mottoes necessitates 
lengthy explanations, and therefore weakens the 
general effeft. For instance the impresa of Capa- 
neus is described as c an earthborn giant carrying 
on his shoulders a whole city, having by main force 
torn it up with levers an intimation to us what 
our city should suffer.' 

The light in which impresas were regarded at 
the period of their revival is nowhere better shown 
than in the preface of Giovanni Ferro to his monu- 


mental folio, the 'Teatro d'Imprese, Venice, 1623.' 
He begins: c The subjed: of Impresas is usually con- 
sidered very difficult, and is perhaps the most diffi- 
cult that can be discussed. For Giovio says that it 
is not in our power even after long reflection to 
find a device worthy of a given motto, and worthy 
at the same time of the patron who is to bear it, 
and of the author who invents it; wherefore, he 
says, that to compose impresas is the lucky chance 
of the inventive mind, and that the learned stake 
their honour and reputation in making them. 
Taegio confirms this opinion, and adds, that to 
make an Impresa complete and perfeft in every 
respeft is a matter of such difficulty that he regards 
it as almost impossible. And Annibale Caro, writ- 
ing to the Duchess of Urbino, says that Impresas 
are things which are not found by means of books, 
and are not easily made even with the help of the 
imagination. Ruscelli affirms that of all the Im- 
presas mentioned by Giovio three-fourths are worth- 
less. The same might be said of those which he 
himself collected.' 

So the dodtors disagreed as usual even about 
impresas! Ferro goes on to observe that the diffi- 
culty is not so much due to the subjeCt itself as to 
the multitude of symbols, differing very slightly 
and easily mistaken the one for the other. The 
works of the numerous writers who preceded Ferro 
in the same field are, as he justly says, almost all 
very incomplete, ill-arranged, and without indexes. 
Luca Contile alone, whose book, ' Ragionamenti 
sopra la proprieta delle Imprese,' was published in 
1573, at all approaches Ferro either in wealth of 


material or in orderly disposition, but his work is 
a thin folio of under two hundred leaves, while 
Ferro's volume has nearly four times as many. 
Added to this, Ferro published a second folio about 
as large as Contile's containing his reply to his 
critics. Contile, however, makes up in enthusiasm 
for anything and everything that he may lack in 
other respefts. In his eyes the Impresa is one of 
the most noble and excellent things in the world, 
but he lets his zeal outrun his discretion when he 
attempts to prove that the Almighty himself in- 
vented the first impresas! The examples he ad- 
duces in support of his argument are the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil with the motto ' Ne 
comedes,'and the rainbow with the motto 'Nequa- 
quam ultra interficietur omnis caro aquis.' Judged 
by the standard rules above mentioned, these are 
by no means perfedt specimens, for the body is in 
one place and the soul in another, unless we are to 
suppose that the tree was duly labelled and that 
the rainbow originally bore an inscription. Of the 
Impresa as a human institution, Jason is claimed to 
be the founder, but as we have already seen, its 
pedigree is sufficiently good without these flights 
of fancy. 

It is a curious fa6l that impresas appear to have 
been revived and to have come into their fullest 
vogue just as the best occasions for using them 
were passing away. In the sixteenth century the 
tournament was already degenerating into running 
at the ring, and lance thrusts were being exchanged 
across barriers that precluded all possibility of fight- 
ing at close quarters. In faft, the time was ripen- 



ing for the immortal work of Cervantes, who, it 
will be remembered, represents Don Quixote as 
considering himself bound by the laws of chivalry 
to bear white armour c without an impresa on his 
shield until he should gain one by his prowess.' 

The subjeft of impresas in England has been so 
fully dealt with by Mr. Sidney Lee in his above- 
mentioned article in ' The Times/ and also by Mr. 
Pollard, from a more bibliographical standpoint, 
in c Country Life ' of 1 3th January, that there is 
little to add, save that in the play of c Pericles,' 
though not in the portion recognized as Shake- 
speare's, there are no less than six impresas. The 
passage is in A61 II, Scene 2, where the knights 
pass before Simonides while his daughter describes 
them to him: 

Sim. Who is the first that doth prefer himself? 

'Thaisa. A knight of Sparta, my renowned father; 
And the device he bears upon his shield 
Is a black JEthiop, reaching at the sun ; 
The word, Lux tua vita mihi. 

Sim. He loves you well, that holds his life of you. 
Who is the second, that presents himself? 

Thaisa. A prince of Macedon, my royal father ; 
And the device he bears upon his shield 
Is an arm'd knight, that 's conquer'd by a lady : 
The motto thus, in Spanish, Piu per dufyura que per fuerfa. 

Sim. And what 's the third ? 

Thaisa. The third, of Antioch ; 

And his device a wreath of chivalry ; 
The word, Me pompae provexit apex. 

Sim. What is the fourth ? 

Thaisa. A burning torch, that 's turned upside down ; 
The word, Quod me alit, me extinguit. 



Sim. Which shows that beauty hath his power and will, 
Which can as well inflame, as it can kill. 

Thaisa. The fifth, an hand environed with clouds ; 
Holding out gold, that 's by the touchstone tried ; 
The motto thus, Sic s-p e 51 anda fides. 

Sim. And what's the sixth and last, which the knight 

With such a graceful courtesy deliver'd ? 

'Thaisa. He seems a stranger ; but his present is 
A withered branch, that 's only green at top ; 
The motto, In hac spe vivo. 

The third, fourth, and fifth, which are good im- 
presas, are found in ' The Heroicall Devices of M. 
Claudius Paradin. Translated by P. S. London, 
W. Kearney, 1591.' The others are very poor and 
were probably the work of George Wilkins, to 
whom Mr. Lee, in the preface to his handsome 
reprint of the first edition of * Pericles, 1609,' pub- 
lished last year, attributes all the play, except the 
greater part of Acts III and V, and some portions 
of Act IV. These impresas also occur in Wilkins's 
novel, 'The Painfull Adventures of Pericles, Prince 
of Tyre/ published in 1608, the year before the 
appearance of the play. 

As specimens of interesting historical impresas, 
we may mention the magnificent one of Charles I 
of Spain (the Emperor Charles V), viz., the Pillars 
of Hercules, with the motto c Plus ultra,' in allu- 
sion to the extension of discovery and conquest in 
the New World; and the Gordian Knot and Sword 
of Ferdinand of Castile with the motto 'Tanto 
monta,' in allusion to his settlement of family dis- 
putes about the succession to the crown by appeal 


to the Sword. It gives one rather a shock to read 
that in the sixteenth century the impresa of Sil- 
vestro Bottigella of Pavia was a pianolo, with the 
singularly appropriate motto, c Tuerto y derecho lo 
igual ' (crooked and straight, I make even), until 
one remembers that pianola is old Italian for pialla, 
a carpenter's plane. 

And here we take our leave of these devices, 
suggesting for their own impresa a Lumber Room, 
with the motto, c Non sine gloria/ 


i 4 9 


JHE men who, during Shakespeare's 
lifetime, printed his ' Venus and Ado- 
nis,' c Lucrece,' and c Sonnets/ and the 
Quarto editions of his plays, can hardly 
be called Shakespeare's printers, since, 
with one exception, there is no evidence that he 
ever authorized the printing of any of his works, or 
ever revised those that were published. Even in the 
case of Richard Field, the evidence is presumptive 
and not dire<5t. Yet Englishmen may be pardoned if 
they cling to the belief that Shakespeare employed 
Field to print for him and frequented the printing 
office in Blackfriars while the proof sheets of * Venus 
and Adonis ' and ' Lucrece ' were passing through 
the press. For Stratford-on-Avon claimed both the 
printer and the poet, and if it be a stretch of the 
imagination to look upon them as fellow scholars 
in the grammar school, and playmates in the fields, 
their distant Warwickshire birthplace offered a bond 
of sympathy which might well draw them to one 

It is some matter for congratulation that the first 
of Shakespeare's writings to be printed came from 
a press that had long been known for the excellence 
of its work. When Richard Field came to London 
in 1579, he entered the service of a bookseller, but 


within a year he was transferred, probably at his 
own desire, to the printing office of Thomas Vau- 
trollier, the Huguenot printer in Blackfriars. He 
could not have found a better school. Vautrollier's 
office was stocked with a varied assortment of letter, 
so that he was capable of printing anything from a 
folio downwards. His type was also kept in good 
condition, and his workmen were skilled and com- 
petent. To this business Field succeeded, on the 
death of Vautrollier in 1 587, by the simple expedient 
of marrying the widow. 

It was on the i8th April, 1593, a few days before 
the twenty-ninth anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, 
that Richard Field entered in the Registers of the 
Company of Stationers c a booke intituled Venus 
and Adonis.' It appeared as a quarto of twenty-seven 
leaves, and bore on the title-page one of the smaller 
of the anchor devices which had formerly belonged 
to Vautrollier. The imprint stated that the work 
was to be sold at the ' white greyhound ' in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, the address of John Harrison 
the elder, to whom Richard Field transferred his 
copyright in the poem in the following year (1594) 
and for whom he printed a second edition in that 
year, differing in nothing but the type. John 
Harrison the elder also entrusted to Field's press in 
1594 the manuscript of 'The ravyshment of Lu- 
crece.' This was issued as a quarto, with the simple 
title of ' Lucrece,' and differed little in appearance 
from the two editions of c Venus and Adonis.' A 
larger and better type was used in the text, and a 
larger form of the anchor device was placed on the 
title-page. Harrison's name was also mentioned in 


the imprint. A comparison of the several copies of 
' Lucrece ' show that it was corredted while passing 
through the press, and it is a pardonable though 
unwarranted belief that these corrections were made 
by Shakespeare. Richard Field printed a third 
edition of c Venus and Adonis' for John Harrison 
the elder, in odtavo, in 1596, and with that his 
connection with the dramatist's work ended, though 
he continued in business until his death in 1624, 
and rose to the highest position in his guild. As a 
printer he does not seem to have been so skilful or 
so careful as Thomas Vautrollier, yet, if we could 
wish these poems of Shakespeare better printed, 
judged by the standard of those days, Field had no 
cause to be ashamed of them. 

A very different story has to be told in dealing 
with the printing of Shakespeare's plays. Pick up 
what one you will and its distinctive features will 
probably be bad paper, wretched type, and careless 
and slovenly press-work. This was largely due to the 
low condition to which the printing trade had been 
reduced by the monopoly system, which put all the 
best paying work into the hands of half a dozen 
men, while the majority of the printers, whose 
numbers were increasing year by year, found it 
nearly impossible to make a living by their trade. 1 
The printers were thus compelled to seek work 
that was out of the reach of the monopolists. Of 
such a nature were plays, and one can almost picture 

1 One of the worst of these monopolies and one of which we 
shall hear more, was that which prevented all but a select few 
from printing the ' Grammar ' and c Accidence,' two school books 
that were in constant demand. 


a crowd of hungry publishers and printers haunting 
the theatres and worrying authors, managers, and 
aftors for any sort of copy of the piece which was 
then holding the boards. As showing the class of 
men to whom we owe the printed editions of 
Shakespeare's plays, it may be stated that not one 
of them ever rose to any high position in the 
Company to which they belonged. They were 
chiefly distinguished for their unruly behaviour 
and disregard of Royal proclamations and Star 
Chamber decrees. 

The first play of Shakespeare's that appeared in 
print was the tragedy of ' Titus Andronicus.' This 
came from the press of JOHN DANTER, a printer in 
a small way of business in Duck Lane near Smith- 
field. Danter's life was a short and troubled one. 
The son of an Oxfordshire man, he came to London 
and entered the service of the great printer John 
Day, in March, 1582, being bound apprentice for 
eight years; but before half that term was out he 
was found helping to print the * Grammar ' and 
c Accidence ' at a secret press, and so serious a view 
did the Wardens of the Stationers' Company take 
of his offence that they disabled him from ever be- 
coming a master printer. A year or two later the 
severity of this sentence was relaxed, the Court of 
Assistants admitting the offender into partnership 
with William Hoskins and Henry Chettle, with 
whom he shared premises in Fleet Street. The part- 
nership was of short duration, and in 1592 Danter 
began printing on his own account. On the 6th 
February, 1 59!-, he entered in the registers 'a booke 
intituled A Noble Roman Historye of Tytus An- 


dronicus.' Until last year no edition of so early a 
date had been seen since the time of Langbaine, and 
the entry was supposed to relate to a non-Shake- 
spearian play. But in 1905 a Swedish gentleman 
discovered amongst his books a quarto of this play, 
with the imprint, 'London, Printed by John Danter, 
and are to be sold by Edward White and Thomas 
Millington, at the little North door of Paules at the 
signe of the Gunne 1 594.' This unique quarto was 
sold to an American collector, it is said, for 2,000. 

Three years later John Danter also printed ' An 
excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet,' 
and never was a masterpiece ushered into the world 
in a worse manner. The printer started with a type 
which, in spite of its worn condition, was fairly 
readable, but before he had half finished the work, 
he substituted a very much smaller and even more 
worn fount. The compositors' work was of the 
worst description, reversed letters and mis-readings 
being sprinkled over every page. And with this 
we part thankfully with John Danter. He dis- 
appears in a whirlwind of official indignation and 
Star Chamber shrieks for daring to print those 
sacred volumes, the ' Grammar ' and ' Accidence,' 
and in less than three years afterwards he died. 

The next printer with whom we are concerned 
is another Oxfordshire man, VALENTINE SIMMES or 
Symmes, to whose press we are known to owe the 
first quartos of ' Richard the Second' (1597), and 
'Richard the Third' (1597), 'The Second Part of 
Henry IV ' (1600), the first quarto of' Much Ado 
about Nothing* (1600), as well as the third quarto 
of the ' First Part of Henry IV ' in 1604. Simmes, 


on his arrival in London in 1 576, became an ap- 
prentice to a bookseller named Henry Sutton, who 
dealt largely in service books. But his desire being 
to be a printer and not a bookseller, he transferred 
his services to Henry Bynneman, a printer in 
Knightrider Street, who shared with John Day the 
patronage of Archbishop Parker. Bynneman died 
in 1584, and Simmes became a freeman of his 
Company in the next year. Apparently he found 
some difficulty in obtaining work, for the next that 
is heard of him is in connexion with the Martin 
Marprelate press, for which he acted as compositor. 
He was arrested, with others, in 1589, brought to 
London, and thrown into the Tower. Five years 
later, i.e., in 1594, he is found with a printing office 
of his own at the sign of the White Swan in Addle 
or Addling Hill, one of the narrow lanes running 
up from the river Thames near Baynard's Castle. 
Simmes had been trained in a good school, and even 
his Shakespeare quartos bear evidence of the fact; 
indeed, the first quarto of * Much Ado about No- 
thing ' is one of the few play-books of that period 
that were decently printed. On the other hand, as 
the editors of the Cambridge Shakespeare were the 
first to point out, in some copies of the quarto of 
the c Second Part of Henry IV ' the first scene of 
Aft III was entirely omitted. The mistake was dis- 
covered before the whole impression was printed, 
and the missing scene inserted on two new leaves. In 
order to do this the type of part of the preceding 
and subsequent leaves was distributed, so that there 
are two different impressions for the latter part of 
Acl: II and the beginning of Adt III, Scene 2. 


In 1595 Simmes was caught printing the 'Gram- 
mar ' and ' Accidence,' and his press was seized 
and his type melted. He was in trouble again in 
1598 for disorderly printing, and after a chequered 
career the last heard of him is in the year 1622, 
when by an order of the High Commissioners he 
was prohibited from working as a master printer, 
and was allowed a pension of 4 a year by the 
Company of Stationers. 

A press of a much more interesting character is 
that of THOMAS CREED, who carried on business at 
the sign of the Catherine Wheel in Thames Street. 
Thomas Creed's birthplace is unknown, but he was 
apprenticed to Thomas East, a printer chiefly re- 
membered for his musical publications, and by 
East he was made a freeman on the 7th Oftober, 
1578. Some years more elapsed before he began 
printing for himself, and it is not until the year 
1593 that his first book-entry occurs in the re- 
gisters. His office was stocked with a varied assort- 
ment of letter, most of it in good condition, and 
his workmanship was superior to that of many of 
his contemporaries. Hence we are not surprised to 
find amongst his earliest patrons, the great Eliza- 
bethan publisher, William Ponsonby, who endea- 
voured as far as possible to produce good books in a 
good style, and for whom Creed printed amongst 
other things Robert Greene's ' Mammilia,' Macchia- 
velli's ' Florentine History,' and Edmund Spenser's 
'Colin Clout's come home again.' Indeed, much 
of the best of Elizabethan literature came from his 

But it is with Creed's Shakespeare work that 


we are more particularly concerned. In 1594 he 
entered in the register of the Stationers' Company, 
and printed shortly afterwards, three books which 
have more than passing interest for Shakespeare 
students. These were ' The First Part of the Con- 
tention betwixt the two famous houses of York 
and Lancaster,' ' The True Tragedie of Richard the 
Third,' and ' The Famous Victories of Henry V.' 
The first of these was the old play upon which 
Shakespeare founded ' The Second Part of King 
Henry VI.' This quarto bore on the title-page 
the printer's well-known device of Truth crowned, 
but stript and being beaten with a scourge held by 
a hand issuing from the clouds. This is repeated 
on the last leaf with a colophon beneath it. Except 
for irregular casting the type used in printing this 
is above the average, whilst the arrangement of 
the title-page was distinctly good. ' The True 
Tragedie of Richard the Third ' was printed for 
William Barley, probably from the afting copy used 
by the ' Queenes Majesties players.' The third play, 
c The Famous Victories of Henry V ' the entry of 
it stands in the registers next to that of ' Lucrece ' 
had also belonged to the Queen's players. This 
was the original upon which Shakespeare drew for 
the first and second parts of c Henry IV,' and the 
play of c Henry V.' Nineteen years after the first 
nown edition (1598), another appeared in 1617, 
printed by Creed's successor, Bernard Alsop, for 
Timothy Barlow. 

In 1595 Creed entered and printed apparently 
on his own account, 'The Lamentable Tragedie 
of Locrine, Newly set forth, overseene and cor- 


reded by W. S./ no doubt thinking that the 
initials would find it a ready sale, until some one 
troubled to point out that Shakespeare had nothing 
to do with it. 

Creed's first genuine Shakespeare quarto was the 
second edition of e Richard III/ which he printed 
for Andrew Wise in 1598. In the next year (1599) 
the second quarto of * Romeo and Juliet ' came 
from his press at the instance of Cuthbert Burby, 
its lawful owner, and in 1600 he put to press for 
Thomas Millington and John Busby 'The chronicle 
history of Henry the fift.' The first quarto of 'The 
Merry Wives of Windsor/ the second quarto of 
c Henry V/ and the third quarto of c Richard III/ 
all came from his press in 1602, and from that 
time onwards till 1612, he continued to print 
editions of both c Richard III ' and c Henry V.' 
Good workman as he could be when he liked, 
most of these quartos of Creed's are very little 
better than those issued by his brother printers. 
In 1616 he took into partnership Bernard Alsop, 
who in the following year succeeded to the busi- 
ness on the retirement or death of Creed. 

The same year that saw the publication of ' Lu- 
crece' and the three non-Shakespearean plays just 
noticed, and about the same time that is, in May, 
1 594 another printer, named PETER SHORT, entered 
in the Register a play called ' A merrie conceyted 
comedie of the Taming of a Shrew.' This entry 
is held to relate to an older play dealing with the 
same subjeft, and at present Peter Short's connec- 
tion with Shakespeare's work is limited to the first 
quarto of ' The First Part of Henry IV,' printed 


by him for Andrew Wise in 1598. The general 
appearance of this book is good. The title-page is 
neatly arranged and printed with fairly regular 
founts of roman and italic, while above the im- 
print is the printer's device of the star. The type 
of the text is also much clearer, and the workman- 
ship above the average. But although this was the 
only work of Shakespeare's ever put into Short's 
hands, he was the printer of that famous Eliza- 
bethan notebook, Francis Mere's ' Palladis Tamia/ 
renowned for its Shakespeare allusions. This dumpy 
little oftavo is also printed throughout in a clear 
and regular fount of roman. The printer's history 
may be briefly outlined. Admitted a freeman of 
the Company of Stationers in 1589, Short succeeded 
to the printing business of Henry Denham, whose 
device of the star he adopted as his sign when 
he set up his printing office in Bread Street 
Hill, near St. Paul's. From the faft of his name 
appearing in a list of printing houses, upon which 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of 
London dire&ed that watch should be kept for 
prohibited books, it would seem that Short, like 
many of his brother printers, was given to illicit 
printing. In addition to the two books noticed 
above, several notable works came from his press, 
including a number of musical publications. He 
died in 1603, probably from the plague, which 
was very deadly in London in that year, and his 
business passed into the hands of Humphrey 

Another Shakespeare issue of the year 1598 was 
c Love's Labour 's Lost,' printed by ' W. W. for 


Cuthbert Burby.' The initials stand for WILLIAM 
WHITE, a small printer then living in Smithfield, 
whose principal trade lay in ballads and broadsides, 
and who was fined five shillings on one occasion 
for printing a lewd ballad called ' The Wife of 
Bath.V This quarto of c Love's Labour 's Lost ' may 
be taken as a fair specimen of his work, which 
was about as bad as it could be. His initials are 
also found on the title-page of the second quarto 
of c The True Tragedie of Richard, Duke of York/ 
otherwise ' The Third Part of King Henry VI,' 
which he printed for Thomas Millington in 1600, 
and again in the fifth quarto of c The First Part of 
Henry IV,' printed in 1613 for Mathew Law. 

The second quarto of this same play, which was 
issued in 1599, introduces us to SIMON STAFFORD, 
whose initials, S. S., are in the imprint as printer 
for Andrew Wise. A chapter might well be written 
about this man's history. He belonged to the guild 
of Drapers, but choosing to be a printer, was ap- 
prenticed to Christopher Barker, the royal printer, 
who was also a member of the Drapers' Company. 
Stafford set up a press in Black Raven Alley, in the 
parish of St. Peter's, Cornhill, in 1597, but on the 
1 3th March, 1598, the Stationers seized his press 
and letters, declaring that they had found 4,000 
copies of the ' Grammar ' and ' Accidence ' on his 
premises. Stafford's offence was aggravated by his 
being a draper, and it was not until he transferred 
himself to the Company of Stationers that he was 
allowed to carry on the trade of a printer. In addi- 
tion to the quarto of 'Henry IV,' he also printed the 
1611 edition of ' Pericles.' 


None of the presses that have been noticed, not 
even that of Thomas Creed, equals in interest that 
which next comes under consideration the press 
of JAMES ROBERTS. We are undoubtedly indebted 
to it for the first quartos of c A Midsummer Night's 
Dream ' and c The Merchant of Venice/ the second 
quarto of ' Titus Andronicus,' all three printed by 
him in 1600, and also for the second and third 
quartos of the tragedy of 'Hamlet,' printed in the 
years 1604 and 1605. Admitted a freeman of the 
Company of Stationers in 1564, Roberts seems to 
have set up in Fleet Street under the sign of c Love 
and Death,' and for some years devoted himself 
mainly to the printing of ballads. He then joined 
partnership with a certain Richard Watkins, and 
they obtained a royal patent for the sole printing of 
almanacs and prognostications, which must have 
been a very lucrative business. In 1593 Roberts 
married the widow of John Charlwood, a printer 
at the sign of the Half Eagle and Key in the Bar- 
bican. Charlwood appears to have had a large stock 
of type, blocks, and devices, to which Roberts after- 
wards added considerably. Charlwood's copyrights 
also were numerous, though chiefly of a theological 
charadter. Roberts seems to have launched out in 
an entirely new direction, and within the next 
twelve years printed works by Nicholas Breton, 
Daniel, Drayton, Gabriel Harvey, Lyly, Marston, 
Nash, Spenser, and Shakespeare. Which of the 
three Shakespeare quartos printed by Roberts in 
the year 1 600 is the earliest it would be rash to say, 
as the c Titus Andronicus ' had been entered in the 
Registers on the appearance of the first edition in 


1594. There were also two issues of each of the 
other plays, both bearing different imprints. One 
quarto of the ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' has no 
printer's name, but simply the statement that it was 
printed c for Thomas Fisher/ but there is no doubt 
that both were printed by Roberts. In the same 
way there were two quartos of ' The Merchant 
of Venice/ one the outcome of the licence granted 
to Roberts on 22nd July, 1598, and the other 
following upon his transfer of the copyright to 
'Thomas Haies.' On the title-page of the Roberts 
quarto of the ' Merchant ' is seen the device of 
Richard Johnes, another London printer of this 
date, and at the end of it the tail-piece of the 
woman's head and cornucopiae, which certainly 
once belonged to Richard Field, and is found in his 
books up to this period. How and when it came 
into the hands of James Roberts are questions that 
need further investigation, but cannot be dealt 
with here. The ' Fisher ' edition of the c Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream ' has that publisher's device of 
the kingfisher on the title-page, and the ornament 
at the end tells us nothing; whereas the Roberts 
copy has Charlwood's old block of the Half Eagle 
and Key above the imprint. The points in common 
between the two are the ornament or band at the 
head of the first page of the text and the similar 

In or about 1608 the exacfl date is unknown 
James Roberts sold his business to William Jag- 
gard, who, until this time, had been trading as a 
bookseller in the Churchyard of St. Dunstan's-in- 
the-West, and who now added that of a printer to 



his business. Jaggard's connection, and that of his 
son Isaac, with the First Folio or 1623 has been so 
often described that there is no need to repeat it 

The only other hitherto recognized printer of the 
first edition ol any work by Shakespeare during his 
life is GEORGE ELD, from whose press, in 1609, came 
the ' Sonnets ' and c Troilus and Cressida.' Eld was 
a Derbyshire man, who in 1593 had put himselr 
apprentice to a stationer for eight years, but was 
admitted a freeman of the Company two years 
before the expiration of his time, a most unusual 
proceeding. He was a capable printer, many of his 
books being amongst the best specimens of typo- 
graphy of the Elizabethan time. To name only 
one example, c Grimstone's General Historic of the 
Netherlands ' is a very handsome folio in which the 
types and presswork are exceedingly good. Unfor- 
tunately the same cannot be said for the c Sonnets/ 
which was marred by being printed in a diminutive 
fount of roman that did not print well, nor was the 
quarto of c Troilus and Cressida ' a much better 

In 1614 Eld took into partnership Miles Flesher 
or Fletcher, and in the return made in the following 
year they were found to have two presses, an evid- 
ence that they had an extensive business. Eld died 
of the plague in 1624, and was succeeded by his 

Having thus passed in review the printers whose 
names or initials are found in the imprints of the early 
Shakespeare quartos, I propose to say a few words 
as to the presses to which the editions without im- 


prints may be assigned. The first of these is the 
maimed and mutilated first quarto of ( HAMLET.' 
Only the publishers' names Nicholas Ling and 
John Trundle are given on the title-page, and the 
device which decorates it is that of Ling. The type 
is not good, and the press work supports the theory 
that the book was hastily rushed through the press. 
The ornament at the top of the first page of text is 
one used by Valentine Simmes, but I was neverthe- 
less at first inclined to attribute the edition to the 
press of Roberts, to whom the play had been licensed 
the previous year, and who seems to have been fond 
of acquiring ornaments which had been used by 
other printers. Mr. Pollard, however, who had 
been independently investigating the question as to 
the printing of the play, produced me a book, the 
c Earl of Cowrie's Conspiracy,' printed by Simmes in 
1603, in which this particular ornament occurred, 
and to the press of Simmes the first edition of 6 Ham- 
let' must therefore be assigned. 

We may next consider to whose typography we 
owe the two quartos of ' KING LEAR,' which ap- 
peared in 1608, both without any indication of the 
printer. In one the imprint is simply ' Printed for 
Nathaniel Butter 1608,' while in the other it takes 
the longer form, ' London, Printed for Nathaniel 
Butter, and are to be sold at his shop in Paul's 
Church-yard at the signe of the Pide Bull neere St. 
Austin's Gate, 1608.' The first-named issue has on 
the title-page above the imprint the device of 
Richard Johnes, and at the top of A 2 a woodcut 
ornament, both of which identify it as coming from 
the press of James Roberts, though whether in 1600 


Roberts was still the owner of it we cannot be quite 
sure. The Pide Bull issue is not so easily identi- 
fied. The most obvious available clue is the curious 
device above the imprint of a rod, round which two 
snakes are wound, and which is fitted with wings 
at the top and bottom, held at the bottom by two 
hands issuing from clouds. Cornucopiae also form 
a part of the design, which is surmounted by a 
winged horse. This device had come from abroad, 
having once belonged to Andreas Wechelin of 
Frankfort, and was used by him in printing c Petri 
Rami commentariorum de religione Christiana libri 
quatuor 1 576,' the title-page of which is amongst 
those collected by Ames (B.M. 463, h. 8, 461). In 
1600, this device is found in an English book, 
William CoveH's Brief Answer unto Certaine 
Reasons by way of an Apologie delivered to ... 
the . . . bishop of Lincolne by Mr. lohn Burges 
. . . ' with the imprint c At London Printed by 
G. S. for Clement Knight, and are to be sold at his 
shop in Pauls Churchyard at the signe of the Holy 
Lambe. 1606.' 

It will further be noticed that the Pide Bull copy 
has at the top of sig. B a narrow band of conven- 
tional pattern, with a man's face in the centre, 
which will be found again at the top of the title- 
page of the English translation of William Bucanus' 
c Institutions of Christian Religion/ printed at 
London, by George Snowdon and Leonell Snowdon 
in 1606 (B.M. 874, e lo); 1 while on sig. A3 of the 
c Briefe Answer ' will be found a large pierced 

1 There is a better impression of this title-page amongst the 
Ames colle&ion. 


woodcut initial letter, which is used more than 
once in the Institutions (see Kk% refto, Mm verso). 

But who were George and Leonell Snowden? 
According to the Registers, George Snowden was 
entered as an apprentice to Robert Robinson on the 
ayth April, 1590; but this entry has a marginal 
note that George was Singleton's apprentice and 
that Robinson was to c put him away ' within seven 
days, an order he does not seem to have obeyed, as 
George Snowden was presented by him for his free- 
dom on the nth May, 1597. Leonell or Lionell 
Snowden was evidently a relative, but not a brother 
of George's. He, too, was an apprentice to Robinson, 
being out of his time in February, 1 604. Some time 
in 1 606, the year of the publication of the c Brief 
Answer' and c Institutions' the two Snowdens appear 
to have had an interest for a short time in a printing 
business of John Harrison the youngest who died in 
1604, and who in his turn had succeeded to the 
business of Thomas Judson. In Sir John Lambe's 
memoranda, printed in Vol. Ill of the * Transcript ' 
(pp. 669, et seq.}> either Mr. Arber has made a mis- 
take in transcribing the names, or Sir John Lambe 
got confused, as well he might, between the Snow- 
dens and the Snodhams. In any case their career was 
a very short one, and there is not a single book en- 
tered to either of them in the Registers. 

Further, according to these same memoranda of 
Sir John Lambe's, the Snowdens, in 1608, the year 
of the publication of ' King Lear,' transferred their 
business to Nicholas Oakes or Okes. Now Nicholas 
Okes had taken up his freedom in 1603, and his 
first book entry in the Registers was in July, 1607. 


It is quite possible that the ' Lear,' though it bears 
the date of 1608, may have been printed towards 
the close of 1 607, while on the other hand though 
Okes had permission to print in July, 1 607, he may 
not have bought the Snowden's interest until 1608. 
The a6tual hand that printed it matters little, we 
now know that it came from the office established 
by Thomas Judson in 1586, and in the hands suc- 
cessively of John Harrison the younger, George and 
Lionel Snowden, and Nicholas Okes. 

A third play, the first quarto of which appeared 
without any hint as to the printer, was c Pericles,' 
two editions of which were printed in 1609 'for* 
Henry Gosson, who was ' then living at the 
sign of the Sunne in Paternoster Row.' Both of 
them bear at the top of the first page of text a 
band easily recognized as that of William White, 
whose business was taken over in 1 620 by Augustine 
Matthews, the printer of the second quarto of 
' Othello' in 1630 for Richard Hawkins, in which 
the same band is used again, and White's block 
of the charioteer in a very worn state is seen on the 

With this attempt to identify the typographical 
authors of these three plays we may bid farewell to 
the printers of Shakespeare's plays and poems. 
Greatly would these good men have been surprised 
had they been told that their connection with these 
sixpenny pamphlets would be their chief title to 


6 7 



HE first five years of the twentieth 
century have seen the commencement 
of no fewer than twenty-seven editions 
of Shakespeare's works, of which some 
still remain incomplete. Of ordinary 
modern editions the palm lies between the Edin- 
burgh Folio, a fine library edition, edited successively 
by the late Mr. W. E. Henley and Professor Walter 
Raleigh, and published by Mr. Grant Richards, and 
the Shakespeare Head edition, produced by Messrs. 
A. H. Bullen and F. Sidgwick. This latter has 
the added merit of being the first printed at the 
poet's birthplace. Messrs. Methuen have also pro- 
duced a charming pocket edition in forty volumes, 
which differs from most pocket editions in being 
really adapted to the pocket, and at the same time 
easily legible. 

Of smaller collections and editions of single plays 
the name is legion, but most are designed for use 
in schools. 

Textual and bibliographical study has been greatly 
advanced by the facsimile editions which have been 
produced. In 1902 was published the Clarendon 
Press First Folio, with a most exhaustive introduc- 
tion and census of copies by Mr. Sidney Lee. In 
1903 and 1904 Messrs. Methuen published their 


facsimiles of the Third and Fourth Folios, and late 
in 1905 the Syndics of the Clarendon Press com- 
pleted their design by issuing in five volumes the 
Shakespearean work omitted from the First Folio, 
i.e., Venus and Adonis, Lucrece, the Sonnets, 
Pericles, and the Passionate Pilgrim. 

Plays have been translated into French, German, 
Dutch, Italian, Spanish, and even Esperanto. 

Of critical works, the crown easily goes to Pro- 
fessor Bradley's 'Shakespearean Tragedy,' especially 
to the two introductory ledures, which for breadth 
of view and depth of insight combined have few 
rivals in all the vast literature of thesubjedt. Another 
piece of sympathetic criticism is Canon Beeching's 
contribution to the endless problem of the person- 
alities involved in the Sonnets. 

To the equally endless controversy over the 
Baconian authorship of the Plays, a great deal has 
been added. Among much wild criticism stand out 
the legal contributions, especially Mr. G. C. Bompas' 
' The Problem of the Shakespeare Plays.' 

German and American students have left few 
fields of research uninvestigated, but it cannot be 
said that knowledge of the poet has been thereby 
very much advanced. 

An admirable feature of recent years is the 
amount of Elizabethan authors other than Shake- 
speare who have been reprinted, thus furnishing 
most necessary foundations for the study of Shake- 
speare, who was no lusus naturae^ but as much the 
creation of his age and country as any other genius. 
These are not given below, but mention may be 
made of the series c Materialien zur Kunde der 


alteren englischen Dramas/ edited by Professor 
Bang, and containing work by many scholars or 
different nations, amongst others by Mr. W. W. 
Greg and Mr. R. B. McKerrow. 

In compiling the following list, many books have 
been omitted as unprofitable. Notes have been added 
which will assist the reader to continue the process 
of elimination as far as he may desire. From con- 
sideration of space it has been found impossible to 
include magazine articles, and for a different reason 
works in Slavonic languages are also omitted. 



The Edinburgh Folio edition. 
Edited successively by W. E. 
Henley and Walter Raleigh. 

A fine library edition of the 
text,with the introductory mat- 
ter of the First Folio. 
The Windsor Shakespeare. 40 
vols. 1901-3. 

Edited with notes by H. N. 

The Works of Shakespeare. 

A handsomely produced edi- 
tion^ with notes and unfor- 
tunate illustrations. 
The Works of Shakespeare. 
Edited by W. J. Craig. 
40 vols. 1903-5. 16. 

A very pretty pocket Shake- 

speare^ the text being easily 

legible in spite of the size. 

The Oxford Shakespeare. 

Edited by W.J.Craig. 1904. 

A carefully edited text, with 
a glossary. 

The Student's Shakespeare. 
1902, etc. 

Edited by A. W. Verity. - 

The Elizabethan Shakespeare. 
Edited, with notes, etc., by 
M. H. Liddell. 1903, etc. 

The text is surrounded by 
a grammatical commentary. 
So far only Macbeth has ap- 

The King's Shakespeare. 1904, 

At present the Sonnets only 
have appeared^ with an intro- 
duttion by Mrs. S topes. 

The Shakespeare Head Edition. 
Stratford- on - Avon y 1904, 

The first edition of Shake- 
speare printed in his native 
place. Produced by Messrs. 
A. H. Bullen and F. Sidg- 


WORKS continued. 
The Works of Shakespeare. 
1905, etc. 

In Methuens Standard 
Library, edited by Sidney Lee. 


Shakespeare's Comedies, His- 
tories and Tragedies, etc. 

The Clarendon Press fac- 
simile of the First Folio. Pho- 
tographically reproduced from 
the Duke of Devonshire's 
(formerly the Roxburghe) copy, 
and edited with an elaborate 
bibliographical introduction 
and a Census of 158 copies by 
Sidney Lee. 

The National Shakespeare. A 
facsimile of the text of 1623. 
Illustrated. 3 vols. 1904. 

Not really a facsimile, but a 
page for page reprint. Pre- 
tentious and bad. 

Mr. William Shakespear's 
Comedies, Histories, and 
Tragedies, etc. 1905. 

A facsimile of the Third 
Folio, produced by Messrs. 

Mr. William Shakespear's 
Comedies, Histories, and 
Tragedies, etc. 1904. 

Alessrs. Methuen' s fac- 
simile of the Fourth Folio, 
uniform with that of the Third. 

[Venus and Adonis, Lucrece, 
the Sonnets, the Passionate 
Pilgrim, Pericles.] 5 vols. 

The Clarendon Press photo- 

graphic facsimiles. These five 
works, excluded from the First 
Folio, supplement the 1 902 fac- 
simile of that work. Edited by 
Sidney Lee, with a careful in- 
troduction and a census of 
copies to each volume. The copies 
chosen for reproduction are as 
follows: f^enus and Adonis, 
Lucrece, Sonnets, and Peri- 
cles, Bodleian, Passionate Pil- 
grim, Britwell. These five 
quartos, with the Folio, form 
a most valuable basis for study, 
both in the text and the biblio- 
graphy of Shakespeare. 
The Works of William Shake- 
speare, according to the Or- 
thography and arrangement 
of the more authentic quarto 
and folio versions. 1904, etc. 
The Old Spelling Shake- 
speare" Edited by Dr. Furni- 
vall and published by Mr. 
Moring. At present Loves 
Labor Lost only has appeared. 


From a large number of edi- 
tions, many of which are de- 
signed for school use, the follow- 
ing have been selecJed: 
The Sonnets of Shakespeare. 
With an introduction and 
notes by H. C. Beeching. 

In the ' Athen&um Press 
Series' The editor's sane and 
comprehensive introduction sur- 
veys the controversies raised by 
the Sonnets, and in particular 
controverts the theory that they 


were either instruments of 
adulation or literary exercises. 

Sonnets. 1904. 

A very pretty edition of the 
text, produced^ for lovers of 
poetry rather than students, at 
the Astolat Press. 

The Poems and Sonnets of 
Shakspere. With an intro- 
duction by E. Dowden. 

A Book of Shakespeare's Songs, 
with musical settings by vari- 
ous composers. The whole 
arranged and decorated by 
Edward Edwards. 1903. 

Shakespeare's Songs, with draw- 
ings by H. Ospovat. 1901. 

The Tempest. Illustrated by 
R. Anning Bell. 1901. 

Marina: a dramatic romance. 
Being the Shakespearian por- 
tion of the tragedy of Peri- 
cles. Edited by S. Wellwood. 

The same selection as that 
by Mr. F. G. Fleay in the 
< New Shakspere Society Trans- 
aflionsj but adhering more 
closely to the original texts. 


Neue Shakespeare Btthne. Her- 
ausgeber: E. Paetel. 1903, 

Shakespeare dramen. (' Romeo 
und Julia," Othello,' < Lear,' 
4 Macbeth '). Nachgelassene 
Ubersetzungen von O. Gild- 
ermeister, herausgegeben von 
Dr. H. Spies. 1904. 

Vischer, Friedrich Theodor. 

The third) fourth and fifth 
volumes of this work contain 
German translations of the 
text and commentaries upon 
Othello, King Lear, King John, 
Richard //, Henry IF, 
Henry 7, Henry FI, Richard 
III, and Henry VIII. 

Antonius en Cleopatra. Ver- 
taling van Dr. E. B. Koster. 

Antoine et Cle"opatre: traduit 
en vers francais. 1904. 

The translator, M. Leon 
Morel, here follows up his ver- 
sions of Macbeth and Henry 


Hamlet. . . . Refundido y 
adaptado a la escena espanola 
por L. Lopez-Ballesteros y 
F. Gonzalez Liana. 1903. 

Julius Casar. . . . mit Einleit- 
ung und Anmerkungen ver- 
sehen von J. Resch. 1905. 

Le Roi Lear. Traduit de Shake- 
speare. 1904. 

A prose translation by Pierre 
Loti and Emile Fedel. 

Theatre du Peuple, Bussany, 
Vosges. 8 spe&acle, 1902. 
La Tragedie de Macbeth de 
Shakespeare. Traduite par 
M. Pottecher. [1902.] 

Macbeth. Traduclion nouvelle 
et littrale, avec une preface 
et des notes, par C. Demblon. 

Macbeth. Adaptacion, ... a 
la escena espanola, hecha di- 
re&amentede ingle's por J. de 
Elola. 1904. 

I 7 2 


TRANSLATIONS continued. 

De Koopman van Venetie . . . 
Vertaling van Dr. E. B. 
Koster. [1904.] 

Othello. Texte critique avec la 
traduftion en regard par A. 
Beljame. 1902. 

M. Beljame published trans- 
lations of Macbeth in 1897, 
and of Julius Caesar in 


Otello. Traduzione di 

L. E. Tettoni. 1901. 

La Fierecilla domada. Version 
castellana de A. de Vilasalba. 

Vol. XV of the 'Teatro 
Antiguo y Moderno.' 
Les Deux Gentilshommes de 
VeVone. 1902. 

A translation by M. OH- 

Hamleto, regido de Danujo. 
Tradukis L. Zamenhof. 
Paris , 1902. 

A version In Esperanto. 
La Tentego de Shakespeare. 
Tradukita de Ach. Motteau. 

The Tempest. Also in Espe- 

Richepin, J. Falstaff. Piece 
imite"e de Shakespeare. 1904. 


Hazlitt, W. C. Shakespeare. 

A study of his private and 
literary life. 

Hessen, R. Das Leben Shake- 
speares. . . . 1904. 

Popular , but carefully writ- 

Lambert, D. Cartae Shake- 
speareanae. A chronological 
catalogue of extant evidence 
relating to the life and works 
of William Shakespeare. 

Lee, Sidney. Shakespeare's 
Career. 1904. 

In the author's ' Great Eng- 
lishmen of the Sixteenth Cen- 

Rolfe, W. J. A Life of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare. 1905. 

Controverts Mr. Lee's theory 
of the Sonnets, and deals at 
some length with the other poems. 

Corbin, J. A new Portrait of 
Shakespeare. The case of the 
Ely Palace painting. 1903. 

Contends 'that the so-called 
Droeshout original is probably a 
fabrication, and the Ely paint- 
ing a life-portrait of Shake- 

Elton, C. I. William Shake- 
speare, his Family and Friends. 

Posthumously published essays 
towards an exhaustive life and 
criticism of Shakespeare, which 
was never completed. 

Emery, M. E. B. Was not 


Shakespeare a gentleman ? 


Contending that Shakespeare 

was of the family of Pembroke. 
Gray, Joseph W. Shakespeare's 

marriage, his departure from 

Stratford, and other incidents 

in his life. 1905. 
Stopes, Mrs. Charlotte C. 

Shakespeare's Family. 1901. 
The True Story of the 

Stratford Bust. A contem- 

porary likeness of Shake- 
speare. 1904. 

Reprinted from the 'Monthly 
Review. 9 
| Yeatman, J. Pym. The Gentle 
Shakspere. 1904. 

Published by the < Shake- 
speare Society of New Tork,' and 
proving to the satisfaction of the 
author that the poet was a 
Catholic, and wrote his own 


Bradley, A. C. Shakesperean 
Tragedy. Lectures on Ham- 
let, Othello, King Lear, Mac- 
beth. 1904. 

An acute and suggestive an- 
alysis of Shakespeare's view af 
Tragic Life. The best critical 
work on Shakespeare recently 

Brooke, Stopford A. Ten Plays 
of Shakespeare. 1 905 . 

The ten plays are : A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream y Ro- 
meo and Juliet, Richard II, 
Richard III, The Merchant of 
Venice, As You Like it, Mac- 
beth, Coriolanus, A Winter's 
Tale, The Tempest. 

Campbell, Lewis. Tragic Drama 
in Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Shakespeare. 1904. 

A careful study of essentials 
in Tragedy as they appear in 
the Greek and English Drama. 

Canning, the Hon. Albert. 
Shakespeare studied in eight 
plays. 1903. 

A popular exposition of 
Troilus and Cressida, Timon 
of Athens, Julius Caesar, 
Antony and Cleopatra, Rich- 
ard III, Henry VIII, King 
Lear, and A Midsummer 
Night's Dream. 

Collins, J. Churton. Studies in 
Shakespeare. 1904. 

Chiejly remarkable for the 
essay on ' Shakespeare as a 
Classical Scholar, reprinted 
from the Fortnightly Re- 

Eichhoff,Theodor. Shakespeare's 
Forderung einer absoluten 
Moral. 1902. 

Commentaries, with the En- 
glish text and a translation (by 
Emil Wagner) on Venus and 
Adonis and Lucrece : fol- 
lowed by essays on ' Shakespeare 
und die Mathematik ' and 
'Shakespeare's Ehe.' An attempt 
to define Shakespeare's personal 

Eichhoff, Theodor. Unser 



CRITICISM continued. 
Shakespeare. Beitrage. 1903- 

Four parts, containing Essays 
on the Texts of Romeo and 
Juliet and the Comedy of Er- 
rors, an introduction to Shake- 
sperean study, and an elaborate 
examination of the Sonnets. 

Engel, E. Shakespeare Ratsel. 

Seven papers, of no great 
importance, but reasonably and 
pleasantly written. 

Fleming, W. H. Shakespeare's 
Plots. 1902. 

The Laws of dramatic con- 
struction illustrated from Mac- 
beth, the Merchant of Venice, 
Julius Caesar, Twelfth Night 
and Othello. 

Gelber, A. An der Grenzen 
zweier Zeiten. 1902. 

Papers on Shakespeare as a 
thinker and a humanist. 

Kohler, Professor J. Verbre- 
cher-Typen in Shakespeare's 
Dramen. 1903. 

The villainy of Shakespeare's 
villains is here carefully classi- 
fied and pigeon-holed. 

Mauerhof, E. Shakespeare 
Probleme. 1905. 

Three Essays : c Lady Mac- 
bethj < Briefe iiber Hamlet,' 
and c Othello die Tragodie der 

Moulton, R. G. The Moral 
System of Shakespeare. 1 903. 

Opitz, H. William Shakes- 
speare als Charakter-Dichter. 

Hamlet, Lear, Othello. 

Sander, G. H. Das Moment 
det letzten Spannung in der 
englischen Tragodie bis zu 
Shakespeare. 1902. 

Sarrazin, G. Kleine Shake- 
speare Studien. 1902. 

One of the c Beitrage zur 
romanische und englische Phi- 
lologiej consisting of two papers 
on the Merry Wives of 
Windsor and the Lover's 

Stubbs, C. W., Dean. The 
Christ of English Poetry. 
The Hulsean Lectures, 1904- 
1905. 1906. 

Lefture III, deals with 
Shakespeare's attitude towards 

Wolff, Max J. William Shake- 
speare. Studien und Aufsatze. 

Alfonso, N. R. d'. Lo Spirit- 
ismo secondo Shakespeare. 

Burgess, W. The Bible in 
Shakespeare. [1903.] 

Carter, T. Shakespeare and 
Holy Scripture, with the ver- 
sion he used. 1905. 

Parallel passages, showing 
Shakespeare's familiarity with 
the Genevan Bible. 

Conrat, H. J. La Musica in 
Shakespeare. 1903. 

From the Rivista Musicale 

Douse, T. le M. Examination 
of an old Manuscript pre- 
served in the Library of the 


Dukeof Northumberland, etc. 

Discovered at Alnwick in 
1867, and here attributed to 
the hand af 'John Davies^ of 

Elson, L. C. Shakespeare in 
Music. A collation of the 
chief musical allusions in the 
plays, etc. 1901. 

Franz, W., Professor. Die 
Grundziige der Sprache 
Shakespeares. 1902. 

Green, B. E. Shakespeare and 
Goethe on Gresham's Law 
and the Single Gold Standard. 

Hartmann, S. Shakespeare in 
Art. 1901. 

Holmesworthe,L. Shakespeare's 
Garden. 1903. 

Kiihne, W. Venus, Amor and 
Bacchus in Shakespeare's 
Dramen. Ein medicinisch- 
poetische Studie. 1902. 

Lippmann, E. O. Von. Natur- 
wissenschaftliches aus Shake- 
speare. 1902. 

Lucy, Margaret. Shakespeare 
and the Supernatural : a brief 
study of folklore, supersti- 
tion, and witchcraft in c Mac- 
beth,' ' Midsummer Night's 
Dream,' and ' The Tempest.' 

Mantzius, Karl. Engelske 
Theaterforhold i Shake- 
speare-Tiden. 1 90 1 . 

A dissertation on the Lon- 
don Stage in the time of Shake- 
speare. Part of the author's 
' Skuespilkunstens Historic? 

Mauntz, A von. Heraldik in 

Diensten der Shakespeare- 
Forschung. 1903. 

Phin, J. The Shakespeare Cy- 
clopaedia and New Glossary. 

Schulz, E. G. H. Das Ver- 
kleidungs-Motiv bei Shake- 
speare. 1904. 

Wilson. W. Shakespeare and 
Astrology. 1903. 


Gray, Robert. The True Ham- 
let of William Shakespeare. 

Chambers, D. L. The metre of 
Macbeth. 1903. 

Places the date at about 1 606. 
With a table for twenty-six 

Porter, Charlotte, and Clarke, 
Helen A. Shakespeare Studies. 
Macbeth. 1901. 

With extracts from Holin- 
shed, Eellenden^ Reginald Scot, 
and Gelding's Ovid. 

Stasov,V.V. Uber Shakespeares 
Kaufmann von Venedig und 
das Shylok-Problem. 1905. 

A translation from the Rus- 

Leonetti, RafFaele. La Desde- 
mona di Shakespeare. 1903. 

Acheson, A. Shakespeare and 
the Rival Poet . . . proving 
the identity of the patron and 
the rival of the Sonnets [with 
the Earl of Southampton and 
George Chapman]. 1903. 

Wilde, Oscar. The Portrait 
of Mr. W.H. 1901. 



ETC. continued. 
Reprinted from Black- 
wood's' of July, 1889, by 
Mosher. A fanciful story, of 
great literary merit, urging that 
'Mr. W. H? was a young 
a ft or named Will Hughes. 

M., J. Shakespeare self-revealed 
in his * Sonnets' and 'Phoenix 
and Turtle.* The texts with 
an introduction and analyses 
by J. M. 1904. 

Creighton, Dr. C. Shakespeare's 
Story of his Life. 1904. 

An attempt to find auto- 
biography in the Sonnets and 
the Tempest. In the former the 
Herbert theory is supported. 

Jacobson, H. William Shake- 
speare und Kathchen Minola. 

A study of The Taming of 
the Shrew. 

Schomberg, E. H. The Taming 
of the Shrew. Eine Studie zu 
Shaksperes Kunst. 1904. 

Heft 2O of c Studien zur 
englischen Philologie? 

Robertson, J. M. Did Shake- 
speare write * Titus An- 
dronicus'? 1905. 

The play is here taken from 
Shakespeare and given to Peele 
and Greene as author 
at least revisers. 

IOTS or 


Bobsin, O. Shakespeare's 
Othello in englischer Btih- 
nenbearbeitung. 1904. 

Brodmeier, C. Die Shakespeare 
Biirme nach den alten Buh- 
nenanweisungen. 1904. 

Burmeister, O. Nachdich- 
tungen und Buehnenein- 
richtungen von Shake- 
speare's Merchant of Venice. 

Cserwinka, J. Shakspeare und 
die Buhne. 1902. 

Eichhoff, T. Der Weg zu 
Shakespeare. 1902. 

Chiefly an exposure of for- 
geries by J. P. Collier. Re- 
viewed in ' The Library? 

Hannmann, F. Dryden's trag- 
odie 'All for Love or the 
World well Lost' und ihr 
VerhSltnis zu Shakespeare's 
' Antony and Cleopatra.' 

Koppel, E. Studien tiber Shake- 
speare's Wirkung auf zeit- 
genossische Dramatiker. 

Vol. 9 of the series c Mate- 
ralien zur kunde des alteren 
englischen Dramas? 

Lounsbury,T.R. Shakespearean 
Wars. i. Shakespeare as a 
Dramatic Artist, ii. Shake- 
speare and Voltaire. 2 vols. 

c The Tale Bicentennial 
Publications? A chronicle of 
Shakespearean controversies. 

Redard, E. Shakespeare dans 
les pays de langue fran^aise. 

Trentel, C. Shakespeares Kauf- 
mann von Venedig in fran- 
zosischer Buhnenbearbeitung. 


Uhde-Bernays, Hermann. Der 
Mannheimej Shakespeare. 
Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 

der ersten Shakespeare-Uber- 
setzungen. 1902. 

Heft 25 of the c Litter ar- 
historische Forschungen.' 


Anders, H. R. D. Shakespeare's 
Books. A dissertation on 
Shakespeare's reading and 
the immediate sources of his 
works. 1 904. 

Vol. I of the < Schriften ' of 
the * Deutsche Shakespeare 
Gesellschaft. Originally in- 
tended as an introduction to a 
revised edition of Collier and 
Hazlitt's 'Shakespeare's Li- 
brary^ which the Society hopes 
to produce. Altogether a most 
useful work. 

Jung, Hugo. Das Verhaltnis 
Middleton's zu Shakespeare. 

Heft 29 of the ' Munch ener 

Lanier, S. Shakespeare and his 
Forerunners. 1902, etc. 

Lee, Sidney. Foreign Influences 
on Shakespeare. 1904. 

In the author's ' Great Eng- 
lishmen of the Sixteenth Cen- 

Mascetta-Coracci, L. Shake- 
speare e i class ici italiani. 
A proposito di un son- 
etto di Guido Guinezelli. 

Root, R. K. Classical Myth- 
ology in Shakespeare. 1903. 


No. iqoft Tale Studies in 

Schelling, F. E. The English 
Chronicle Play. A study in 
the popular historical litera- 
ture environing Shakespeare. 

Emphasizing the indigenous 
growth and national spirit of 
the Historical Drama. 
Thorndike, A. H. The In- 
fluence of Beaumont and 
Fletcher on Shakespeare. 

Arguing with great force^ 
first that Shakespeare's change 
from tragedies to romances is to 
be accounted for by the contem- 
poraneous production of the 
Beaumont- Fletcher romances; 
and second^ that these latter 
definitely influenced Cymbeline y 
A Winter's Tale^ and the 

Evans, M. B. Der Bestrafte 
Brudermord : sein Verhaltnis 
zu Shakespeare's Hamlet. 

Bode, Emil. Die Lear-Sage vor 
Shakespeare, mit Ausschluss 
des alteren Dramas und der 
Ballade. 1904. 


Perrett, W. The Story of King 
Lear from Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth to Shakespeare. 1904. 
Palaestra, No. 35. 

Kroger, E. Die Saga von 
Macbeth bis zu Shakspere. 

Palaestra, No. 39. 

Holleck-Weithmann, F. Zur 
Quellenfrage von Shake- 

speares Lustspiel * Much Ado 
about Nothing.' 1902. 

Chiefly by comparison with 
"Jakob Ayrer^s ^Comedia von 
der schoner PhaniciaJ and 
Michael Kongeht's 'Die vom 
Tode erweckte Phonicia, Tra- 
gico Comoedia* 

Heft 3 of the < Kieler Studien 
zur Englischen PhilologieS 


Bodleian Library, Oxford. The 
Original Bodleian copy of the 
First Folio of Shakespeare 
(The Turbutt Shakespeare). 
[By F. Madan, G. M. R. 
Turbutt, and Strickland Gib- 
son. With 7 plates.] 1905. 

Greg, W. W. Capell's Shake- 
speareana. A Catalogue of 
the Books presented by Ed- 
ward Capell to the Library 
of Trinity College in Cam- 
bridge. 1903. 

Phin, J. Shakespeare Notes and 
New Readings. 1905. 

Prolss, R. Von den altesten 
Drucken der Dramen Shake- 
speares, und dem Einflusse 
den die damaligen Londoner 
Theater und ihr Einrich- 

tungen auf diese Dramen 
Ausgeiibt haben. 1905. 

Smith, C. A. The Chief Dif- 
ference between the First and 
Second Folios of Shakespeare. 

Smith, A. R. A Handbook In- 
dex to those Characters who 
have speaking parts assigned 
to them in the First Folio. 

Thiselton, A. E. Some Tex- 
tual Notes on * Measure for 
Measure.' 1901. 

Some Textual Notes on 

' A Midsummer Night's 
Dreame.' 1903. 

Two Passages in Shake- 
speare's ' The Life of Tymon 
of Athens ' considered. 1 904. 





Bayley, Harold. The Tragedy 
of Sir Francis Bacon. 1902. 
Attributing the Renaissance 
in general and Shakespeare s 
plays in particnlar to the Rosi- 

[Begley, Walter.] Is it Shake- 
speare? The great question 
of Elizabethan literature. 
Answered in the light of new 
revelations and important 
contemporaryevidence hither- 
to unnoticed. By a Cam- 
bridge Graduate. 1903. 

Bompas, G. C. The Problem 
of the Shakespeare Plays. 

As might be expected from 
its authorship, this book is 
much more judicious than most 
in this seffion. 

Bormann, E. Das Drama 
Henry VIII von Francis 
Bacon-Shakespeare. [With 
the text.] 1902. 

300 Geistesblitze und An- 

deres von und iiber Bacon- 
Shakespeare - Marlowe, etc. 

Die Kunst des Pseudo- 
nyms. 1901. 

Das Lustspiel der kauff- 

mann von Venedig von 
Francis Bacon-Shakespeare 
Ubersetzt und eingeleitet 
von E. Bormann. 

Der Shakespeare-Dichter. 

Wer wars? und wie sah er 

aus? Eine Uberschau alles 
wesentlichen der Bacon- 
Shakespeare-Forschung, etc. 

A survey of the controversy 
from the Baconian point of 

Gallup, Mrs. Elizabeth. The 
Tragedy of Anne Boleyn. A 
drama in cypher found in 
the works of Sir Francis 
Bacon. [1901.] 

Holzer, G. Bacon Shakespeare 
der Verfasser des 'Sturms,' 
etc. 1905. 

Lewis, G. P. The Shakespeare 
Story: an outline. 1904. 

Reed, Edwin. Bacon and 
Shakespeare Parallelisms. 

Francis Bacon our Shake- 
speare. 1902. 

Stotsenburg, J. H. The Shake- 
speare Title. 1904. 

Sutton, Rev. W. A., SJ. 
The Shakespeare Enigma. 


Theobald, R. M. Shakespeare 

Studies in Baconian Light. 

Ashurst, R. L. Contemporary 
Evidence of Shakespeare's 
Identity. 1903. 

No. 5 of the Publications of 
the Shakspere Society of Phila- 



Calvert, A. F. Bacon and 
Shakespeare. 1902. 
With portraits, etc. 

Gervais, F. P. Shakespeare not 
Bacon. Some arguments 
from Shakespeare's copy of 
Florio's Montaigne in the 
British Museum. 1901. 

Marriott, E. The Bi-literal 
Cypher. 1901. 

Rowlands, J. Shakspere still 
enthroned. [1903.] 

Sullivan, Sir E., Bart. Verula- 
mania : some observations 
on the making of a modern 
mystery, etc. 1904. 

No. 49 of the Privately 
Printed Opuscula of the Sette 
of Odd Volumes. 

Willis, W., Judge. The Shake- 
speare-Bacon Controversy. 

Willis, W., Judge. The Bacon- 
ian Mint: its claims examined, 
etc. 1903. 


Dawbarn, C. Y. C. Bacon- 
Shakespeare Discussion, etc. 

Reed, Edwin. Noteworthy 
Opinions, Pro and Con. 
Bacon vs. Shakspere. 1905. 

Neutral in substance^ but 
the author adds a Baconian 
note at the end. 

Webb, T. E., Judge. The 
Mystery of William Shake- 
speare, etc. 1902. 
Judicial in form. 

Wilde, J. P., Lord Pen- 
zance. Lord Penzance on the 
Bacon-Shakespeare Contro- 
versy, etc. 1902. 

In the form of a judicial 
summing up. 



HAT contributions do the municipal 
libraries make to the reading and study 
of Shakespeare? The question is a 
pertinent one at a time when it is 
rather the fashion to decry the rate- 
supported libraries. 

The Shakespeare collection in the Birmingham 
Reference Library leaps at once to the mind as an 
answer. This great collection of world-wide fame 
is national rather than local. Yet the fad: remains 
that it owes its completeness to municipal effort and 
support. True, the idea of a Shakespeare library 
for the great industrial capital of Shakespeare's 
native county did not originate with the municipal 
council. Mr. Sam Timmins and Mr. George Daw- 
son, both residents of Birmingham, were the origin- 
ators. But it was the encouragement given to the 
projedl by the Birmingham Libraries Committee 
which enabled the idea to be realized. And, when 
the first Shakespeare library of 7,000 volumes was 
destroyed by fire in 1879, the Libraries Committee, 
with the help of the community, set ardently to 
work to replace it. Not only was no time lost, but 
the new collection rapidly surpassed the old in the 
range and importance of its contents. With the four 
folios amongst its numerous treasures, the Birming- 


ham Shakespeare collection of over 1 2,000 volumes 
is a magnificent instance of what a municipal library 
can accomplish. 

Still, what Birmingham has done is not an answer 
to the question. Shakespeare's is the greatest name 
in English literature, and if the municipal libraries 
neglect him they plead guilty, to some extent at 
least, to the charge so loudly made, that they do 
little to encourage the reading of the best books. 

In order to be able to give something like a re- 
liable statement of the fa6ls, I addressed letters of 
inquiry to about twenty librarians, and have received 
in reply a body of information which is suggestive 
and full of encouragement. 

Birmingham is the only municipal library which 
can boast of possessing a copy of the first folio, but 
Lambeth and Liverpool have copies of the second, 
third and fourth folios ; Manchester has the second 
and fourth, and the Cambridge municipal library 
has the 1607 issue of the * Sonnets/ One or other 
of the reprints of the first folio are to be found in 
many of the libraries, but only eight appear in the 
list of subscribers for the Clarendon Press facsimile, 
a number disappointingly small, but it is probable 
that some copies found their way to municipal 
libraries through the booksellers. American public 
libraries are proverbially richer, and more ener- 
getic in their support of such enterprises, but 
America also only contributes eight public libraries 
direct to the list. 

Birmingham is not the only municipal library 
which has made a point of Shakespeare literature. 
There is a Shakespeare Memorial Library in the 


Free Library of Cambridge, comprising over a 
thousand volumes, brought together and presented 
by Mr. Henry Thomas Hall, who thus stated his 
reasons for making the collection : ' The works of 
Shakespeare reflecft the highest honour on the country 
of his birth. They have had great influence in the 
formation of the English character, and are now 
exerting still greater influences, for they are being 
more extensively used than ever. The constant 
springing up of fresh editors and the frequent pub- 
lication of new editions of his works demonstrate the 
great afti vity of though t and research which marks the 
Shakespearean literature of the day. To collect and 
preserve the works of such an author is a labour that 
each town possessing a Free Library should engage 
in, for by so doing they will afford every lover of 
his race an opportunity of making himself acquainted 
with the great poet of humanity, and at the same 
time promote the eredlion of the noblest monument 
to his genius whose * powerful rhyme ? shall c out- 
live the gilded monuments of princes/ To assist in 
the fulfilment of this work is the objecSt of the 
Cambridge Shakespeare Memorial Library.' 

Birkenhead also has given special attention to the 
subjedt and boasts of about eight hundred volumes, 
including several fine scrap books and volumes of 
mounted pamphlets. Liverpool and Manchester 
have each about seven hundred volumes in their 
Reference Libraries, and from Leeds, Plymouth, 
Wigan and many other places come reports of col- 
lections ranging from a couple of hundred volumes 

The Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth is not 


only the proud owner of three of the folios, but its 
library is the depository of about five hundred vol- 
umes of works by and about Francis Bacon and the 
Bacon-Shakespeare question. These were a gift from 
a believer in the Bacon-Shakespeare heresy. It is 
certainly a convenience to have so large a contribu- 
tion deposited in one centre, and students of Bacon 
should find it useful, apart from any controversial 

Turning to the lending departments of the 
libraries, it is quite clear that there is no dearth of 
opportunity for those who desire to borrow texts, 
or who wish to pursue the study of the plays with 
the aid of commentaries. As regards opportunity 
for the readers, the municipal libraries make an 
excellent show. Reports as to the use made of the 
opportunities vary. Mr. Folkard, Librarian of 
Wigan, writes that in the reference library an 
average of about twenty-five volumes per week are 
called for, chiefly editions of the text. At Aberdeen 
the Variorum and Henry Irving editions, together 
with Bartlett's Concordance, are kept on open 
shelves in the reference library, and are in continual 
use. In the lending department of the same library 
one hundred and seventy-six separate loans of texts of 
the works were made last year, in addition to numerous 
loans of books about Shakespeare, of which the details 
are not supplied. These replies from two centres 
totally different in chara&er may be taken as ex- 
amples of many others. There is, however, another 
kind of reply, not so encouraging, which seems to 
imply that there is need for some awakening on the 
subjeft. There are societies for the study of Browning, 


and Dickens, and Omar Khayyam, but the promo- 
tion of the study of the greatest of all writers awaits 
the revivifying touch of some organization. To 
bring the great mass of readers to a knowledge of 
his works would be the greatest monument that 
could be raised to the genius of Shakespeare. 

In various parts of the country local societies 
already exist at Bristol and Clifton several Shake- 
speare Reading Societies are at work on private 
lines. Nottingham has a branch of the British 
Empire Shakespeare Society for reciting and read- 
ing plays. At Worcester the authorities of the 
Public Library have formed two circles to encour- 
age the reading and study of Shakespeare. These 
circles have been in existence for the last six years, 
number about one hundred and twenty members, 
and meet in the Committee room of the Library 
twice in each week during the winter months. In 
April next the members propose to stage 'The 
Merchant of Venice ' for six nights at the local 
theatre. An even more firmly established ' Society 
of Shakespeare Lovers ' is associated with the Public 
Library of Dundee. For fifteen years this Society 
has met weekly in one of the rooms of the Institu- 
tion for the systematic study of Shakespeare's works. 
Papers, discussions, and readings, with an occasional 
open night when friends are invited and a whole 
play read through by the members, make up the 
proceedings. Mr. Maclauchlan, the librarian, adds, 
* I interpret your letter as meaning that there is 
some movement to promote the systematic study of 
Shakespeare in Free Libraries, at which I greatly 


Ledtures on Shakespeare have from time to time 
been given in many of the libraries, and short lists 
of books suitable for the general reader have been 
printed and circulated. 

The municipal libraries can further extend and 
encourage the reading and study of Shakespeare 
amongst the masses. For a very small sum of money 
every library could print and circulate amongst its 
readers a slip containing a list of the texts, com- 
mentaries, biographies, and other works available, 
and, perhaps, a brief note on the pleasure and profit 
to be derived from the study of Shakespeare. If 
some well-known Shakespearean scholar could be 
persuaded to write a suitable note introducing the 
subject, it would meet with general acceptance. 
Libraries having volumes suitable might arrange a 
small exhibit in the library in the month of April. 
Such an exhibition was held in the Manchester 
Reference Library in April, 1905. The Clarendon 
Press and other facsimiles of the folios and quartos 
invariably arouse interest when so exhibited, especi- 
ally if accompanied by a short descriptive note 
clearly written. 

The books in the following list should find a 
place in every public library, though in the case of 
the numerous editions of the text a selection must, 
of course, be made in accordance with each library's 


Globe Edition. Ed., W. Aldis Wright. Macmillan, 

y. 6d. 
Oxford Edition. Ed., W. J. Craig. Frowde, 2s. 


Leopold Edition. Introd. by F. J. Furnivall. 

Cassell, 3.;. 6d. 
Alexander Dyce's Edition. 10 vols. Sonnenschein, 

4J-. 6d. each. 
Edinburgh Edition. Ed., W. E. Henley and 

Walter Raleigh. 10 vols. G. Richards, 2os. each. 

Remainder price about 3 the set. 
Eversley Edition. Ed., C. H. Herford. 10 vols. 

Macmillan, 4^. 6d. each. 
Cambridge Edition. Ed., W. Aldis Wright. 9 vols. 

Macmillan, los. 6d. each. 
Arden Edition. Gen. Ed., W. J. Craig. 40 parts 

(16 published). Methuen, 2s. 6d. each. 
Larger Temple Edition. Ed., J. Gollancz. 1 2 vols., 

illustrated. Dent, 4^. 6d. each. 
Students' Edition. Ed., A. W. Verity. Cambridge 

Press, 2s. 6d. or 3^. each. 

One play to each volume. Three published. 
Variorum Edition. Ed., H. H. Furness. 15 vols. 

published. Lippincott, i8j. each. 


Sonnets. Ed., E. Dowden. K. Paul, 3*. 6d. 
Poems. Ed., Geo. Wyndham. Methuen, icu-. 6d. 
Elizabethan Sonnets. Introd. by S. Lee. 2 vols. 

(Arber's English Garner). Constable, 4^. net 

per vol. 


Elze, Karl. William Shakespeare. Bonn's Lib. 
Bell, 1.. 


Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O. Outlines of the Life of 
Shakespeare. 2 vols. Longman, 2is. 

Lee, Sidney. A Life of William Shakespeare. 
Smith Elder, js. 6d. 

The same. Abridged edition. Smith Elder, 2s. 6d. 

Rolfe, W. J. A Life of William Shakespeare. 
Duckworth, los. 6d. 


Bradley, A. C. Shakespearean Tragedy. Mac- 

millan, los. net. 
Brandes, Geo. William Shakespeare, a Critical 

Study. Heinemann, los. net. 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Leftures and Notes on 

Shakespeare, etc. Bonn's Lib. Bell, 3^. 6d. 
Courthope, W. J. A History of English Poetry, 

Vol. IV. Macmillan, los. net. 
Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare. Literature Primers. 

Macmillan, is. 
Dowden, Edward. Introduction to Shakespeare. 

Blackie, 2s. 6d. 
Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare, his Mind and Art. 

K. Paul, i2s. 
Gervinus. Shakespeare Commentaries. Smith 

Elder, 14^. 

Hazlitt, William. Literature of the Age of Eliza- 
beth and Characters of Shakespeare's Plays. 

Bohn's Library. Bell, 3J-. 6d. 
Hudson, H. N. Life, Art, and Characters of 

Shakespeare. 2 vols. Ginn and Co., 8s. 6d. each. 
Jameson, Mrs. Shakespeare's Heroines. Bell, 2s. 

net. Illustrated edition, Bell, 6s. 


Morley, Henry, and Prof. Griffin. English Writers. 

Vols. IX-XI. Cassell, 5*. per vol. 
Moulton, Richard G. Shakespeare as a Dramatic 

Artist. Clarendon Press, js. 6d. 
Ransome, C. Short Studies of Shakespeare's Plots. 

Macmillan, %s. 6d. 
Seccombe, Thos., and J. W. Allen. The Age of 

Shakespeare. 2 vols. Bell, js. 
Symonds, J. A. Shakespeare's Predecessors in the 

English Drama. Smith, Elder, js. 6d. 


Abbott, E. A. A Shakespearean Grammar. Mac- 
millan, 6s. 

Bartlett. A Shakespeare Concordance. Macmillan, 
2 is. net. 

Dyce, Alexander. Glossary to the Works of Shake- 
speare. Sonnenschein, js. 6d. net. 

The new edition, edited by Professor H. Littledale, has 
been arranged for use with any edition of the text. 

Hazlitt, W. Carew, ed. Shakespeare's Library. 6 
vols. Reeves and Turner, 25^. 

Out of print. Contains plays, romances, novels, poems, and 
histories used by Shakespeare. 

Madden, D. H. The Diary of Master William 
Silence. Longmans, i6j". 

A study of Shakespeare and Elizabethan sport. 

Publications of the Shakespeare Society. 

New Shakespeare Society. 

1 90 


The following books should also, if possible, be 
added when the foregoing have been supplied. 

Collins, J. Churton. Studies in Shakespeare. Con- 
stable, js. 6d. 

Fleay, F. G. Shakespeare Manual. Macmillan, 
4J-. 6d. 

Stokes, H. P. The Chronological Order of Shake- 
speare's Plays. Macmillan, 4^. 6d. 

Out of print, may be bought second hand. 

Swinburne, A. C. A Study of Shakespeare. Chatto, 

Ulrici, Hermann. Shakespeare's Dramatic Art. 2 
vols. Bonn's Library. Bell, js. 

Ward, A. W. History of English Dramatic Litera- 
ture. 3 vols. Macmillan, 36^. net. 

Craik, Geo. L. The English of Shakespeare. Chap- 
man and Hall, 5^. 

Dodsley's Old English Plays. Ed., W. Carew Haz- 
litt. 15 vols. Reeves and Turner, los. 6d. each. 

Out of print, second hand cost 5 or 6. 

French, G. R. Shakespeareana Genealogica. Mac- 
millan, 15^. 

Out of print. Notes on dramatis personae, characters, and 
the Shakespeare and Arden families. 

Hazlitt, W. Carew, ed. Fairy Tales, Legends, and 
Romances, illustrating Shakespeare. John Pear- 
son, 6s. 

Manley, J. M., ed. Specimens of the Pre-Shake- 
spearean Drama. Vols. I and II. GinnandCo., 
$s. 6d. per vol. 


Pollard, A. W. English Miracle Plays, Moralities, 

and Interludes. Frowde, js. 6d. 
Skeat, W. W., ed. Shakespeare's Plutarch. Mac- 

millan, 6s. 
Stone, W. G. Boswell, ed. Shakespeare's Holin- 

shed. Lawrence and Bullen, 15^. net. 

The facsimiles of the quartos and folios, and the 
Variorum edition of Dr. Howard Furness should 
also be acquired by every library. Where funds are 
not available, an effort should be made to acquire 
them by outside help. 




HE Works of Francis Beaumont and 
John Fletcher. Vol. I. The Text 
edited by Arnold Glover. Cambridge 
University Press, 1905. 

By far the most important work 
whichThe~Cambridge University Press has yet un- 
dertaken in the field of English literature is the 
edition of Beaumont and Fletcher in ten volumes, 
which is to appear in the series of ' Cambridge 
English Classics.' The misfortune which befel the 
project in January, 1905, in the death of the editor, 
whose work on Hazlitt and Johnson had made his 
name familiar to English scholars, led to some in- 
evitable delay; but thanks to the zeal shown by 
Mrs. Glover and by Mr. A. R. Waller, to whose 
care the completion of the work has been entrusted, 
the difficulties have been overcome, and the first 
volume has at last appeared. 

Since the first announcement of the undertaking 
in June, 1904, there has been some speculation 
among students as to the probable features of the 
edition, and all will have welcomed with interest 
the first instalment. The text selected for repro- 
duftion is that of the folio of 1679, and of this it 
has been sought to give as exact a reprint as pos- 
sible. The degree of accuracy attained is, indeed, 
remarkable, and argues great care on the part of all 


concerned. The closer the reader compares the re- 
print with the original, the greater will be his sense 
of its fidelity, and the more he knows of such work 
the greater will be his appreciation of the labour 
involved. It is, of course, primarily a question for 
the readers of the press, and these appear to have 
discharged their task in an exemplary manner. 
That in a book of this size oversights should occur 
was only to be expedted, and to say that they do not 
detract from the value of a work, whose first aim is 
accuracy of detail, would be foolish; but they are 
so slight, and of such rare occurrence as to be hardly 
appreciable. If some are noticed here it is rather 
with the desire to put the present editor on his 
guard against possible sources of trouble than from 
any wish to detract from the merits of the volume. 
In the first place, one or two of the editorial rules 
seem ill-advised. Thus : c It has not been thought 
necessary to record . . . the substitution of marks 
of interrogation for marks of exclamation and vice 
versa.' But in the seventeenth century the use of 
these points by no means always followed the 
modern practice, and though the printing was some- 
times careless, to alter them without specific notice 
is unjustifiable. Nor has the modernization been 
carried out consistently. In the line (p. 9) : * How 
dull and black am I?' a point of exclamation has 
been substituted, though the query-mark is quite 
correct according to the old usage; while elsewhere 
(p. 267), 'Take heed? ' has been allowed to stand, 
though the point is a mere misprint. So also, where 
the mark of interrogation appeared unnecessary, it 
has been silently replaced by a full point (as twice 



on p. 268). How closely it was intended to adhere 
to the typographical peculiarities of the folio is not 
clearly stated, nor does the practice appear to be 
altogether uniform. In the earlier sheets an attempt 
was made to follow the original in its confusion of 
roman and italic punctuation, but this proved too 
much for the editorial vigilance, and in the later 
plays the practice was abandoned. Other deviations 
are rare, though they occur now and then, as on 
p. 93, where, in 1. 17, a comma is omitted after 
' these' and in 1. 20 an apostrophe before ' tis.' 

Of course, the most difficult problem to be faced 
was the treatment of misprints. The rule laid down 
is admirable: to correct only evident misprints and 
to indicate all such corrections by the use of brackets. 
But the practice is hardly consistent. On p. 1 1 we 
have ' mid-[n]ight' for 'mid-might,' but in the 
very next line ' them ' is retained in place of ' thee,' 
literally without either rime or reason. Similarly, 
on p. ii 8, the obvious misprint, 'dowcers ' is quietly 
accepted, and on p. 119 the equally impossible 
' Haunces.' On p. 164 ' Panthe ' is allowed to stand 
for ' Panthea.' Such oversights, however, are greatly 
preferable to any undue tampering. 

Rather less satisfactory than the reprint itself is 
the collation of the quartos. The transcripts of the 
title-pages contain a number of small inaccuracies. 
On p. 449 occurs a more serious error. After the 
title of the 1651 quarto of the 'Scornful Lady,' is 
the note: 'The British Museum copy lacks the 
printer's device on the title-page possessed by the 
other copies seen; it varies also slightly in spelling, 
etc.' This copy belongs, of course, to a distinct 


edition, and the failure to recognize this fa6t throws 
out the numbering of the quartos from this point. 
What is chiefly to be regretted, however, is that 
the readings of the quartos are not more fully re- 
corded. One instance must suffice. On p. 1 8 occurs 
the line: c To bed then let me wind thee in these 
arms.' This is ambiguous, the sense varying accord- 
ing as a pause is made before or after ' then.' It is, 
therefore, eminently a case in which we require the 
readings of the quartos; but none are given. It may 
be remarked that the text of 1641, at least, reads 
6 To bed, then ' in opposition to Dyce. These are, 
however, for the most part, trifling errors in a big 
work, and printer and editor alike deserve com- 
mendation for the manner in which they have dis- 
charged their respective tasks. 

There is, unfortunately, another matter which 
calls for discussion; the choice, namely, of the folio 
of 1679 as the text to be reproduced. That the 
folio, with its outward uniformity, its fairly con- 
sistent practice of spelling and punctuation, offered 
certain conveniences to an editor is obvious. There 
was, however, the further question whether it 
offered a sufficiently satisfactory text to be worth 
reproducing, and this question must be emphatic- 
ally answered in the negative. The editor may, 
however, be absolved of responsibility in this con- 
nefrion. Not only is the choice of a single publica- 
tion as the basis of the text consistent with the 
method adopted in other works in the series of 
* Cambridge English Classics,' but the real reason 
which governed the choice is too patent to be ig- 
nored. Granted that some early edition was to be 


followed, it was only by taking for reproduction the 
second folio, a working copy of which can be ob- 
tained for about the price at which the Cambridge 
edition is published, that a reprint could be pro- 
duced at the popular price intended, and a popular 
price was necessary because it had to compete with 
an elaborate and expensive edition which had al- 
ready been for some years in preparation. 1 We 
have of late become familiar enough with the cheap 
reprint of the popular publisher, which is often very 
useful; an academic press issuing such a work and 
announcing it as a scientific edition is a novelty. As 
for the defence in the preface of the text adopted it 
is mere special pleading which will deceive nobody, 
and the fat that variants are given (though great 
difficulties are put in the way of reference, through 
the lines not being numbered) in no way excuses 
the offering to readers a hopelessly corrupt text. 
How bad that text is will become apparent when 
we consider the history of the plays in question. 

Any work the folio may contain by either of 
the authors mentioned on the title-page must have 
been written by 1625. By the closing of the 
theatres in 1642 seventeen of the plays had been 
published in quarto, and in 1647 thirty-four other 
plays had been collected into a folio volume. One 
further play was published as a supplement to the 
folio in 1652. Thus in the case of thirty-five plays 

1 In the ' Introdu&ory Note' is the remark: 'During the pro- 
gress of work upon the present issue another edition has been 
announced, under the general editorship of Mr. A. H. Bullen, and 
the first volume was published last year.' The implication is 
erroneous. Mr. Bullen's edition has undoubted priority of incep- 
tion as well as publication. 


the text of 1679 is based on the previous folio; in 
that of seventeen on previous quartos, and in most 
cases on the latest and most corrupt. It is no won- 
der that editors have bestowed little praise upon 
this text, and there is no evidence in support 
of the view put forward in the present reprint that 
its c failings ' have been in any way ' exaggerated.' 
Equally imaginary are the c advantages ' for details 
of which the reader is artlessly referred to the ori- 
ginal booksellers' preface. The worthlessness of 
such advertisements is notorious, and the present 
specimen is so patently mendacious as to lose all 
semblance of authority. The publishers there 
claim to have printed from a copy of the 1647 
edition of the plays in which ' an ingenious and 
worthy Gentleman ' had ' Corrected several faults 
(some very gross) which had crept in by the fre- 
quent imprinting of them.' Yet they must have 
known as well as we do that the plays in that 
edition were all printed for the first time. The 
plays which had become almost unrecognizable in 
the late quartos through c the frequent imprinting 
of them ' they made no attempt to corre<5t. So 
again they mention the addition of lists of all 
dramatis personae, though in the case of five plays 
none appears. Their claim to have added ' several 
Prologues and Epilogues ' is another deliberate lie. 
So much for the authority of the 1679 text when 
based on the earlier folio. 

To illustrate the use made of the quartos take 
such a play as the c Elder Brother.' Of this five 
quartos were printed between 1637 and 1678, and 
they exhibit a pretty constant and pretty thorough 


debasement of the text. Most noticeable is the fal 
that whereas the first quarto prints the play correftly 
as verse, the last re-arranges the whole as prose. 
The folio follows this last quarto, and the Cambridge 
Press has pinned its faith on the folio. The result 
is that, if in future volumes the editors adhere to 
the practice of the present, the whole of the quarto 
text of the c Elder Brother' will have to be printed 
in the appendix, simply because the utterly worth- 
less text of 1679 is followed in the body of the 

From the prospectus of Mr. Bullen's edition the 
preface to the present reprint quotes the opinion 
that * for the use of scholars, there should be edi- 
tions of all our old authors in old spelling/ This 
is perfectly true, but it in no way justifies the present 
venture. The modern scholar demands a text with 
unsophisticated spelling, not because there is any 
mystic virtue in an old spelling text, but because 
any deviation from the earliest authoritative edition 
may involve the alteration of the text as it actually 
left the hand of the author. The Cambridge Press 
has adopted a text which is separated from the 
earliest procurable in many cases by half, in no case 
by less than a quarter of a century, and which con- 
tains the accumulated errors of from two to seven 
more or less careless compositions. The spelling of 
1679 may be old spelling for us to-day, but it is 
not the spelling of 1625, and it is this, or the 
nearest approach obtainable, that is of interest to 
students of Beaumont and Fletcher. Thus though 
editor and printer will receive deserved recognition 
of their careful work, the scheme as a whole can 


bring no credit to the Cambridge Press in quarters 
where English scholarship is the serious concern 
of students. 

W. W. GREG. 

POSTSCRIPT. Since the above was written the second volume 
has appeared. As was anticipated, the verse text of the * Elder 
Brother' has been reprinted in the appendix: what could hardly 
be foreseen was that Mr. Waller, who is apparently the responsible 
party, would selecl one of the later quartos for the purpose. The 
edition, which he has chosen to call A, bears, indeed, the date 
1637, equally with another edition, which he calls B. Not only, 
however, is it perfe6tly clear from the readings that A was printed 
from B, and not vice versa, but no one familiar with seventeenth 
century typography can help suspecting from the style of the print- 
ing that the date is a fraud and that the volume was in fadl issued 
somewhere between 1650 and 1660! W. W. G. 


Venus and Adonis, 1593: Lucrece, 1594: The 
Passionate Pilgrim, 1599: Shakespeare's Sonnets, 
1609: Pericles, 1609: reproduced in facsimile 
from the earliest editions, with introductions by 
Sidney Lee. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1905. 

If Mr. Lee has kept us waiting for his work, the 
work has proved well worth waiting for. The in- 
troduftions to the various poems reproduced form 
a monument of Shakespearean criticism of the first 
importance. No doubt, belief in all Mr. Lee's 
theories cannot be held necessary to literary salva- 
tion, nor can he claim to have said the last word on 
any of the innumerable and difficult problems with 
which he deals, but so far as the patient collection 
and collation of evidence is concerned his work 
may reasonably be accepted as final. 


The work of reproduction has been carried out 
to perfection by the Oxford Press, and the whole 
get up of the work in any of the various styles in 
which it is issued is most attractive. Besides the 
regular facsimiles, the title-pages of numerous later 
editions have been reproduced, to illustrate the very 
full bibliographies appended to the introductions, 
though it is a little difficult sometimes to follow 
the principle on which the choice has been made. 
We miss particularly the c Venus and Adonis ' of 
1594, though except for the date this agrees closely 
with the 1593 title-page, and the 'Poems' of 
1640. The title-pages given are reproduced for the 
most part in half-tone, and it has unfortunately 
been found necessary on this account to roll certain 
sheets, which makes the surface of the paper very 
unpleasant. The difficulty could have been obviated 
by reproducing the title-pages in collotype, which is 
a more satisfactory process from every point of 

The tale of ' Venus and Adonis ' is traced with 
minute care from its obscure origins in Eastern 
mythology through the lost ritual songs of the 
early days of classical Greek literature and the 
earliest extant poems relating to the subject, the 
work of Alexandrian idyllists, to its later treatment 
at the hands of Roman, Italian, French, Spanish 
and English writers. Exactly how much of this 
literature Shakespeare knew it is difficult to de- 
termine, but Mr. Lee thinks that an acquaintance 
can be shown with some at least of the Italian 
work. The point in which Shakespeare's poem 
stands more or less alone is the insistance on Adonis' 


coyness, which becomes the main feature of the 
tale. This was not invented by Shakespeare, since 
both Greene and Marlowe are explicit enough 
upon the point, but he was the first so far as is 
known to develop the suggestion. Mr. Lee thinks 
that Shakespeare developed Marlowe's hint, with 
the help of the tale of Salmacis and Hermaphro- 
ditus. Given the hint, Shakespeare would hardly 
need any assistance but that of his own imagination; 
but it is likely enough that the influence of the 
other Ovidian myth had made itself felt at an 
earlier period, and probably in some Italian or 
Latin work which has so far eluded search, for 
Greene as well as Marlowe has to be reckoned 
with, and as Mr. Bullen has pointed out, ' Titian's 
famous picture in the National Gallery affords 
sufficient proof that Shakespeare was not the first 
to depidl Adonis' coldness.' Another story to which 
Shakespeare probably owed something is that of 
' Glaucus and Scilla,' as told by Lodge in 1589, 
though the degree of dependence implied in Mr. 
Lee's remarks is but indifferently borne out by the 
parallels quoted. 

The literary history of the story of Lucretia is 
traced with similar fulness through Livy, Ovid, 
St. Augustine, the ' Gesta Romanorum,' Boccaccio, 
Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, Bandello and other 
writers. In treating of Shakespeare's sources Mr. 
Lee contends that the chief indebtedness was to 
Ovid, a smaller obligation is allowed to Livy, while 
Bandello, whose novel was accessible and probably 
read in a French translation, may have supplied 
occasional hints. Further, it is shown that Shake- 


speare owed something tangible alike in treatment, 
incident and phrasing to Daniel's ' Rosamond/ and 
in a far less degree here and there to Constable's 
c Diana.' In the same manner, when we turn to 
the ' Passionate Pilgrim,' we not only find an 
ample account of all the known circumstances 
attending that literary venture, but also a minute 
history of each of the twenty-one poems it con- 

It is, of course, in dealing with the c Sonnets ' that 
Mr. Lee is on the most controversial ground. His 
views are in general too well known to need setting 
forth in this place, and it will be sufficient to say 
that he has collected a good deal of fresh evidence 
in support of his contentions, though that does not 
necessarily mean that he has always proved his case 
to the satisfaction of his critics. Certainly as a basis 
for the poet's biography, the ' Sonnets ' are about as 
unsatisfactory as possible. The so-called autobio- 
graphical interpretation, which would make these 
poems the direct and truthful record of the inmost 
secrets of the poet's heart, ignores both the condi- 
tions of poetic creation and the mental attitude of a 
great dramatist. But Mr. Lee's interpretation is 
properly no less c autobiographical.' The question 
between him and Canon Beeching, for instance, is 
not as to whether or not the c Sonnets ' relate to 
aftual circumstances of the poet's life, but whether 
they reflect the affection and friendship he bore to 
certain unnamed persons, or his sycophantic court- 
ing of a patron. Certainly the self-possessed and 
manly tone of the addresses to Southampton makes 
it difficult to believe in the hysterical adulation 


which the adoption of the second alternative pre- 
supposes. But the critic of the ' Sonnets ' is not 
bound to accept either of these views, nor yet, in 
its entirety, the theory that they are merely literary 
exercises on imaginary situations. Mr. Lee has him- 
self demolished the idea that any authority attaches 
to the arrangement of the c Sonnets ' in the first 
edition. Each individual poem, or each obviously 
connected group, must stand on its own feet. Some 
may perhaps be, what Mr. Lee imagines, mere 
flattering addresses to a patron Southampton, 
Pembroke, or another. Others again may be the 
exact reproductions of Shakespeare's own feelings 
inspired by actual events, while yet others may be 
mere imaginative exercises. Most likely of all, per- 
haps, the majority partake in ever varying and un- 
defined degrees the characteristics of both these 
latter classes. Mr. Lee supports his ' patron ' theory 
with much ingenuity and resource. The instances 
quoted in his ' Life of Shakespeare ' as illustrating 
the ' love ' of poets for their patrons, have, however, 
been shown by Canon Beeching to be quite incon- 
clusive, and it is to be expefted that, in spkc of the 
numerous fresh examples here brought forward, 
many readers will still fancy that they detect, be- 
tween the verses of these literary retainers and 
Shakespeare's ' Sonnets,' a difference not of art and 
imagination merely, but of intention and inspiration 
as well. In treating of the mysterious dedication, 
Mr. Lee is on firmer ground, and his unwearying 
efforts in search of parallels to every phrase it con- 
tains have met with a fuller measure of success. The 
William Hall theory has been relegated to a note, 


which serves at once to clear the main issue and ren- 
der the general contention less open to criticism. 
This certainly appears to be the most satisfactory 
or the least unsatisfactory explanation yet advanced, 
and a provisional acceptance of it will do far less 
harm than coquetting with any of the more sensa- 
tional theories. At the same time it may be well 
to point out that Mr. Lee has hardly realized the 
force of the contention that the phrase ' the eternitie 
promised by our ever living poet ' is both pointless 
and far fetched unless the person addressed is the 
person to whom it had been promised, and also that 
in contending that ' begetter ' cannot have the force 
of ' inspirer ' he appears to be advancing beyond the 
limit warranted by the fafts. 

The same elaborate care characterizes the treat- 
ment of the literary history of' Pericles.' The chief 
interest of this introduction, however, is biblio- 
graphical, and in this aspecft the work is perhaps 
not quite so satisfactory. Mr. Lee repeats his former 
assertion that the play was excluded from the col- 
lecflion of 1623, 'either owing to Pavier's unreadi- 
ness to part with his interest, or to suspicions on the 
part of the editors of the first folio as to the 
authenticity of the piece.' With regard to the first 
part of this statement, it has been already pointed 
out when reviewing Mr. Lee's former work, that 
Pavier's edition was purely surreptitious, and that 
whatever rights there were really belonged to Blunt, 
who was one of the folio syndicate. Moreover, it 
is hard to believe that Pavier should have refused 
in the case of c Pericles,' leave which he granted in 
that of 2 and 3 ' Henry VI.' By the c editors of 


the first folio/ are presumably meant Heminge 
and Condell, but to what their ' editing ' amounted 
is quite unknown, though the exclusion of the 
present play may suggest that it was merely nom- 

Although far from exhausting the many points 
of interest which arise in connection with Mr. Lee's 
work, the above remarks will perhaps suffice to in- 
dicate its importance. It is safe to say that no Shake- 
spearian student, whatever may be his opinions with 
regard to particular theories, can afford to negleCt 
these essays, or can read them without the greatest 
interest and profit. There are, however, certain 
matters of detail which Mr. Lee may perhaps be 
induced to reconsider should an opportunity of re- 
vision occur. It is whispered that the introduction 
to the folio facsimile may possibly be reprinted in 
book form ; it is to be hoped that if that is to be 
the case, the present introductions to the poems and 
' Pericles ' will not be omitted. 

One danger of the enthusiast into which*Mr. Lee 
has fallen is that of seeing Shakespeare everywhere. 
Thus he makes Southwell deplore, 'from the 
Christian point of view, the pagan frankness ' of 
' Venus and Adonis.' He gives no reference, so that 
it is difficult for the reader to ascertain whether or 
not Southwell anywhere alludes to Shakespeare's 
poem, but the lines quoted about ' 'stilling Venus' 
rose' obviously apply to amatory verse in general, 
and have no direCt bearing upon the;subje<5t in hand. 
Poor Barnfield cannot even copy some lines of Ovid 
into a commonplace book without being supposed 
to have Shakespeare's ' Lucrece ' in mind ; nor can 


Sidney give the name of Pyrocles to a chara<5ter of 
his romance without being thought to have suggested 
to Shakespeare the name of Pericles. Meres, it 
should be remarked, though he evidently ranked 
Shakespeare first among contemporary dramatists, 
did not call him, and very likely did not regard him 
as, c the greatest poet of his era/ Two rather serious 
slips must also be mentioned here. One is the mis- 
translation, on two occasions, of a common Italian 
word. c Stagione ' does not mean c spot ' or ' trysting- 
place,' but c season.' The other relates to the sources 
of Shakespeare's plots. c Bandello's collection of 
tales/ we read, c either in the original Italian, or 
in the French translation, was the final source of the 
plot of ... "Hamlet." Of course Mr. Lee knows 
as well as anyone that the Hamlet story is not found 
in Bandello, but in Saxo Grammaticus, and was 
thence borrowed by Belleforest, whose collection is 
only in part a translation of Bandello, but it is 
certainly to be desired that greater care should be 
taken to avoid confusions of this kind. 

Perhaps the most serious point on which a reader 
may feel disposed to quarrel with Mr. Lee is a 
textual one, one lying on the borderland between 
the critical and the typographical. This is the 
strange persistance with which he seeks to impose a 
purely arbitrary standard of orthography, to import 
an idea of uniformity into sixteenth-century spelling 
which simply did not then exist, and to stigmatize 
whatever will not conform to his ideas as a misprint. 
Many of the forms cited as errors of the press, or 
as * Spelling eccentricities which are scarcely to be 
differentiated from misprints ' were perfectly recog- 


nized, and are supported by the best authorities. 
Thus ' ghesse ' is merely an Italianate, as c guess ' is 
a Gallicized form, and it would have required pro- 
phetic powers in a sixteenth-century printer to 
know which would commend itself to the judge- 
ment of a Shakespearean critic of the twentieth; 
c prease ' is a genuine phonetic variant of c press/ 
and often rhymes with c peace,' as in Sidney's famous 
sonnet. The same applies to 'randon'; while the 
form' Ay,' which Mr. Lee would substitute for 'I,' 
is so rare as itself to be almost incorrect ; and ' y ' have,' 
in Sonnet CXX., is, as the spacing shows, not an 
error for, but a correction from 'you have.' There 
is a curious misunderstanding where Mr. Lee says 
that ' Brackets are wrongly introduced in, 

But since your worth (wide as the Ocean is) 
The humble as the proudest saile doth beare. 

(Son. 80.) 

The brackets merely stand for commas, as in the 
examples Mr. Lee has cited just before; the sense 
being c since your worth which is wide as is the 
ocean,' not, as he evidently took it, 'since your 
worth is as wide as the ocean.' Worst of all, how- 
ever, is the inclusion among ' confusing misprints ' 
of ' sounding ' and ' sound,' for c swooning ' and 
' swoon ' respectively. They are, of course, perfectly 
correct and recognized forms, which occur over and 
over again in Elizabethan works. That a leading 
Shakespearean scholar could be guilty of such an 
oversight as this is an awful warning against the 
complacent manner in which we habitually modern- 
ize and mutilate old texts. 


A few miscellaneous points may be mentioned. 
As evidence of the carelessness of the compositor of 
the 1 609 ' Sonnets/ we are informed that ' The 
initial " W " of Sonnet LXXIX is from a wrong 
fount/ The remark is a little unhappy, for there 
are at least thirty-six cases of an initial wrong fount 
in the ' Sonnets/ many of them far more glaring 
than that selected by Mr. Lee for the pillory. 
The date of c Mucidorus ' is wrongly given as 1595 
instead of 1598. The John Harrison who printed 
the 1600 edition of c Lucrece ' is said in one place 
to have been the son, in another the grandson, of 
the holder of the copyright. It is implied that the 
' Whole Contention ' is wanting in the Capell copy 
of the ' Pericles ' volume of 1619, whereas the parts 
have merely been bound up in the wrong order. A 
well-known bookseller of Charing Cross Road is 
erroneously referred to as ' Mr. Bertram/ There is 
also a certain sprinkling of misprints though they 
are of no great importance. The attribution of a 
' Ghost Hunting Coney Catchers ' to Greene is the 
most serious. Lastly, we must protest most strongly 
against such atrocities as ' catalogve/ ' novveavx/ 
' Lavrence/ and c Ddiv/ 

These may be small points, but accuracy is always 
desirable, even when one is writing on Shakespeare, 
and if the remarks offered above facilitate the re- 
moval of certain defeats from a useful and generally 
admirable work they will not have been made in 

W. W. GREG. 



JEW books of note on Shakespeare, or 
on matters connected with him, have 
appeared of late on the Continent. But 
the adting of him in the theatres, 
especially of Germany, is as frequent 
as ever (nine hundred and thirty-five representations 
of twenty-four plays of Shakespeare by one hundred 
and eighty-six theatres were given last year), and 
that does more perhaps to keep him alive than fifty 
volumes of criticism or controversy. German critics 
have been exercising their minds over the platform 
stage, and such books as Brodmeier's ' Die Shake- 
speare-Biihne nach den alten Biihnenanweisungen/ 
and Proelss's ' Von den altesten Drucken der 
Dramen Shakespeares ' have been much discussed 
in England. I came lately across a curious Russian 
book by Vladimir Vasilevich Stassov on ' Shake- 
speare's Merchant of Venice and the Shylock Pro- 
blem.' The author maintains that Shakespeare's 
charadters are not, as most critics will have it, all 
Englishmen, but that he differentiates nationalities 
in a marvellous way, and nowhere more than in the 
characters of Shylock or Othello. His remarks on 
the characters of ' The Merchant of Venice ' are 
most depreciatory. He considers them, vulgarly 
speaking, c a poor lot ' with the exception of Shy- 
lock, who is the only respectable, manly person in 



the piece. On him injustice is heaped by the others, 
who consider themselves just. Shakespeare, accord- 
ing to this critic, knew that things were always so 
in this world, and desired to show it. Stassov com- 
pares the Merchant with Tolstoy's c Power of 
Darkness' for a picture of human wickedness, 
stupidity, and prejudice. There is a German trans- 
lation of this strange work. 

The second volume of Heinrich Bulthaupt's 
c Dramaturgic des Schauspiels ' deals with Shake- 
speare, and contains some suggestive criticism. 
' Shakespeare- Vortrage,' Vol. VI, by the late Fried- 
rich Theodor Vischer, contains the Roman plays, 
and brings the series to an end. There is a full index 
of the whole work, which, it will be remembered, 
gives the text of the play in what Vischer considered 
the best German translation, with the comments 
critical and verbal made by him as he read the 
plays with his students in class. 

# * # # # 

It is difficult to decide how to deal with Gerhart 
Hauptmann's new play, ' Und Pippa tanzt.' It is a 
sort of fairy drama of happiness, and belongs to the 
same class as ' Die Versunkene Glocke.' But al- 
though even there the inner meaning takes some 
trouble to trace, it can be found, and the melodious 
verse lends an unspeakable charm to the whole. 
The new play is a somewhat incoherent phantas- 
magoria from which it is not easy to unravel the 
very slight thread of story and allegory the poet 
intends us to seize. It is in prose, with one or two 
lapses into verse of a not specially distinguished 


The first aft however is extremely good. The 
scene is a tavern in the Silesian mountains, the 
resort of the glassmakers who work in a neighbouring 
faftory. They are drinking and playing cards, warm 
and comfortable, forgetting the icy winter outside. 
Pippa, the daughter of an Italian glass-blower, a 
warm-blooded girl who turns the heads of the 
Germans, is made to dance for their pleasure. A 
quarrel arises over the cards, and her father is 
stabbed to death. In the confusion, Huhn, a former 
glass-blower, a sort of Tiermensch, carries Pippa off 
to his ruined hut. Thither she is followed by a 
wandering glassmaker, Michel Hellriegel, who is 
so clever that he understands everything except 
what reality means. He is the enthusiast, the 
dreamer, who will never reach anything in a practi- 
cal way, the poet with a longing for the sun; his 
imagination finds the most miraculous happenings 
perfectly reasonable. If he is hungry and cold, his 
fancy makes him declare that he has suffered no- 
thing, lost nothing, and he goes on triumphing to- 
wards the enchanted castle promised him in his 
childish dreams. He kisses Pippa, they escape 
together from Huhn's clutches, only to fall later 
into those of Wann, the astronomer and magician. 
Wann knows and foresees everything, brings Huhn 
and Pippa to their death, blinds Michel, and in 
that condition, after much needless instruction in 
the art of dreaming, sends him forth to further 
wandering. Beginning as realistic drama, continu- 
ing as a fairy tale, and ending as a moral lesson, 
the story defies analysis. Pippa is doubtless 
meant to be winged imagination and hope, the 


wish that is never fulfilled, except in the artist's 
dream. For Huhn she is the flame that every glass- 
blower seeks; for Michel she means a glimpse into 
the beauty of this world. Work like this, if really 
great, if really fulfilling its aim, must be, as it always 
is in the hands of a master, clear and comprehensible. 
One lays down the book of Hauptmann's drama 
with a feeling of bewilderment, and a strong desire 
to grapple next with something very real and quite 

A certain class of writers expend themselves on 
one delightful book and then seem unable to do 
anything else. In ' The Letters that never reached 
Him ' the Baroness von Heyking achieved a well- 
deserved success, and I turned eagerly to her new 
volume, ' Der Tag Anderer'; to my disappoint- 
ment I found a volume of short stories (nothing, as 
usual, indicating that the volume was not filled 
with one tale), of no great distinction. The title 
story has a theme in great vogue just now. A 
mother, still young and a widow, whose marriage 
had been loveless and unhappy, refuses the chance 
of a second and happier marriage because she fears 
the criticism of her daughter, aged seventeen, the 
girl in question being herself comfortably engaged 
to the son of an American millionaire. It strikes 
us as an absurd and useless sacrifice of the happi- 
ness of two persons, but curiously enough, in all 
these cases the woman seems to think only of her- 
self and never of the man. Another story, c Gewe- 
sen' (the past), has some of the charm of the 
author's first book. The scene is Mexico: the 
milieu diplomatic. A woman meets again, after 


many years of a loveless marriage with a wealthy 
diplomat, the lover of her youth, now a distin- 
guished traveller and explorer. Her mother, a 
worldly, ambitious woman, had contrived to sepa- 
rate them on account of his poverty and lack of 
position. Now they met again: but what was the 
use 'of it? She was not of those women who are 
disloyal to their husbands, and so there was nothing 
left to the lover of her youth but to go away. 

' Der Goldene Ring/ the first story in Ernst 
Heilborn's c Ring und Stab: zwei Erzahlungen,' is 
a study in the difficult art (or should it be science?) 
of platonics (in this case the experiment ends in 
marriage and does not remain exadtly platonic up 
to that consummation), so loved of the German 
soul. Berthold is the ordinary selfish man of refined 
tastes and susceptibilities who only begins to realize 
how much he loves Gertrud, when he has, as he fears, 
lost her for ever. Gertrud, a teacher in a high school 
in Berlin, was a rigid sort of person, and we never 
quite see how she could have had any charm for 
Berthold. It must, however, have been great, for, 
to salve her conscience, she set down certain rules 
for their intercourse. She insisted on paying her 
own share of the expenses of their common amuse- 
ments, and as she was poor (he was very well off) 
he had to be content with travelling third class on 
their Sunday outings into the country, with cheap 
seats at the play, with tramcars instead of cabs, and 
with third-rate restaurants and confectioners. She 
would also accept no gifts from him except flowers 
for her room, and would not consent to dress to 
please him. Her clothes were never pretty, and 


the green woollen petticoat displayed every time 
she lifted her skirts to cross a road or enter a 
tramcar offended his aesthetic taste. When a friend 
of hers becomes engaged, Gertrud almost envies 
her the conventionalities of a public betrothal. 
The story is, however, very well told, and interests 
as such stories do, but it is not so good as a similar 
study by Gabriele Reuter, 6 Der Lebenskunstler,' 
or as a short story by Sudermann in the volume 
entitled ' Im Zwielicht.' 

c Le Bel Avenir,' by Rene Boylesve, is the only 
recent French novel that calls for any detailed 
notice. It is a study of the education of three 
young men. Alex, accompanied by his widowed 
mother, comes from a quiet country house near 
Poitiers to Paris to study law. He is an average 
young man, of pleasant manners, and a general 
favourite, but wholly unintelleftual. He leads the 
usual life of a Paris student, fails in his examina- 
tion, and, having sown his wild oats, makes a 
sensible marriage, i.e. 9 chooses a wife with a dot^ 
returning to the quiet country life he left as a boy. 
Paul, the son of a Parisian, a friend of Alex's 
mother, is a type of the prig, and Hilaire, the son 
of a woman of the lower class, a protege of Alex's 
mother, a type of the youth who profits by his 
opportunities. There are many side issues, but the 
start in life of these young men is the main theme. 
It is well presented, simply, straightforwardly, 
almost without comment from the author. Perhaps 
the most sympathetic character is that of the little 
grisette who loved Alex so unselfishly. 


The story of ' Julie de Lespinasse ' is as, if not 
more, fascinating than any novel. But never has it 
been so well or so fully told as in the Marquis de 
Segur's just published volume. The book is a 
monument of careful research. Many fresh sources 
have been explored, and much unpublished mate- 
rial of importance brought to light. Not only 
Mile, de Lespinasse, but the persons with whom 
she was most closely connected, are treated in great 
detail, and we derive incidentally a picture of the 
society and the times in which she lived. We feel 
her charm, and study with ever fresh interest the 
psychological problem of a woman passionately 
and sincerely in love with two men at the same 
time, one of whom died of consumption, and the 
other married some one else. The author has ad- 
mirably succeeded in his aim of placing his heroine 
in her right atmosphere, in grouping c Autour 
d'elle les gens de son entourage habituel, d'insister 
particulierement sur ceux qui exercerent une aftion 
sur sa destinee.' Thanks to documents placed at 
his disposal, he has for the first time drawn a full- 
length portrait of M. de Mora, Julie's Spanish 
lover. Indeed, all the passages in her life which 
have hitherto seemed obscure, are made quite clear 
here by documentary evidence, and thus the Mar- 
quis de Segur's book must remain the definitive 
one on the subject. Every one knows the main 
facts of the story of Julie de Lespinasse. Without 
birth, fortune, or beauty, by the charm of her 
mind and heart alone, she became the friend of 
d'Alembert, and created a salon that was frequented 
by the most distinguished persons of a brilliant 


epoch. It was not until the publication, five-and- 
thirty years after her death, of her letters to Gui- 
bert, that those of her friends who were still alive 
knew that she had been the viftim of a burning 
and devouring passion for him. Every one had 
believed that her strange moods and the alteration 
in her health were caused by the death of her 
first lover, M. de Mora. Her relations with d'Alem- 
bert, who took up his abode with her from 1765 
to her death in 1776, were purely platonic, and 
she seems never to have appreciated at its true 
worth his unselfish affedtion for her. Had M. de 
Mora lived, and had she not met Guibert, there 
seems little doubt that Mora would have married her. 
Guibert never really greatly loved her, and though 
at times during their liaison he was carried away 
by the ardour of her passion rather than by that 
of his own, she was not the only woman with 
whom he had relations, and he ended by making 
the conventional French marriage with the usual 
jeunejille. It is one more instance of a woman of 
intellect and charafter wasting her love on a weak, 
worthless man. Even after she comes in some de- 
gree to recognize his true self, she goes on loving 
just the same. 

* I like nothing by halves,' she writes to him, { nothing 
that is indecisive, nothing that is only a little. I pay no 
heed to the talk of the people I meet in society: they 
amuse themselves and yawn : they have friends and love 
nobody. That seems to me deplorable. Yes, I prefer the 
torment which consumes my life to the pleasure which 
deadens theirs. My soul was not made for the petty in- 
terests of society. To love, to suffer, heaven, hell, that is 


what I should devote myself to, that is what I wish to feel, 
that is the climate in which I desire to live, and not the 
temperate one in which the fools and automatons who 
surround us live.' 

Indeed, the soul-drama here laid before us is 
more striking and arresting than anything fiftion 
has to give us : it is life itself stripped of all its 
outer wrappings. And with regard to our judge- 
ment of the heroine of this strange story, we can 
only echo the closing words of the Marquis de 
Segur's admirable book: 

Pour nous qui avons pu suivre jour par jour les phases 
de cette existence tourment6e, et p6netrer profondement 
dans les replis de cette conscience, ne devons-nous pas 
accorder a 1'herome de cette histoire Findulgence qu'on ne 
refuse guere aux creatures humaines dont Fme intime 
nous est connue et qu'il nous est loisible de juger d'apres 
leurs sentiments plus que d'apres leurs a6les? Elle a 
gravement peche sans doute, mais elle a cruellement expie; 
et, si elle a beaucoup souffert, au moins a-t-elle beaucoup 
vecu. Peut-e"tre ne faut-il ni la condamner, ni la plaindre. 

In June, 1904, a Rousseau society was founded 
at Geneva, and there has just been published the 
first c Annales de la Societe Jean-Jacques Rousseau.' 
The objeft of the society, which, by the by, seems 
to have very few English members, is to develop 
and co-ordinate all studies relating to Rousseau, 
his work, and his time; to publish a critical edition 
of his works; to unite under the name of Archives 
yean-yacques Rousseau (after the fashion of the 
Goethe- Schiller Archiv at Weimar) manuscripts, 


printed books, portraits, medals, and all kinds of 
documents relating to Rousseau; to preserve the 
monuments, buildings, and pifturesque sites recall- 
ing Rousseau's memory; and to publish periodic- 
ally a collection of memoirs and documents. The 
hope is expressed that in some ten or twenty years 
the student of Rousseau will go to Geneva with 
the same certainty of finding every source of in- 
formation in the Archives there, as the student of 
Goethe or Schiller now goes to Weimar. The con- 
tents of the first volume of ' Annales ' are of great 
interest, and include, among other things, ' Rous- 
seau et le dofteur Tronchin,' by Henry Tronchin; 
and c Quelques documents inedits sur la condamna- 
tion et la censure de TEmile et sur la condamnation 
des Lettres ecrites de la Montagne.' 

A word may here be fitly said of the excellent 
work being done by the municipality of Paris in 
regard to the history of the city. In 1899 ^ insti- 
tuted a commission, the members of which include, 
besides the municipal councillors, such men as Jules 
Claretie, M. Delisle, members of all the academies, 
notable architects and artists, curators of museums, 
etc., charged c de rechercher les vestiges du vieux 
Paris, de constater leur etat aftuel, de veiller, 
dans la mesure du possible, a leur conservation, de 
suivre, au jour le jour, les fouilles qui pourront etre 
enterprises et les transformations jugees indispen- 
sables, et d'en conserver des preuves authentiques.' 
This is done at the expense of the municipality, 
and volumes of transactions, fully illustrated with 
photographs, are issued at frequent intervals. The 
volumes I have been fortunate enough to see (they 


are not to be purchased), contain an account, for 
instance, of the history of the ancient parish ceme- 
tery of Ste. Marguerite, with eight photographs 
and a facsimile plan of the place as it was in 1763 
and 1790; of the Hotel de Villette, maison mor- 
tuaire de Voltaire in the Rue de Beaune, with five 
photographs; of the Palais de Thermes, preserved 
under the Boulevard St. Michel. The descriptive 
letterpress is by well-known antiquaries. The whole 
forms an admirable historical guide to old Paris. 
Would that something similar were being done for 

In Elie Berger's ' Histoire de Blanche de Castile 
reine de France/ we have one of those fascinating 
historical books of which the French alone seem to 
possess the secret. As the mother of Louis IX 
(St. Louis) for whose education and upbringing she 
is responsible, she has sufficient title to fame. Her 
biographers have generally devoted themselves to 
praising her piety, charity, and courage, and regard 
her chiefly as the mother of a great king. But she 
takes high rank among the founders of French 
national unity, and her policy is even more remark- 
able than her virtues or private qualities. The 
author has made excellent use of all available docu- 
ments preserved either in France, England, or 
Rome, and has produced a work of the highest 
value, and a fine portrait of a great woman. 

11 y a des figures que les siecles n'arrivent pas a detruire ; 
elles semblent grandir a mesure que leur entourage dis- 


paralt par I'adtion fatale de Tindifference et de 1'oubli. La 
reine, Blanche de Castile, qui a travaille, combattu et 
souffert pour la vieille France, que TEspagne nous a donnee 
pour le triomphe de la civilisation, n'est un etrangere pour 
personne, les plus ignorants savent son nom. Cette popu- 
larite posthume, dont beaucoup ne connaissent plus la 
cause, mais que nul ne songe a contester, est la recompense 
des services qu'elle a rendus a sa seconde patrie. 

A book of similar interest is ' Memoires du 
General Marquis Alphonse d'Hautpoul, pair de 
France, 1789-1865,' published by ' son arriere-petit- 
fils ' Estienne Hennet de Souter. D'Hautpoul was a 
soldier, a politician, and a minister; his life was full 
of adventures and great deeds, and as the memoirs 
were never intended for publication, the book is as 
diverting and instructive as an historical novel. It 
is the simple story of the life of an ' homme de 
coeur, loyal soldat et parfait gentilhomme,' traced 
rather with the point of the sword than written 
with a pen. He took part in the Prussian campaign 
of 1789-1808, and in the Spanish, 1808-12. He 
was a prisoner in England, 1812-14. He was Min- 
ister of War, and then of Foreign Affairs, 1849-50. 

Of French books dealing with contemporary his- 
tory the most important is Andre Cheradame's ' Le 
Monde et la Guerre Russo-Japonaise.' It is cer- 
tainly one of the best books on the subject yet pub- 
lished. The first part deals with the complex causes 
of the war; the second contains the essential docu- 
ments relative to the negotiations which preceded 
hostilities, and to the war itself, with a succindt sum- 
mary of the principal events of the struggle; the 
third is concerned with the new situation created 


for every great state of the world by the Russo- 
Japanese conflict. The conclusion gives a sketch of 
the general foreign policy seemingly the best to 
re-establish the equilibrium of forces destroyed by 
the defeat of Russia. The volume is a great con- 
tribution to philosophical as well as to political 

In philosophy two books are worth mention. 
The first, Norero's ' L/Union mystique chez Saint- 
Therese,' is an interesting psychological study. 
Norero maintains that the state of St. Theresa's 
soul is interesting not only to Catholic theologians, 
but also to contemporary psychologists, for she pre- 
sents an example of exact introspection and pene- 
trative analysis. He endeavours to reconcile the in- 
contestable observations of science with the legiti- 
mate affirmations of conscience, and first describes 
the different modes of mystic union in St. Theresa 
from the subjective point of view of her immediate 
consciousness. He then analyzes its principal factors 
from the objective point of view of psychology, and 
lastly tries to appreciate its significance and value 
for the human consciousness. I do not remember 
any other book in which mysticism is treated in so 
scientific a manner, and it has roused much attention 
and interest among leading French and English 

As a nation we are inclined to take a wholly 
practical view of our history and ourselves. It has 
remained for a Frenchman, Jacques Bardoux, to 
write on the psychology of war crises in contem- 


porary England. The most interesting chapters in 
his * Essai d'une Psychologic de 1'Angleterre Con- 
temporaine: Crises belliqueuses ' are those that deal 
with the question of war as revealed in contempo- 
rary literature. The varying and various views of 
Carlyle, Dickens, Ruskin, Froude, Mrs. Browning, 
Tennyson, Kingsley, and later, those of Karl Pear- 
son, Henley, and Kipling, on war and peace are 
very cleverly analyzed. The conclusion, so far as he 
arrives at one, is that the peace-loving views of 
Mrs. Browning, Ruskin, and Dickens gave way to 
contrary forces less exceptional and less permanent. 
The arguments throughout the volume are most 
ingenious, and help us to see ourselves as others see 

The following recently-published books deserve 

c Le Voyage de Sparte.' Par Maurice Barres. 

An impressionist travel book in which we have Sparta as M. 
Barres sees it, not necessarily as it is. He comes to the conclusion 
that Greece is good, and if France through the intermediary of 
Rome is descended from Greece, it is an honourable task to 
defend a civilizing influence on French soil but France, i.e. Lor- 
raine, is best. 

' Sous le Fardeau. Roman social.' Par J.-H. 

A pamphlet-novel dealing with the misery of the lower classes 
of Paris. The hero, a doctor, practising in the poorer quarters of 
the city, has every opportunity of getting acquainted with wretched- 
ness born of poverty and crime. 


'Joseph Dombey, medecin, naturaliste, archeo- 
logue, explorateur de Perou, du Chili, et du Bresil. 
1778-1785. Sa vie, son ceuvre, sa correspondance.' 
Par Le Dr. E.-T. Hamy. 

In the eighteenth century France had a great interest in voyages 
of exploration, and missions were sent out by the government or 
the Academy of Science, or the great trading companies. It was 
Turgot who, at Condorcet's suggestion, sent Dombey to Peru and 
Chili, and this book is a most interesting and full account of the 

' Madame de Charriere et ses amis d'apres de 
nombreux documents inedits, 1740-1805. 2 vols. 
Par Philippe Godet. 

In an unpublished letter to Charles Berthoud in 1808, Sainte- 
Beuve expressed regret that there was not * une Madame de Char- 
riere complete faite en Suisse a Neuchatel.' His wish is now 
realized by Godet's charming book about a charming woman. 
Madame de Charriere was a friend of Rousseau, and wrote delight- 
ful letters. 

< Napoleon et sa Famille.' Vol. VII (1811-1813). 
Par Frederic Masson. 

The continuation of an important contribution to Napoleon 
literature. This volume shows less the influence of Napoleon on 
his family than the influence of his family on him and his work. 
In these years he no longer exalts or degrades his brothers, but 
they become the artificers of his fall, thus proving that Napoleon 
chose and employed bad tools, and made them worse by his con- 
tradictions and weaknesses. 

' Les Druides et les dieux Celtiques a forme 
d'animaux.' Par H. D'Arbois de Jubainville. 

Lectures delivered at the College de France. The book con- 
tains chapters on the conquest of Great Britain by the Gauls, on 
the Druids in Great Britain and in Ireland, on their do&rine in 
regard to the immortality of the soul, on metempsychosis in Ire- 
land, and on the gods taking the forms of animals in the epic 
literature of Ireland. 


* L'argot au XX 6 Siecle. Di6tionnaire Frai^ais- 
Argot.' Par Aristide Bruant. 

A new edition, with supplement. The classical word is given 
with all its various slang equivalents. 

' Theodor Mommsen als Schriftsteller. Ein Ver- 
zeichnis seiner Schriften^Von Karl Zangemeister.' 

A most useful list, arranged chronologically, of Mommsen's 
works from 1837 to 1905, including articles in periodicals, and the 
names of those printed works to which the great historian furnished 
introductions or other matter. There is a full index. 

' Lettres de Catherine de Medecis.' Publiees par 
M. Le Comte Baguenault de Puchesse. Vol. IX. 

This is the last volume of a very valuable work forming one of 
the series in the collection of unpublished documents on the history 
of France, issued under the auspices of the Minister of Public In- 
struction. It contains full indices to the whole work. 

Les elements sociologiques de la morale/ Par 
Alfred Fouillee. 

This book works out still further the new idea that ethics is a 
branch of sociology. 

' Le Reve. Etudes et observations/ Par Marcel 

The author deals in very interesting fashion with the evolution 
of the dream after sleep and with the state of consciousness during 
sleep. A fascinating chapter discusses ' feelings ' in dreams. 

c Critique de la do6lrine de Kant/ Par Charles 
Renouvier (publie par Louis Prat). 

A wonderful criticism of the Kantian philosophy written by a 
man eighty-seven years of age. 


Second Series, 

No. 27, VOL. VII. JULY, 1906. 



S. T. T. L. 

Of him we may say justly Here was one 

Who knew of most things more than any other; 

Who loved all learning underneath the sun, 
And looked on every learner as a brother. 

Nor was this all. For those who knew him knew, 

However far his lore's domain extended, 
t It held its quiet ' Poet's Corner ' too, 

Where mirth and song and irony were blended. 

April 26, 1906. 

ICHARD GARNETT was born at 
Lichfield on the 27th February, 1835, 
and was only three years of age when 
he came from that city to London 
with his father, the Reverend Richard 
Garnett, who in 1838 received the appointment 
of Assistant Keeper of Printed Books in the British 
Museum, in succession to Henry Francis Gary, the 
translator of Dante. 

There can be few now living who remember the 



elder Garnett, but when I first joined the Museum 
Staff in 1870 I learnt from some of my gray-haired 
colleagues that the physical resemblance between 
the father and son was as striking as their intellectual 
kinship. The father, like the son, combined an ex- 
ceptional memory with a critical and acute intellect 
and a kindly and cheerful heart. Richard Garnett, 
whose earliest memories were connected with the 
Library, obtained his appointment to an Assistant- 
ship at the early age of sixteen, on the ist of March, 

Nowadays Assistants are seldom appointed until 
they have passed through the honour schools at one 
of the Universities, and have faced a competitive 
examination of no small strain and stress. The pre- 
sent system, no doubt, works better, as a rule, than 
the old haphazard method of patronage, but in this 
case Sir Anthony Panizzi, to whose influence the 
appointment was due, conferred on the Library one 
of the many benefits for which the Museum has 
cause to remember his name with gratitude. 

Had Richard Garnett, instead of entering the 
Museum as a boy, gone to Oxford or Cambridge, 
his career would probably have been very different. 
He had in him all the makings of an ideal Univer- 
sity Don. The power not merely of acquiring, but 
of imparting knowledge, he possessed in the highest 
degree, and the whole bent of his intellect was aca- 
demic. Had such been his lot, his learning, his wit, 
his wise and pithy utterances would doubtless have 
formed the delight of many a Common Room, but 
it may be questioned whether his influence upon the 
larger world of letters would have been so great as 


circumstances allowed it to become. May it not also, 
without intentional irony, be asked whether his pro- 
found respect for and his extraordinary knowledge 
of Greek and Roman literature would have survived 
the daily round of educational familiarity? It is at 
least curious that of all recent authors none have 
shown a greater or more genuine love of the classics 
than George Gissing and Richard Garnett, neither 
of whom had enjoyed the blessings of a University 

After some years of the usual round of cataloguing, 
through which every assistant in the Library must 
pass, Garnett was appointed to the office of ' Placer 
of Books,' a technical term implying one of the most 
responsible and delightful posts which the Library 
has to offer to a fortunate member of its staff. The 
Museum, as every one knows, possesses no complete 
class catalogue; but the want of this is to some ex- 
tent supplied by the elaborate system of classification 
which divides the shelves of the Library into more 
than seven hundred divisions and sub-divisions. The 
duty of the c Placer ' is to assign to each newly ac- 
quired book its proper position in one or other of 
these divisions, a work which necessarily involves a 
glance at the contents of each volume, and often very 
much more than a cursory glance. Few of those 
who have been so fortunate as to hold this office can 
abstain from a sigh when, in after days of less free- 
dom and greater responsibility, they look back on 
this old peaceful and happy task. 

To Richard Garnett, of all men, such work was 
a perpetual delight. Here, in the quiet recesses of 
the Library, he remained for more than ten years, 


adding day by day to the immense stock of his know- 
ledge, unknown to the world at large, but appreci- 
ated by a growing circle of friends able to under- 
stand and appraise him at his true value. 

In 1875 Dr. Garnett was promoted to the rank 
of Assistant Keeper, and succeeded Dr. George 
Bullen as Superintendent of the Reading Room. 

No greater change could well be experienced in 
the life of an official than to be taken suddenly from 
the peaceful hermitage of the Library and thrust 
into the ceaseless toil of the Reading Room, the 
stock-exchange of literature. The duties of the head 
of this curious room are so varied and contrasted that 
it has been said, not without truth, that the perfect 
Superintendent should combine in his own person 
the qualities which make a gentleman, a scholar, a 
police-constable, and a boatswain's mate. In the first 
two of these capacities Dr. Garnett was obviously 
the right man in the right place, and however little 
he resembled the constable or the petty officer, there 
was much in his manner and bearing which enforced 
respect in the minds of all who were brought into 
contact with him, while among his subordinates the 
wish to deserve his praise was as strongly felt as the 
desire to escape his censure. 

It was, however, in his ability to guide and help 
readers in selecting books on a thousand different 
subjects that his reputation as Superintendent rests. 
His memory was phenomenal, both for its extent 
and for its accuracy; his judgement of the value of 
books was practically final, and his knowledge of 
every variety of subject was as nearly as possible in- 
exhaustible. A hundred stories are current of his 


answers to curious questioners; it will be sufficient 
to quote, as an example, the fat that I heard him on 
the same day give the names of the winners of the 
Derby from 1850 to 1860, and the dates of the Popes 
of the seventeenth century. 

The fame which is gained by conversation or by 
spoken words of any sort soon fades into legend or 
forgetfulness. A more enduring monument to Dr. 
Garnett's memory will be found in the printed 
Catalogue of the Library. 

In 1880 Sir E. A. Bond, then the Principal Li- 
brarian, determined to undertake the printing of 
the general catalogue. Most of the senior members 
of the staff, on whose memory the abortive attempt 
to print letter A many years earlier had left a pro- 
found impression, considered the scheme impraftic- 
able, but Dr. Garnett warmly endorsed it, and with 
characteristic energy and determination undertook 
the editorship of the new venture. The inordinate 
growth of the transcribed catalogue which had, by 
this time, swollen into more than two thousand 
enormous volumes, furnished an excellent reason 
for the new undertaking, but in the minds of Sir 
E. A. Bond and of Dr. Garnett there was present 
another and yet more important motive. They 
realized that the Catalogue of Printed Books is the 
largest and most complete contribution to biblio- 
graphy extant, and they foresaw the immense bene- 
fit which it would confer on students throughout 
the world to have access to its contents without 
being compelled to visit London for the purpose. 
Their object has been amply fulfilled. There is 
now no civilized country which does not contain 


copies, more or less numerous, of the Museum Cata- 
logue, and it is no uncommon occurrence to find 
visitors to the Library producing notes of books 
which they wish to see, penned in Moscow or 
Chicago. On one point Dr. Garnett, in the early 
days of his editorship, was mistaken. I well re- 
member his telling me that he had little or no hope 
of living to see the completion of his work. That 
he did live to see it accomplished, and admirably 
accomplished, is due to the untiring energy with 
which both he and his collaborator, Mr. Arthur 
W. K. Miller, whose name will always be associ- 
ated with Dr. Garnett's as the joint editor and 
begetter of the great Catalogue, wrestled with their 
task. Their toil took no note of official hours. By 
day and by night, at the Museum and in their own 
homes, they worked at the mighty mass of proofs, 
and worked to such purpose that the whole Cata- 
logue, with its four and a half million of entries, 
was completed in less than twenty years from 
the time when the first page was sent to the 

In 1890 Dr. Garnett was appointed, again in 
succession to George Bullen, to the Keepership of 
Printed Books, an office which he held, and in no 
mere conventional phrase may be said to have 
adorned, until his retirement from aftive service in 

Into that retirement he carried the respeft and 
admiration of all his colleagues, and the warm 
friendship of those who had been privileged to 
know him more intimately. Retirement with Dr. 
Garnett meant anything rather than repose or 


inactivity, as witnessed by the publication in 1903 
and 1 904 of the admirable c History of English 
Literature,' written in conjunction with Mr. Ed- 
mund Gosse. But during these years, occupied as 
he was with literary work, he lost none of the in- 
terest in everything affe6ting the Museum Library 
which had been the most absorbing motive of his 
life. Only a week or two before his death the con- 
versation round the dinner table turned, in his pre- 
sence, upon certain suggested reforms in the Cata- 
logue, and Dr. Garnett spoke with all the vivacity 
of youth and the wise experience of age in defence 
of the criticized headings. Little did those who 
listened with such interest to his words foresee how 
soon they were to follow him to his last resting- 
place on earth. 

It is no easy task to sum up in a few words the 
intellectual gifts or the character of so many-sided 
a man as Richard Garnett. 

The point which would first strike the attention 
of an acquaintance, especially if he applied to Dr. 
Garnett for literary aid, was his extraordinary 
memory and knowledge of the authorities on every 
variety of subjeCl. Dr. Garnett once assured me 
that he never consciously learnt any passage of 
prose or verse by rote, but his memory was at once 
so retentive and so discriminating that any fat, or 
name, or theory which drew his attention remained 
stored away in his brain ready for accurate repro- 
duction at the right moment. I say at the right 
moment, because he was by means one of those 
who feel it to be their mission to infliCt in or out 
of season their light or their leading on their suffer- 


ing fellow-mortals. He wore neither his heart nor 
his learning on his sleeve. He was, in fact, of a 
singularly reticent, reserved and modest nature, and 
possessed that shrinking from loud or dogmatic 
utterance which is so often characteristic of real in- 
tellectual superiority. Nor was there ever a man 
further removed from a mere walking encyclo- 
paedia or a cold abstraction of pedantic knowledge 
and erudition. 

He was one of the most living of men: the 
warmth and geniality of his disposition was as much 
a feature of his charadler as the acuteness of his 
intellect and the originality of his thought; his 
conversation was animated and vivid, his laughter 
infectious; he was always the brightest and most 
cheerful of companions. 

To look at him from another side he was a master 
of sarcasm and of irony. Those who knew him 
best will realize most fully how characteristic of 
this phase of his mind are such passages as the fol- 
lowing, from the ' Twilight of the Gods/ relating 
the execution by fire of a heretic, who had asserted 
that the sacred book of Ad was written on the 
bones of a cow and not on those of a camel. c " But," 
I said, "it is written on the bones of a cow!" 
u Even so," said he, " and therefore is his heresy 
the more damnable and his punishment the more 
exemplary. Had it been indeed written on the 
bones of a camel he might have affirmed what 
pleased him." 

To turn to yet another side of his character. He 
was gifted with strong personal sympathies, and 
with a most kindly and benevolent nature. There 


are many who could tell pathetic stories of help of 
one sort or another, which they have received 
either by the use of his influence or from his open- 
handed generosity. 

But running through all these phases of 
his complex intellect and charadter there was a 
notable air of distinction about all that he did, or 
wrote, or said. To few men could Johnson's words 
on Burke be more truly applied: ' Sir, if a man 
were to go by chance at the same time with him 
under a shed, to shun a shower, he would say 
" This is an extraordinary man." 


WAS once talking with Dr. Garnett 
about certain rare Welsh books not in 
the British Museum, a fadt of which 
he was fully conscious, when we were 
joined by a distinguished professor of 
Moral Philosophy, who in the course of conversa- 
tion referred to some rare books in that subjeft, 
which also had been wanting in the Museum Li- 
brary. Dr. Garnett was able to answer without a 
moment's hesitation as each book was named. 
' Yes ! we still want that/ or, ' I am glad to say we 
have that now, we bought it so and so.' Before the 
conversation ended an eminent mathematician was 
introduced, to whom Dr. Garnett put the question: 
' Are there any gaps in the Museum Library in 
your subject?' A discussion followed on rare books 
relating to mathematics, and again the answers 


came prompt: c We have ' or c We have not.' This 
is a fair example of the bibliographer's memory 
applied to a colleftion so large that intimate know- 
ledge of the presence or absence of books would 
constitute a remarkable achievement add to this 
his wide knowledge of the contents of books, and 
the numerous subjefts upon which his knowledge 
was that of a specialist, and some idea will be pos- 
sible of the extraordinary learning which he carried 
so modestly, and placed so willingly at the service 
of those who sought his help. 

The promptness with which he could draw upon 
his stores of knowledge for quotations or illustra- 
tions upon any subjedt of conversation has been 
remarked by many who have written about him. 
I was always greatly struck by the ease with which 
he moved from one topic to another quite remote, 
and continue to pour out quotations, parallels, and 
illustrations as freely as if there had been no change 
of subjeft. There was no pause, no appearance of 
mental effort, he simply glided as a skilled skater 
describes a curve on the ice. Whatever the subjeft, 
he gave the impression that his knowledge of it 
was fresh and waiting for use. Only one instance 
have I ever heard of his knowledge being at fault. 
Mrs. Garnett had brought home, after a short 
country holiday, a squirrel's nest, which was placed 
on the drawing-room table, and shown to her 
friends. A lady remarked that she was not aware 
squirrels made nests. Mrs. Garnett appealed to 
her husband : c Richard, do squirrels build nests ? J 
He hesitated, then replied : c I really don't know ; 
I don't think so ; I must look it up.' 


Wide as was his knowledge I think that the way 
in which he applied his memory to men and women 
was even more wonderful. The number of his friends 
was large, yet he made each one feel that his 
friendship was personal, as undoubtedly it was. 
The memory which served him so well in his 
reading, enabled him to keep people in mind, to 
recall their interests, and to touch the personal note 
so often lacking with those who know many 
people. He quickly recognized the good points of 
younger men, and always helped them with sym- 
pathy and encouragement. This was especially the 
case in matters relating to Librarianship, the field 
in which his own greatest work was done. He was 
always ready to consider new ideas, and to help 
forward those who were striving to make libraries 
more efficient. He loved libraries, the British 
Museum Library above all others; but his interest 
extended to the humblest colleftion of books in a 
village institute. He believed in libraries as con- 
tributors to the progress and happiness of mankind; 
it was this belief which kept him closely in touch 
with the affairs of the Library Association, even 
after he had come to feel that the bustle and fatigue 
of the annual meeting was too much of a strain. 
Many of his most graceful speeches at the Associa- 
tion meetings were made under circumstances 
which did not allow of their being reported. I 
recall especially the charming speech made during 
the Aberdeen meeting, when the members were 
being entertained by the late Sir William Cunliffe 
Brooks, at Glen Tana. If a record of that speech 
is available it ought to be printed as an illustration 


of the apt and graceful way in which Dr. Garnett 
could use his wide reading for the adornment of 


FIRST made the acquaintance of 
Richard Garnett shortly after his ap- 
pointment as Superintendent of the 
Reading Room in 1875, and from 
that date to his retirement in 1899, 
received from him, in common with all other 
readers in the British Museum, unfailing help and 
many kindnesses. His connection with the Library 
Association, of which he was one of the principal 
founders, commenced with the preliminary ar- 
rangements of the Organizing Committee for the 
first Conference of Librarians in 1877, at which he 
read a paper, c On the System of Classifying Books 
on the Shelves followed at the British Museum/ 
and joined in several of the debates. I well re- 
member the impression made upon us by the 
earnest manner in which he treated library tech- 
nicalities, and the liberal and enlightened policy 
which he advocated for the treatment of the users 
of libraries. From that period to very recently he 
read many papers at our monthly and annual meet- 
ings, chiefly on subjedls connected with library 
history, the methods used at the British Museum, 
the question of printing the catalogue of printed 
books, debateable points in cataloguing, and biblio- 
graphy. Even at the busiest time he was ever 
ready to fill a vacant place on our programmes, and 


was frequently the vitim of secretarial impor- 
tunity. He was interested in the public library 
movement, in the education of library assistants 
(for some years he was Chairman of the Education 
Committee), and as a member of Council gave 
much help and advice in the conduct of business. 
In 1893 he adted as President of the Association at 
Aberdeen, and delivered an admirable address. He 
frequently joined in the discussions, speaking with 
great rapidity in a somewhat low tone, and as he 
had a habit of bending his head, at times he was 
scarcely audible. Another quaint but not unpleas- 
ing peculiarity was a kind of rhythmic rise and fall 
of tone, and an occasional reminiscence of his 
native midland tongue. He delivered his remarks 
in well-balanced sentences, of precise literary form, 
without a break, and apparently without prepara- 
tion. Words, phrases, or fads never failed him. 
He was always informing and interesting, full of 
knowledge, good sense and good feeling, never dry, 
technical, or pedantic. He rarely spoke without a 
well-told anecdote, or neat quotation, and his most 
informal speeches were brightened with many a 
ray of wit, and warmed with a vein of sly humour 
peculiar to himself. Indeed he was equally apt 
with speech or pen, and the exercise of both facul- 
ties appeared to give him real pleasure. 

Mrs. Garnett, whose death he had to mourn 
three years ago, usually accompanied him to the 
annual meetings in the provinces. Her kindly 
manners, cultivated understanding, and sympathetic 
interest in all her husband's undertakings, caused 
her to make many friends. 


Garnett was one of the founders of the Biblio- 
graphical Society, and held the office of President, 
with great success, during the years 1897-8. 

I have only been asked to tell of my personal 
relations with Garnett, but I cannot omit a refer- 
ence to his long and honourable official career ex- 
tending to close upon fifty years. Perhaps his chief 
professional achievement was the printing of the 
entire Catalogue of the Printed Books in the British 
Museum Library, due to the vigorous persistence 
with which he urged the advantages and necessity 
of that laborious and costly undertaking, which was 
at first organized and superintended by him, and 
which he saw carried to successful completion. 

As superintendent of the Reading Room he was 
brought into close relations with the public, and 
gradually, as we know, won high and well-deserved 
fame among British and foreign scholars, and in 
the larger body of the humble and unknown, who 
form the bulk of those who work or amuse them- 
selves under the great dome at Bloomsbury. Other 
superintendents before and after him have earned 
the gratitude of generations of readers for kind, 
ready, and efficient help that is an unbroken tradi- 
tion which is not likely to pass away but it would 
be difficult to find among the distinguished and 
able men who have sat as oracles at that shrine of 
knowledge one better equipped than was Garnett 
for holding that difficult office. His varied scholar- 
ship, wide reading, accurate acquaintance with the 
languages and literatures of the ancient and modern 
world, his remarkable memory, and unequalled 
knowledge of books, gained in the best pradtical 


school of handling them day after day during the 
many years he was occupied in arranging and 
classifying the accessions, gave him unequalled 
qualifications for the office, while his natural ur- 
banity encouraged the most timid and retiring 

Garnett ought to have taken a high place among 
the men of letters of his day, but, unfortunately, 
his great literary powers were often turned to 
trifling obj efts, and at times he was induced to lend 
his pen to undertakings somewhat below the dig- 
nity of his capacity. I do not propose to criticise 
or to give a list of his books, but I desire to make a 
passing reference to a few that I specially liked. 
He had a special gift for the rare art of apt transla- 
tion in verse, and his charming faculty for poetry 
found expression in several volumes. In prose he 
wrote a polished, easy, and agreeable style. His 
little lives of Carlyle, Emerson, and Milton are 
admirable, and so is his c History of Italian Litera- 
ture' (1898). He was an accomplished critic and 
known as a student of Shelley. His numerous con- 
tributions to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and 
the c Dictionary of National Biography ' should not 
be forgotten, nor yet the professional writings pre- 
served in his c Essays in Librarianship and Biblio- 
graphy ' (1893), and 'Essays by an Ex-Librarian' 
(1901). In my judgement by far the best book he 
ever produced was the collection of short stories 
called the 'Twilight of the Gods' (1888), which 
for irony, wit, and learning, united with felicitous 
literary expression, are perhaps unrivalled in Eng- 
lish literature. To find a parallel one must go to 


France. The wit and irony recall the mastery 
of Voltaire without his mordant heartlessness, 
while the brilliancy and fine scholarship are worthy 
of Anatole France. 

As a tribute to his memory I have spoken from 
my knowledge of Richard Garnett as a Fellow of 
the Library Association, as a librarian and biblio- 
grapher, and as an author. I now wish to speak of 
him as revealed in his more intimate and familiar 
hours. The world at large was acquainted with his 
reputation as librarian, scholar, and writer. His 
many personal friends, among whom I am proud 
to range myself, admired and loved him, not only 
for his rare intellectual merits but for his still rarer 
and more excellent personal qualities; for the com- 
bined simplicity and nobility of his character, 
manly yet refined, amiable yet dignified; for his 
modesty; for his charm of manner; for his good- 
ness and warmth of heart; for his delicate courtesy 
in small things as well as great; for his delightful 
play of wit and fancy in conversation; for his wide 
sympathy with all intellectual effort; for his gener- 
osity in speaking of all men; for his tenderness for 
the failings of others. All these fine qualities, 
seldom to be found happily united in one delight- 
ful personality, will make his honoured and loved 
name fragrant and evergreen in the memory of 
those who knew him. 



'R. GARNETT'S death afflifts one 
with a sense of impoverishment. Even 
to those who were but seldom privi- 
leged to meet him, the occasional re- 
currence of his personality across the 
field of remembrance, with the following glow of 
pleasurable anticipation of again meeting him, was 
one of the perhaps minor but not less real amenities 
of life. The remembrance will persist, but the hope 
is gone. 

I feel that I cannot add to the full tribute which 
has been paid to the charm of his personality, to 
his wealth of scholarship, to the rare liberality with 
which he placed his great resources at the service of 
enquirers. But I am grateful that I am permitted 
to add a fugitive leaf to the wreath of affeftion and 
admiration to which so many and so various hands 
contribute. I was not of those who enjoyed his in- 
timacy; but I knew him for nearly thirty years, and 
I met him sufficiently often to appreciate his rare 
qualities and his engaging and impressive character, 
and to become inspired by deep respedl and by a 
true regard. On one or two occasions it was my 
happiness to be able to render some trifling service 
to him and Mrs. Garnett, and his acceptance was so 
frank, so cordial, so benignant, as to render the 
opportunity a delight. 

If I were to specify the occasion on which I 
thought him at his brightest and happiest, I should 
name the day when the Library Association enjoyed 
the gracious hospitality of the late Sir William 



Cunliffe Brooks at Glen Tana, that c palace in the 
wilderness.' No one who was present can forget the 
grace, the gaiety, the felicity, the absolute Tightness, 
with which Dr. Garnett conveyed to Sir William 
the warm and grateful appreciation with which the 
Association received and acknowledged his noble 
hospitality. The speech formed a worthy crown for 
an unforgettable day. 

Dr. Garnett was one of those fine and rare spirits 
whom it is a delight and a privilege to know. By 
many his memory will be cherished as among the 
choicest jewels in the casket in which are enshrined 
their dearest and most precious recollections. 


AM not able to put into order my re- 
colleftions of Richard Garnett; the 
immediate feeling is chiefly that, in 
common with many others, and for 

_ _ good reasons, I loved and honoured 

him, and that he is lost to us. Every one who thinks 
of him must think of his generosity; he had in a 
pre-eminent degree that kind of charity spoken of 
in the c Religio Medici ': ' I make not my head a 
grave, but a treasure of knowledge; I intend no 
monopoly, but a community in learning; I study 
not for my own sake only, but for theirs that study 
not for themselves.' His wide range of learning and 
his wide sympathies enabled him to be so great a 
giver. You never came up to a dead wall in his 
mind and were stopped; you did not thread tortuous 


lanes, although he possessed much curious know- 
ledge, nor climb some rough salita\ it was always 
the open downs, with liberal prospects, and yet no 
minute detail was too little for his inspection. Did 
anyone ever hear him speak unkindly of another? 
I, for one, never did. And yet he had a rare gift of 
irony, a keen-edged, intellectual wit; but he under- 
stood things too well to permit him to take pleasure 
in objurgation or complaint. His memory was mar- 
vellous; what had passed once before his eyes seemed 
to be incised on his brain. I do not know that he 
ever attended a horse-race, but while he was staying 
in my house the Derby day came, and he was able 
to recite the names of the winners of the Derby for 
the ten preceding years. In literary research he was 
keen and surefooted; but he did not become intel- 
lectually myopic through the practice of microscopy. 
I do not venture to speak of his work in so many 
provinces of literature, it speaks for itself; but he 
was capable of surprises to the end. He sent me a 
copy of the first edition of ' De Flagello Myrteo '; 
I thanked the sender, but never guessed that my 
friend was the writer of these fine pensees. A few 
days before his death he wrote to me acknowledging 
the authorship. 



|N the course of a long life, given up 
chiefly to official work and to work 
done for every reason but that of 
personal impulse, Dr. Garnett found 
time and opportunity to write two 
books after his own heart. To be more precise, I 
would say that he put his heart into one and his 
mind into the other. It was the heart that had to 
wait longest for its chance. * De Flagello Myrteo: 
Thoughts and Fancies on Love ' was written at the 
age of seventy, in two brief periods ; and the con- 
ditions under which it was written were curiously 
similar to what has been told us of his own way of 
work by the writer whom it most resembles, 
Coventry Patmore, whom Dr. Garnett had known 
at the British Museum as a young man, whose 
poetry, as he told me, he had come to like with 
difficulty, for whom he had make the first selection 
of his poems, the ' Florilegium Amantis J of 1879, 
and to whom he had returned in spirit, or whom 
he had perhaps first really encountered, at the very 
end of his life. Patmore, a strenuous artist, wrote 
rarely, and most of his work was done in short 
periods of inspiration or improvisation, with long 
tideless intervals between. I can hardly use any 
less word than that of inspiration for this beautiful 
little book of ' thoughts/ in which prose has almost 
the certainty of poetry, and verse, at times, an 
elegance not less penetrating than that of the prose. 
Thought and form are alike sublimated to an 
essence, and it is difficult to choose among sayings 


said so finally, and in tones tender and playful, 
scornful and ecstatic, in turn. Here are a few, 
which represent no more than a few of the kinds 
of thought and fancy: 

' In the religion of Love the courtesan is a 
heretic ; but the nun is an atheist.' 

* If one had disparaged Laura to Petrarch, 
and Beatrice to Dante, indignation would have 
made Petrarch voluble, and Dante dumb.' 

' It is said that Hope was the only good 
Genius left in Pandora's casket : but which of 
the others could have lived without her ? ' 

' Love, alas ! often puts golden treasure into 
an earthen vessel; but he never puts earth 
into a vessel of gold, unless it be earth from a 

It was with such calm, solemn, and luminous 
meditations that one who had seemed all his life to 
be a Stoic, perhaps a Cynic philosopher, made his 
own last preparations. I have said elsewhere, 
speaking of c The Twilight of the Gods,' that other 
book into which he put himself, that this ' learned 
mockery, so sane, so rational, dancing in the fetters 
of artful pedantry, makes a sort of Punch and Judy 
show of the comedy of civilization'; and I can 
think of no image which would better represent 
the hilarity, violence, and contemptuous aloofness 
of his way of juggling with great names, great 
conventions, frozen ideals, paralyzed beliefs. On 
the surface these tales are pieces of light-hearted 
buffoonery, and I see, among the opinions of the 
press quoted on the fly-leaf of the enlarged edition 


of 1903, references, evidently made in all good 
faith, to the c Ingoldsby Legends ' and the ' Bab 
Ballads." Neither Barham nor Mr. Gilbert, two 
writers of equally intoxicating brilliance of non- 
sense, ever wasted thought on an idea deeper than 
a pin would scratch. Dr. Garnett's book would 
have been publicly burned by any government in 
any age which had really taken seriously the be- 
liefs which it professed in theory. It is a text-book 
of intellectual anarchy ; it is loaded with symbols 
of revolution; but the air of our century is proof 
against it, it will never go off with the least damage 
to our idols. 


(EFORE an attempt is made to supple- 
ment in any other way what has already 
been written about Dr. Garnett from 
various points of view, a special word 
of gratitude has to be said for the help 
and encouragement which he constantly gave to this 
magazine. Not only did he lend it countenance and 
authority by adting as one of its consulting editors, 
but he found time to write for it three very character- 
istic articles; 1 he was quick to express his pleasure 
at any contribution of unusual interest which ap- 
peared in its pages, and he frequently offered sug- 
gestions of subjects which might be written on, 

1 * Early Spanish- American Printing,' vol. i, pp. 139-146; c On 
the De Missione Legatorum Japonensium ' (Macao, 1590), vol. ii, 
pp. 172-182; 'Some Notes on Ancient Writing and Writing 
Materials,' vol. iv, pp. 225-235. 


though the suggestions too often required a learn- 
ing akin to his own to carry them out. Two quite 
recent instances of his kindness may be specially 
mentioned. In the conviftion, in which he was 
probably right, that it is only by an abundance of 
pictures that a bibliographical magazine can attain 
a satisfactory circulation, he offered himself to sub- 
scribe to provide more illustrations, an offer which 
could not be entertained, but is very gratefully re- 
membered. Again, only just before last Christmas, 
when asked for his opinion on the principles by 
which municipal librarians should be guided in 
their book -purchases, he wrote for our January 
number no mere hasty expression of his ideas, but 
a considered and carefully thought out view of the 
whole matter, which in its mellow reasonableness 
seemed to sum up almost all that could be said on 
the subjedt. To lose a friend such as this is a griev- 
ous loss indeed to those who are carrying on a maga- 
zine to work a little closer towards ideals for which 
there are few enthusiasts, and while the editors of 
' The Library ' have individually many other reasons 
for lamenting Dr. Garnett's death, the loss of his 
help and sympathy in their difficult task comes speci- 
ally home to them. 

Besides the notes here printed, and the one or 
two obituaries in the daily papers which appeared 
to be written from personal knowledge and with 
personal feeling, some very interesting tributes by 
Mr. F. M. Hueffer, and by three of Dr. Garnett's 
women friends Miss Beatrice Harraden, Miss 
Agnes Adams, and Miss Alice Zimmern have 
been published in the June number of ' The Book- 


man.' Necessarily slight as are all these contribu- 
tions, they yet point to the possibility that by 
co-operation some sketch of this unique personality 
might be evolved which should be different from 
the ordinary biography, so unflinching in its tedious 
detail, so swollen with letters no longer interesting, 
which passes through the circulating libraries, and 
is dead within the year. c Every night of his life 
he went to the pillar-box at the top of the street,' 
Miss Adam writes in c The Bookman.' c He had 
an enormous correspondence, and insisted on posting 
his own letters. His friends who lived near used to 
say they knew it was ten minutes to twelve when 
a slow, hesitating step passed their windows. 
Latterly he leaned heavily on his stick the stick 
that used to be Ford Madox Brown's/ It may 
seem capricious to pick out the record of so small 
a characteristic as this, and make much of it, but 
to at least one reader these few sentences brought 
back the living personality, and with it the sense 
of individual loss by his death, more than all the 
columns of formal obituaries. 

Dr. Garnett was proud of being a fellow-towns- 
man of Dr. Johnson, and it seems probable that, if 
his memory endures, it will be, as in the case of 
Johnson, less for what he wrote than for what he 
was. There is, indeed, a rather tempting parallel- 
ism in the aclual literary output of the two men. 
Against Johnson's Dictionary we may set Dr. 
Garnett's share in the British Museum Catalogue. 
The biographies of Milton, Carlyle and Emerson 
need not fear comparison with the once famous 
' Lives of the Poets.' In poetry, ' The Vanity of 


Human Wishes' and c London,' adaptations though 
they be, have more individuality and a stronger 
ring than Dr. Garnett's graceful verses ; but if the 
scale turns against him at this weighing, the author 
of ' The Twilight of the Gods ' and De Flagello 
Myrteo ' might well hope to make a corresponding 
recovery when these are contrasted with ' Rasselas ' 
and ' Irene.' The epigrams in these two books of 
Dr. Garnett's are indeed as quotable as the best 
things in Boswell, and are only too likely to prove 
the chief memorials of his powers as a talker. The 
revelation of the authorship of ' De Flagello 
Myrteo ' within a few days of the writer's death 
may suggest a possible need of waiting a little 
before the chorus of admiration with which it has 
been greeted can be accepted as a final verdift. On 
the other hand, 'The Twilight of the Gods/ which 
has been enthusiastically praised in so many notices, 
has won its way to this favour after a most chilling 
first reception. Amid the gentle regrets now uttered 
that Dr. Garnett wasted on mere literary and official 
taskwork time which might have been devoted to 
producing more such books as this, it is interesting 
to remember that these intensely characteristic 
stories found their way to the remainder market 
with disconcerting rapidity. It would certainly 
have pleased their author had he ever known that 
it was the loyal appreciation of his staff at the 
British Museum that helped them to emerge very 
quickly from this undignified position. When the 
remainder-man's catalogue was received in the 
Printed Book Department, it was promptly taken 
the round of the different rooms, and the resultant 


order for twenty-five copies so surprised the vendor 
that he refused to execute it except at the very ad- 
vance of price it was partly intended to bring about. 

While Dr. Garnett took the cold reception of 
his stories 'with cheerful philosophy, he never pre- 
tended to be indifferent to criticism. One of his 
most characteristic utterances, both for its feline 
reference and for the genial assurance with which 
it was spoken, was provoked by overhearing a doubt 
expressed as to whether authors who knew their 
own worth really care for the praise of critics. 
c Do poets like praise '? ' Do cats like cream'? was 
his comment, and as he made it there was a delight- 
ful beam of amusement in his face, which is good 
to remember. Before very long the cream for his 
own * Twilight of the Gods ' came to him in a 
form which he greatly appreciated that of a warm 
letter of thanks and praise from the late Lord 
Lytton, with whom he had, I believe, no personal 
acquaintance. It was typical of his modesty that 
this touch of sympathy from a single distinguished 
reader gave him as much pleasure as if he himself 
had been a raw beginner, and that when he had 
his own copy of the book bound a pocket was 
made in one of the covers, and Lord Lytton's letter 
placed in it. 

It is pleasant to know that the success of c The 
Twilight of the Gods ' was not wholly posthumous, 
and that Dr. Garnett lived to see it pass into a 
second edition. That it was not more quickly 
appreciated is perhaps no real matter for regret. 
Not to succeed too rapidly is the surest of all safe- 
guards for artistic integrity. No man of letters of 


Dr. Garnett's generous nature and limited official 
income can ever be quite indifferent to the tempta- 
tions offered by publishers, and had he been bom- 
barded with applications for more such stories, the 
pure gold which he extracted from this vein of 
fancy might have been alloyed with metal less 
truly characteristic. As it was, he found later on a 
new literary diversion in the aphorisms of the c De 
Flagello Myrteo,' and not many authors have more 
than two absolutely original books to their credit. 
One of the many reasons for hoping that some 
authentic memoir of Dr. Garnett may be written 
is that there are already signs that without some 
really discriminating record his reputation may at- 
tradt to itself many of the Joe-Millerisms of librarian- 
ship. There is much to be grateful for in Mr. 
Hueffer's article in ' The Bookman,' but it may be 
wished that he had abstained from the obviously 
imaginative story of the engraving of a Mero- 
vingian buckle, for which Dr. Garnett directed 
him to about page 274 of the tenth volume of a 
work to be found on the fourth row of the fifth 
shelf (sic), on the right from the entrance to the 
Reading Room. Dr. Garnett's feats of memory 
were too really extraordinary to need embellish- 
ment of this kind, and they become much more 
human and interesting when they are traced to 
their source instead of being treated as semi-magi- 
cal prodigies. Even his acquaintance with the 
names of the Derby winners, by which he amused 
so many of his friends, was not quite fortuitous, for 
by a whimsical survival from the manners of an 
older generation, he was for many years an amused 


subscriber to a half-crown sweepstake on the Derby. 
There is even a tradition that he was once the 
winner of it, and used his gains to present all his 
innocent fellow gamblers with flowers. 

One may be more more grateful to Mr. Hueffer 
when he speaks of Dr. Garnett's * enigmatic and 
very wonderful presence/ Gentle, easy of approach, 
and entirely unassuming as he was, it may be 
doubted whether any man every ventured to take a 
liberty with him; and for myself, to the end of his 
days, I paid him the unpleasant compliment of 
stammering more consistently when talking with 
him than with any other person in the world with 
whom I was on the same terms. But however long 
the query took to explain it was always heard with 
the same benign smile from the spedtacled eyes, 
and when the end came there was usually some 
modest disclaimer and then a stream of suggestions, 
not always precisely to the point, but almost always 
opening up new vistas and pointing out connec- 
tions I had never suspedted. When time served it 
was worth while to venture on a story for the sake 
of the better one with which he was sure to cap it, 
and which would be made more humorous if it hap- 
pened to bring in his accustomed pronunciation of 
the vowel u as short as possible. An anecdote of a 
butcher, who exclaimed when he had slain a re- 
fraftory sheep, c I've conciliated that one, anyway/ 
was the only story I remember to have heard him 
tell twice, and for the sake of the c but ' in c but- 
cher ' I would gladly have heard it often. 

At the time when I first knew Dr. Garnett he 
had already been a third of a century in the British 


Museum. Mr. Fortescue's recolledlions go back 
thirteen years earlier than this. Those who remem- 
ber him in his freshman days are now sadly few. 
He was a ' tall, lanky youth/ one of them tells me, 
always reading, and reputed to possess the gift of 
eating his lunch, going on with his work, and 
skimming the c Athenaeum ' all at the same time. 
The newspaper he seems to have read only in the 
street as he came down to the Museum of a morn- 
ing, holding it up before him with one hand, while 
he held bag and umbrella in the other. Perhaps it 
was this early habit of reading as he walked which 
accounted for his rather peculiar gait. When he 
entered the Museum he probably felt himself a 
Croesus, for the pay of assistants had just been 
altered from a daily or weekly wage to an annual 
salary of 130; and for a lad of sixteen to be able 
to start on a salary of 130 a year was no more 
common in those days than now. While his 
appointment illustrates the occasional advantages 
of the old system of patronage, that of his immedi- 
ate senior can hardly be quoted on the same side, 
for the legend runs that he had obtained his post as 
the only way of acknowledging his services in 
bringing over to the Queen some Barbary horses as 
a present from the Sultan of Morocco, and his stay 
at the Museum was neither very long nor very 
successful. Two places higher up, and in receipt of 
about 45 a year more salary, was Coventry Pat- 
more, with whom the young Garnett, already 
thinking of poetry, associated more than with any- 
one else. Two places below him was E. A. Roy, 
who had entered the Museum some ten years earlier 


in an inferior grade, and whose merits, as recounted 
by Panizzi before the Commission of 1850 formed 
one of the levers by which the position of the staff 
had been recently improved. It seems that he 
knew French and Italian fluently, had a catalogu- 
ing acquaintance with German and Spanish, and 
could even transcribe Arabic. Yet ' this young 
man,' complained Panizzi, ' receives twenty-five 
shillings a week, and if he catches a cold and is 
absent he gets nothing during his absence.' Panizzi 
was a good friend to Garnett, but his admiration 
for Mr. Roy's merits caused him in 1856 to pro- 
mote the latter, as the older man, over Garnett's 
head. Later on he was passed over again, much 
less justifiably, in favour of Ralston, the well-known 
Russian scholar, and on this occasion resented the 
slight so much that until an explanation was offered 
him he wished to be allowed to resign. But despite 
this share of official troubles it cannot be doubted 
that his life at the British Museum, from first to 
last, was a very happy one. He loved it so much 
that he very seldom took his full allowance of holi- 
days, and he knew nothing of Museum headaches. 
The atmosphere produced in winter by its hot- 
water pipes he used to compare for its warmth and 
dryness to the air of Egypt, and he seems to have 
found it sufficiently bracing to keep him in con- 
stant health. Would that more of his old colleagues 
were alive to tell us what he was like in these 
early days, when he sat first in the King's Library, 
and afterwards in the Arched Room, and catalogued 
the old books in their order shelf after shelf! 
In conclusion, a few words may be said as to 


Dr. Garnett's connexion with the Bibliographical 
Society of which, as Mr. Tedder has already noted, 
he was one of the founders. Despite the obstacles 
which his duties as one of the Resident Officers at 
the British Museum threw in his way, he was a 
frequent attendant at its meetings, and with the 
courtesy which never failed him in his intercourse 
with his colleagues, made a special point of being 
present when anyone from the Museum was reading 
a paper. It is no exaggeration to say that his pre- 
sence by itself sufficed to make a meeting a success, 
for he chatted delightfully with everyone who went 
up to him, and could always be relied on for an 
interesting speech. He had no oratorical gift, and 
when not entirely at his ease was far from an 
effective speaker. But here he was among friends ; 
the small audience and the room both suited him, 
and after some deprecatory remarks as to his own 
ignorance, he would settle down to play round any 
subject on which he was asked to speak with a 
wealth of learning and fancy which was quite de- 
lightful. It was the charm of his suggestions that 
they were almost always far fetched and yet tri- 
umphantly relevant. I remember that in speaking 
of English books printed abroad he pointed out as 
an example of the haps by which the spread of 
printing was ruled, that if England had been abso- 
lutely supreme at sea, when, under Elizabeth, she 
was supporting the claim of Don Antonio to the 
throne of Portugal, the Portuguese islands off the 
coast of Africa would no doubt have been captured, 
and proclamations have been issued there in his 
interest, and thus the appearance of printing in 


Africa would have been accelerated by at least fifty 
years. The speculation was quite to the point, but 
it may be doubted whether any other human being 
than Dr. Garnett, who was always fascinated by the 
might-have-beens of history, would have thought 
of it. 

During the two years that he held the office of 
President he worked really hard for the Society, 
and was always ready to promote its interests. He 
frequently also a<5ted as deputy to his immediate suc- 
cessor, the Earl of Crawford, during the latter's 
absence from England, and to do this on one occa- 
sion came straight to the Society's rooms after com- 
pleting his last day's work at the British Museum. 
With some misgivings, lest he might already be a 
little overwrought, it was hastily resolved that 
something should be said as to the affection and 
esteem which he carried with him in his retire- 
ment. Dr. Garnett was taken by surprise, but the 
mingled dignity and cheerfulness of his brief reply 
were characteristic of his whole attitude to life. 




BAD man writes a wicked book, a 
stupid man a bad one. Society pro- 
tects itself against bad men. Readers 
have a right to expect that their books 
__ will be excluded from public libraries. 
Everything turns upon the fact that the libraries 
are public. No administration is all-seeing. No 
laws or regulations reach the recesses of a citizen's 
life. But in public places the community insists 
that its code of the proprieties shall be observed. 
A citizen frequents church, marketplace, or theatre 
in the assurance that he will neither hear nor see 
things which shock the average man. His standard 
may be far above or far below the average; but he 
must accept the ruling of the majority in this as in 
other matters. An ill-disposed writer has an oppor- 
tunity which is denied the public speaker. From 
the secrecy of his study he may communicate to 
the public things which he would never be allowed 
to say. I have a right to trust that I shall not un- 
expectedly find myself listening to his insinuations, 
his suggestions, or his perversions. The matter is 
of less consequence than the manner. Everything 
depends upon the intention with which reticence 
is laid aside. It is easy for anyone who writes on 
this theme to be sententious. It is equally easy to 



ridicule copy-book maxims. Yet right remains 
right, and wrong wrong. There is a decency which 
forbids, despite all sophistries. Realism is no justi- 
fication in itself. There may be purposes which 
justify exposure, but they need to be self-evident 
before we admit their validity. Only the strongest 
of motives prevents a modest person from feeling 
distressed when he witnesses exposure. One of the 
most powerful and graceful of French novelists has 
recently produced a book which has been much 
read notwithstanding the fact that from time to 
time he checks the easy flow of his argument to 
spit in his reader's face. One cannot imagine that 
this sudden abandonment of the restraints which 
society imposes can fail to disgust the reader of 
average sensibility. I have a right to expect that 
the guardians of a public library will keep such a 
book, as they would keep such a man, from enter- 
ing the place. 

Who is to compile an index expurgatorius? Few 
of us covet the post of public hangman. We have 
no desire to kindle the book-fire in the market- 
place. Fortunately, in the case of public libraries 
there is no need for an adtive measure of this kind. 
Action is taken when a book is admitted. In not 
admitting we merely imitate the Quaker who cut 
the rope by which a burglar was hanging from his 
roof, with the quiet remark, ' Friend, thou art not 
wanted here.' The fad: that a library is a place 
where the public meet with authors of whom they 
know nothing, either good or bad, demands a 
guarantee that the book-tasters to the library reject 
such books as are poisonous to the moral nature. 


Is the public the best judge of what is good for 
its moral and intellectual health? To credit the 
public with a power of discriminating between 
what is wholesome and what is harmful is to admit 
that it possesses literary knowledge of which it is 
pathetically destitute. Seventeen years' experience 
as Chairman of the National Home Reading Union 
has convinced me that no greater service can be 
done the reading public than by drawing up lists 
of the best that is to say, the most suitable books 
for various grades of readers. The average man, 
from whom the business of life exaCts a daily tale 
of eight hours' work, enters a library with no idea 
of the subjeCt which is likely to interest him; or 
if he have a predilection, with no notion of how 
he is to find out the books which will take him 
from his present level of intellectual attainment 
farthest, and most quickly, into the new realm 
which he desires to explore. He is conscious of 
immense opportunities, and of vast ignorance of 
the way in which to seize them. No librarian, no 
library committee, need feel hesitation in guiding 
the reading of the great majority of their clients. 
It is hopeless to leave them to find out the right 
books for themselves. The greatest service which 
can be done them is to put the right books in their 

Are books which are bad as literature, although 
innocuous from an ethical standpoint, to be denied 
to the public? In this matter the public must, I 
fear, be allowed to go its own stupid way. When 
it is a question of choosing between two books, and 
only a library of unlimited means can take all books, 


library authorities have perforce to exercise some 
selection; but their only guidance in ordinary cases 
is an intelligent anticipation of the probable de- 
mand. The library must cater for its customers. 
If the majority of readers prefer thistles to lettuces 
as articles of diet, we may regret their want of 
taste, we cannot insist upon their relinquishing 
their favourite food. Yet even here we may fairly 
ask whether it is not rather a question of habit 
than a perversity of taste. The denizens of heaths 
and roadside wastes know little of the succulent 
produces of a well-kept garden. It is impossible to 
lay too much stress upon the inexperience of the 
frequenters of public libraries. 

The fa6l that many of those who frequent public 
libraries are inexperienced, and the still more ob- 
vious fa6t that a vast number of people who do not 
frequent public libraries, stay outside because they 
do not know what books to ask for, if they enter, 
leave a responsibility with the librarians and com- 
mittees which they cannot escape. Something, not 
much, may be done by excluding the less desirable 
books. Much, very much more than at present, 
should be done to attradl readers and to create a 
demand for the best. The dream of an intellectual 
England may never come true, but every public 
library helps towards its fulfilment. Its a6tion is 
not, however, automatic. It is an instrument of 
education which works only when directed by brains 
stimulated by missionary ardour. The dumping of 
a church, a museum, or a library in an apathetic 
and uncultured distrift does not effeft the reforma- 
tion of its inhabitants. 


How to quicken a library to give it life. There 
are no rules of universal application; but, amongst 
many means, the following stand out as being 
peculiarly within the province of a librarian and 
under his control: (i) The display of books bearing 
upon subjects which are at the time occupying the 
public mind, such as the civilization of Japan and 
Russia (or its absence in the case of the latter), 
Artic and Antartic exploration, problems of 
poverty, the tercentenary of Don Quixote, etc. In 
many cases it will be found desirable to prepare 
lists, without displaying the books. Mr. Hunt, the 
librarian at Bootle, has sent the writer some ad- 
mirable lists of books which he has prepared suit- 
able for young people, interesting to those who are 
contemplating summer holidays, illustrative of a 
local exhibition of Italian art, etc. If such lists 
comprehend all the books on the subjed: in the 
library, with the best books indicated by a mark 
or type, they are especially valuable. (2) Talks on 
books ; nothing is more useful than a weekly Ie6hire 
upon their own hobbies, by persons who know their 
subjects, and who have taken the trouble to look 
out the books in the library which will enable 
others to follow in their steps. (3) I must be for- 
given if I urge that in my opinion the most effective 
method of giving voice to the dumb mouths which 
line the shelves is the formation of public reading 
circles, meeting in the library, for the purpose of 
co-operative study and discussion. 

That the reading of a book with a view to a 
meeting at which its subje6l-matter will be dis- 
cussed increases the interest of reading, the power 


of recolle6ting its contents and the probability of 
their comprehension, is not open to dispute. That 
such increased fun<5tional activity is to the glory of 
the library seems equally clear. 




HE important and valuable collection 
of books brought together by the late 
Lady Dilke in the course of her studies 
and researches into the history of 
French Art and Artists during the 
Renaissance 1 and the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, with others acquired chiefly on the score 
of their beauty, have found a permanent home, in 
accordance with her wish, in the Library of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington. 
Lady Dilke left her c books ' to her executors, to 
whom she explained in her will that her intentions 
were known. The executors knew from Sir Charles 
Dilke that Lady Dilke intended her Art books for 
South Kensington, and that her recent opinion had 
been that her classical books should also some day 
find there a permanent home. They gave all the 
books to Sir Charles Dilke, subjeft to the presenta- 
tion by him to the c South Kensington Art Library' 
of the portion of the collection selected by him for 
that purpose. 

1 The two volumes on the 'Renaissance of Art in France* 
were published, as was her 'Claude,' written in French, under 
her earlier name of Mrs. Mark Pattison, and her Salon articles in 
the 'Academy' are signed 'E. F. S. Pattison." 


It would seem from the excellent c Memoir ' 
which Sir Charles Dilke has prefixed to the c Book 
of the Spiritual Life/ that it had long been Lady 
Dilke's object to acquire works for presentation to 
South Kensington. He writes on page 7, speaking 
of her drawings: 

'After our marriage she began, in accordance 
with the wishes of Mark Pattison as to the disposal 
of his money, to set aside a certain fixed proportion 
of her income for buying books, other than those 
needed for her daily work. For the fine editions 
especially of the Latin and Italian classics destined, 
along with the working books, for the Art Library 
at South Kensington, a book-plate was required. 
The designs for the stamps, together with some at 
Oxford in wood-carving and some in metal at our 
London house, are the few pieces of her own work 
intended by her for preservation.' 

The volumes, many of them in beautiful bindings, 
bear unmistakeable evidence of having belonged to 
a lady of excellent taste and discrimination, and one, 
moreover, who spared neither trouble nor expense 
in procuring fine examples of the books she needed 
for the work she had undertaken. Apart from the 
fact of the associations which many of them possess, 
from having formerly belonged to collectors and 
authors of renown, these books in numerous instances 
contain manuscript notes and inscriptions, which 
cannot fail to interest book-lovers. In some cases 
we find lengthy memoranda which show how care- 
fully Lady Dilke has perused them and availed her- 
self of the various sources of information respecting 
the subjects with which her name will always be 


identified. With very few exceptions this collection 
may be described as a student's library, for it is rich 
in works of reference, and it comprises, also, long 
series of the best art publications and periodicals and 
copies of the rarer monographs, issued under the 
auspices of the French government. The entire 
collection comprises about 630 works, some of them 
in many volumes. Upwards of 430 of these books 
relate striCtly to art subjedts, while of the remainder, 
consisting for the most part of fine editions of the 
classics, many might be included among the art 
books on account of the beauty of their woodcuts. 

Lady Dilke had a large circle of acquaintance 
among the most eminent and learned of foreign 
authors and critics, and she was in constant corre- 
spondence with men like Burty, Eugene Miintz, 
Hermann Grimm, Thausing, and others. It was 
partly owing to this interchange of letters that she 
was able to acquire such a wide grasp of her sub- 
je<5t and to explore so thoroughly, as to evoke the 
warm appreciation of the most competent author- 
ities, the literature of the country of certain phases 
of whose art she became the historian. To quote one 
instance only, M . Emile Michel speaks of her Claude 
book, published in 1884, as 'a remarkable study, 
full of value, by reason of the profit that all French 
admirers can draw from so fresh a revelation of his 

It is somewhat difficult, in attempting what can 
be but a very brief account of the collection, to make 
choice of the few works to be described. We do 
not wish simply to string together a list of rare 
books in choice bindings, but should desire to seleCt 


certain of the more important volumes which may 
serve to convey some general impression of the gift 
as a whole. 

It will be understood readily that a large propor- 
tion of these books are by foreign writers of the 
last century, but Lady Dilke also possessed an un- 
usually good seleflion of fine editions of the classical 
authors and not a few early printed works in choice 
condition, many of them noticeable on account of 
the beauty of their illustrations. 

Perhaps few French works of the sixteenth cen- 
tury are more prized by collectors and present 
features of greater interest than the beautiful version 
of the dream of Poliphilus which Jean Martin dedi- 
cated to the Conte de Nantheuil in 1546. This 
volume, splendidly bound in whole morocco, with 
Lady Dilke's book-plate impressed in gold on the 
cover, contains several sheets of manuscript notes 
by her, in which comparisons are made between 
the woodcuts in this edition and those found in the 
first Aldine issue at Venice in 1499. An inscription 
dated January, 1905, at the commencement, by Sir 
C. Dilke, is to the effeft that he retains this work 
c for life interest/ but a few months later he writes, 
' Decided to give it now.' 

Another precious folio of much the same date 
( 1 560) , is the ' Livre de Perspective de Jehan Cousin,' 
Paris, Jehan le Royer, with the beautiful woodcut 
diagrams and illustrations of this artist. The binding 
is in pure vellum, with the small gold monogram 
used by Lady Dilke at each of the angles. The large 
majority of the specially bound books are the work 
of Zaehnsdorf, and many of them are admirable 


specimens of his skill. As an instance of careful and 
conservative binding in the case of a much prized 
volume, we may mention the c Annotationes in 
Legem II ' of Lazarus Bayfius, printed at Paris by 
R. Stephanus in 1536. This work has been rebound 
by Zaehnsdorf in whole morocco, with the gold ex- 
libris of Lady Dilke on the front cover, but the 
original binding of stamped calf has been retained 
in the form of doublures, inserted within the covers. 
This book contains numerous woodcuts, many of 
which bear the 'Lorraine Cross, the supposed mark 
of Geoffrey Tory.' 1 Itwasedited by Charles Estienne, 
the brother of the printer, who informs us in a short 
preface that the illustrations were taken from ancient 
monuments, and notably from marbles still extant 
at Rome. In addition to the woodcuts, are many 
fine initial letters, the well-known c Lettres fleuries,' 
also believed to be the work of Tory. 

Yet another enviable volume belonging to this 
most beautiful period of French art is ' Les dix 
premiers Livres de Tlliade d'Homere, Prince des 
Poetes, 5 printed at Paris by Jehan Loys, 1545. The 
woodcuts in this work are each of them surrounded 
by quaint arabesque borders, and these are appar- 
ently also due to Geoffroy Tory, though we do not 
find the book noticed by Bernard in his monograph 
of that artist. Another volume in the colle6tion has 
borders only, with all the pages otherwise blank, 
and is probably unique. 

A very late example of the use of a xylographic 

1 On this subject Lady Dilke corresponded with M. Claudin, 
the historian of the early French press, and converted him to her 


title is found in the fine copy of the c Mer des 
Histoires,' Les Angeliers (F. Regnault), 1543. This 
volume was formerly in the library of Mr. Shipperd- 
son, and it contains his book-plate and some interest- 
ing memoranda apparently by him. 

At the risk of dwelling too long on this seCtion 
of the collection, we must mention the beautiful 
copy of ' Le Premier Tome de 1'ArchiteCture ' of 
Philibert de TOrme, Paris, F. Morel, 1567, a fine 
folio work with a splendid title-page. 

Sir Charles Dilke has added a note: 'These and 
many other volumes left to her Executors and given 
by them to me, given by me to the South Kensing- 
ton Art Library, according to what I believe was 
her wish.' 

Lady Dilke was fond of collecting from book- 
sellers' catalogues cuttings and notes relating to her 
treasures. Such is notably the case with respect to 
c Le Premier volume des grans Decades de Titus 
Livius,' with the mark of Francois Regnault, Paris 
(1514?), a magnificent folio, bound in whole crushed 
morocco by Zaehnsdorf, with the ex-libris in gold 
on the outside of the cover. Several facsimiles 
clipped from book catalogues have been inserted in 
this volume. This is but one out of the complete 
set of three volumes, which are, however, seldom 
found together and are of the utmost rarity. 

Rich as it is in the early woodcut books of the 
sixteenth century, perhaps the greatest gems from 
the collector's point of view belong to a later date 
and come into the category of the treasured period 
when the aid of the eminent artists of the eighteenth 
century was invoked to adorn the masterpieces of 


the printer's skill. There is no more splendid work 
here in respedt of size and condition than ' Les 
Graces,' Paris, Laurent Prault, 1769, on thick paper 
and wholly uncut. This copy, moreover, possesses 
special interest from the fa6t that it contains a note 
by Lady Dilke concerning one of the illustrations. 
c This volume was originally bound without the 
plate " Les Graces Vierges," which should face 
page 75. I had this plate reproduced from one in 
the Cabinet des Estampes in 1902, and two proofs 
of this reprodu6lion on Japan carefully inserted by 
Zaehnsdorf/ This work is finely bound in old calf, 
with Lady Dilke's book-plate in leather. Here 
mention ought also to be made of the superb large 
paper copy in four volumes, folio, of the c Fables 
Choisies, mises en Vers par J. de la Fontaine,' with 
Oudry's illustrations, issued by Jombert, Paris, 1755, 
and the ' Fables Nouvelles,' of Dorat, La Haye, 


Lady Dilke does not seem to have fallen a vi6tim 

to the expensive taste for collecting emblem books, 
though she had a small number of choice specimens. 
We may mention in this category the c Diverse Im- 
prese' of Alciato, Lyons, 1549, a rather used copy, 
but richly bound in old crushed levant. The wood- 
cuts in this edition are each of them surrounded 
with a beautiful border. The copy of the c Imprese 
di M. G. Symeoni,' Lyons, 1560, was formerly in 
the Hopetoun Library and bears the book-plate 
and autograph of J. Balfourius. Here mention may 
be made of the fad: that in connection with her 
intention to treat of the woodcuts of the early 
Lyons press, as recorded in the Memoir, she had 


gathered not a few fine examples of work of that 

It is impossible to allude otherwise than very 
briefly to the many books which possess features of 
personal interest. 

Thus Jules Guiffrey, now direftor of the Gobelins, 
presented his work, e Les Caffieri/ Paris, 1877, to 
Paul Mantz, and the volume not only contains an 
autograph letter and also a memorandum that it 
formerly belonged to Mantz, but Sir C. Dilke has 
added that his wife c had much regard both for 
Paul Mantz and J. Guiffrey (pere). 

Not a few of the works were presentation copies 
to Lady Dilke by the authors; thus the c Essai sur 
Thistoire du Theatre/ by Bapst, Paris, 1893, has 
this inscription on the title-page: 

k Lady Charles Dilke, 

homage de profond resped, 


The finely illustrated work by Baron Roger 
Portalis, entitled ' Honore Fragonard, sa Vie et son 
CEuvre/ Paris, 2 vols., Rothschild, 1889, would 
appear also to have been a presentation copy. 

The collection is rich in scarce archite6tural 
books and monographs on special buildings. Many 
of these works are beautifully preserved and richly 
bound. There are also a few collections of rare en- 
gravings, such as c Les Places, Fortes, Fontaines, 
Eglises, et Maisons de Paris/ by Perelle, in oblong 
folio. This book is remarkable for its excellent 
topographical illustrations of ancient buildings 
which have now disappeared. 


It is scarcely necessary to state that works of re- 
ference on the fine arts are to be found here in 
great numbers, such as the' Abecedario,' of Mariette, 
in six volumes, Paris, Dumoulin, 1851-1860; the 
' Musee des Monuments Fran9ais,' by A. Lenoir, 
Paris, Guilleminet, the first volume dated ' An. IX.' 
(1800), and the eighth and last volume issued in 
1821. This work contains many excellent illustra- 
tions. Here also is the c Diftionnaire des Peintres 
de toutes les Ecoles,' Adolphe Siret, 4 vols., Paris, 
1883; c Kugler's Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte,' 
Stuttgart, 1 86 1; and Perrot et Chipiez, c L'Art 
dans FAntiquiteV 

Many volumes of inventories of State property 
are included here, such as the c Inventaire general 
des CEuvres d'Art du Departement de la Seine,' the 
* Inventaire general des CEuvres d'art de Paris/ and 
the ' Inventaire general des Richesses de la France/ 
21 vols., also a long series of the c Comptes des 
Batiments du Roi sous le regne de Louis XIV.' All 
these books are finely bound; Lady Dilke possessed, 
moreover, a very complete collection of the writings 
of the Vicomte H. Delaborde. 

Such standard publications as the ' Gazette des 
Beaux Arts,' c Le Chronique des Arts,' the c Jahrbuch 
der Koniglich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen,' 
from 1880 onwards, all in fine condition and uni- 
formly bound, are, of course, included, and there is 
a very extensive collection of catalogues, handbooks, 
and guides to the chief national and provincial 
galleries and museums in all parts of France, in- 
cluding many which could only be procured by a 
diligent traveller on the spot. 


In a large number of the volumes, Lady Dilke 
has written her name in a bold and characteristic 
handwriting, as for instance in ' Les Comptes des 
Batiments du Roi (1528-71) recueilli et mis en 
ordre par Le Marquis Leon de Laborde,' Paris, 
Baur, 1877. This work formed apart of the series 
published by the Societe de Thistoire de TArt 

A few of these books take us back to the time 
of Mark Pattison and the library at Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford, with the impressed stamp of Lady 
Dilke's first husband, as for example, Koberstein's 
c Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen National 
Litteratur,' 3 vols, Leipzig, 1847. 

As an instance of an annotated book, we may 
mention the work entitled, c Les Graveurs sur bois 
et les Imprimeurs a Lyon au XV e Siecle,' by M. 
Natalis Rondot, Lyons and Paris, 1896. In this 
volume Lady Dilke has made copious notes con- 
cerning certain of the artists whose careers are 

In some few cases the books belong to com- 
paratively modern art periods, which had, no doubt, 
special features of interest to the collector. We 
even find here * La Mascarade Humaine,' with 
some of Gavorni's best cartoons and an appreciative 
introduction by L. Halevy, Paris, 1881. We are 
told in the Memoir that in later life Lady Dilke 
became an admirer of Gavarni, as one of the first 
caricaturists who was also a great draughtsman. 

Lady Dilke's book-plate, of which, by the 
courtesy of Sir Charles Dilke, we are able to pre- 
sent a facsimile, is found in nearly all her books. 


This book-plate was designed, as already stated, by 
Lady Dilke herself. It is used in various ways, 
sometimes impressed in leather as a book-stamp, 
and also on vellum and paper. In the case of small 
books, only the central shield is in some instances 

A certain proportion of the books formerly be- 
longing to Lady Dilke will doubtless already be 
contained in the National Art Library, but it will 
be safe to say that no finer examples of some of the 
rarities can form part of the national collection; 
indeed, even in the case of the works of reference, 
duplicates will be valuable to art-students. Doubt- 



less, in selecting a final home for her treasures, 
Lady Dilke was not unmindful of the days when 
she was herself a student at Kensington, and the 
ultimate disposal of her collection is a touching 
tribute to the scenes where she, no doubt, was first 
impressed with the love of those phases of art, to 
which she was throughout life so devotedly at- 
tached, and to which she rendered such important 




HE British Museum possesses (press- 
mark C. 1 8. e. 2. | 17) a fragment of 
an indulgence which the cataloguer 
assigns, with a query, to the year 

1510* It is entered under the heading 

' Pardons/ in the e Catalogue of Early English 
Books.' The document is a very curious one, and 
reads as follows: 

C . . . my lord . . . gyueth an hondred dayes of pardon. 

C . . . my lorde the cardynall of saynt Malou gyueth an 
hondred dayes of pardon. 

C . . . my lorde the cardynall of saynt Marke gyueth an 
hondred dayes of pardon. 

C . . . my lorde the cardynall of Albanoys gyueth an hon- 
dred dayes of pardon. 

C Also my lorde the cardynall of the Four crowned gyu- 
eth an hondred dayes of pardon. 

C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Clement gyueth 
an hondred dayes of pardon. 

C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt S . . . ryace gyueth 
an hondred dayes of pardon. 

C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Ner . . . and Achyl- 
ley gyueth an hondred dayes of pardon. 

C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Syerg . . . and saynt 
Bach gyueth an C. dayes of pardon. 


C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Marcell gyueth an 

hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Sabyll of y e xii. 

apostles gyueth an C. dayes of pdon. 
C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Pry see gyueth an 

hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Johan saynt Poule 

gyueth an hondred dayes of pdon. 
C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Grysogon gyueth 

an hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Stephen incelymot 

gyueth an hondred dayes of pdon. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Mary detrastlbre 

gyueth an hondred dayes of pardo. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Anastaze gyueth 

an hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde y e cardynall of saynt Susane gyueth an 

hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde y 6 cardynall of saynt Peter ad vicula 

gyueth an hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Sabyne gyueth an 

hondred dayes of pardon. 
IT Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Theodore gyueth 

an hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde the cardynall of saynt Nycholas gyueth 

an hondred dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde the bysshop of London gyueth forty 

dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde the bysshop of Wynchester gyueth forty 

dayes of pardon. 
C Also my lorde the bysshop of Norwyche gyueth xl dayes 

of pardon. 
C Also the foure general ordres at Rome dayly prayeth for 

the good state and prosperyte of all them y fc helpeth/ 

socoureth/ or dothe theyr charytable almesse vnto y e 

sayd marchauntes. 
C The somme of the pardons is fyue yeres and fyue 


lentes/ and two thousand foure hondred and four 
score dayes/ and true Indulgence to euery bene- 
factour (totiens quotiens). 

Merchants are not generally objefts of c almesse,' 
and at first it seems remarkable that traders with 
so many friends of such eminence should be in 
need of charitable contributions. The puzzle re- 
ceives a solution from a similar fragmentary indul- 
gence preserved in the Lambeth Palace Library. 
This is described by Maitland, 1 and was printed in 
the 'British Magazine' (vol. xx, Sept., 1841, 
p. 260). This document is printed on a broadside 
headed by a woodcut of the Crucifixion, between 
two other woodcuts of the arms of the Pope and 
of the King. It had been cut and folded to form 
the flyleaves of a quarto volume, and is torn. What 
remains reads as follows (some of the contraftions 
having been extended): 

Be it knowen to all trewe Cristen people we have re- 
ceyued a commaundement from our holy father pope 
Leo the X. of that name nowe beyng pope of Rome and 
xxii. Cardynalles (and also by my lorde of Caunterbury 
primat of Englande) and at the requirynge of our Soue- 
raygne lorde kynge Henry the VIII. to showe and openly 
declare of certayne Marchaunts taken prysoners by the 
Maurys and Infydels ennemyes of our Cristen fay the. 

C Our holy father pope Leo that nowe is consyderynge 
that where ii. certayne Bretherne John Bussett and Rich- 
arde Bussett marchaunts of Auynion in tyme of con- 
uayiynge of theyr marchaundyse by the See to the Cytie of 

1 ' List of some of the early printed books in the Archiepiscopal 
Library at Lambeth.' 1842, p. 262. 


Valentyne with dyuerse other Cristen people beyng in 
theyr Shyppe after a longe concertayon and fyght or 
bateyll with manslaughter by a daye and a nyght ayenst 
the Maurys and the Infydels upon the See were taken by 
the sayd Maurys. C Also our holy father consyderynge 
that the sayd John and Richarde by the reason of that 
captyuyte were conuayed and adducte to the parties of the 
Infydels to theyr myserable seruytute and also consyder- 
ynge that whereas the sayd Maurys bycause that they 
myghte exacte and extorte some Summe of money of 
theym dyd put the sayd John and Richarde to cruell tor- 
tures and tormentes by reason of the whiche the sayde 
John and Richarde so that they myght be released of so 
great paynes for fere of the sayd tortures and tormentes 
dyd promyse unto the sayde Maurys the Sume of .viii. C. 
large ducates of golde for theyr relaxacyon and redemp- 

C And as the sayd John Bussett fyndynge sufficient 
suertie was delyuered and released onder this effecte and 
condycyon that he shulde gader the almysse of cristen 
people and to paye the foresayd summe of .viii. C. ducates 
and bycause the sayd John and Richarde by reason of the 
sayd spoylynge and robbynge and losse of theyr goodes 
Be made so poore that they be nat suffycyent to paye the 
foresayde Summe without the cherytable helpe of cristen 
people. And also bycause the sayde John syns the tyme 
of his delyueraunce under the condycion abouesayd hathe 
been vexed with many infyrmyties and sore sykenesse and 
also at the tyme of these grauntes was sore vexed there- 
fore our holy fader the pope seynge hymselfe oonly nat to 
be suffycyent to relue all suche poore and oppressed 
people conuytynge the sayd John and Richard to be re- 
leued and released from theyr captyuyte and that cristen 
people shulde be more redyer to put theyr helpynge 
handes for the redempcion of the sayd persones in that 
they shall se theymselfe plentyfully to be refresshyd with 
the gyfte of the heuenly grace trustynge of the mercy of 


almyghty God and the audoryte of seynte Peter and Paul 
and lykewyse by his owne au&oryte of his Bulle under 
Leade to euery cristen man and woman geuynge of theyr 
goodes truely gotton as often and many tymes as they shall 
do their cherytable almysse for the releasynge and the re- 
dempcion of the sayd John and Richarde beynge in cap- 
tyuyte, hath released .vii. yeres and .vii. lentes of 
penaunce enioyned out of purga . . . [torn] dynge also 
all Archebysshops bysshops abbottes pryours prechers of 
the worde of God parsones and pa ... chapelles and other 
persones ecclesiasticall to whom this present wrytynge 
shall come under paynes and . . . ly churche of Rome to 
publysshe in theyr churches and opyn places or cause to 
be publysshed these sayd . . . ly father as often as they 
shal be requyred by the sayd John beynge released as is 
aforesayd or ellys by ... 

C And also they to depute .ii. discrete men for to gather 
the meke and deuoute almysse of cristen peopl . . . and 
places durynge the space of .iii. yeres from his date of his 
Bulle which is the yere of our Lord . . . the .xxviii. daye 
of August and these .ii. men so deputed to haue auctoryte 
to gather the almysse of cristen peop . . . the sayd John so 
commendyd unto theym to gyue theyr ayde and fauour 
unto these thynges aforesayd. And that no ... gatherer 
otherwyse vulgarly called pardoners be suffered in that 
behalfe and these .ii. men also and other deputies to gyue 
a good and laufull accompte of theyr receytes under the 
paynes and censures of the holy churche of Rome as is 

C Ferthermore to excite all cristen people to be the 
more benyuolent to the foresayd charitable adle and dede 
.xxii. Cardynelles hath graunted as often and as many tymes 
as they shall do it eche one by hymselfe a. C. dayes of 

C Also our soueraygne lorde kynge Henry the .viii. 
hath gyuen out his letters patentes under his brode Scale 
requyrynge and prayinge to all theym that be his true 


louers and subjectes fauourably to receyue the messengers: 
ferthermore hath straytly charged and comaunded to all and 
synguler hed offycers that is to say his Mayres Sheryffes 
Constables and churche Wardeynes of euery Cytie Borough 
and Towne as well within the lyberties as without, they to 
gather the almysse dedes of euery cherytable and well dis- 
posed parsone and it so gaderyd to delyuer it to the sayd 
Colleclours and . . . [torn] to haue for theyr good dede 
Codes blessynge and our Ladyes. 

C Also my lord Cardynall archebysshop of Yorke and 
Chauncheller of Englande hath gyuen a. C. dayes of pardon 
totiens quotiens. 

C Also my lorde of Caunterbury primat of Englande 
hath gyuen and granted .xl. dayes of pardon titiens quo- 
tiens with his letter and scale of lycence thorowe his 

C Extrada a quadam bulk apostolica et a quiL^sdam 
litteris .xxii. Cardinalicum. 

C God saue the Kynge 

Will'mus permissione diuina Cant* Archiepiscopus totius 
anglie primus et apostolice sedis legatus. Uniuersis & 
singulis Rectoribus vicariis CapellanisCuratis et non curatis 
Ceterisq san&e matris ecclesie filiis per prouinciam nostram 
Cant' vblibet costitutis. Salutem gratiam et ben. in Uni- 
uersitatem vestram tenore presentium pre charitas et deuo- 
tionis intuiti rogamus et in domino exortamur quatinus 
cum Johanes Busset mercator Auinionen. ad vestras 
eccTias seu loca vestra accesserit xpifidelium elemosinas et 
alia charitatiua subsidia in reuelamen ipsius Johanis colli- 
gatis. Ipsumq Johem omni benigno fauore recipiatis tracte- 
tis et admittatis, Eundemq Johanem seu verum procura- 
torem eius priuilegia et indulgentias per sanctissimum in 
xpo patrem et dominum nostrum Dominum Leonema 
papam decimum in ea parte concessum : prout in cedula 
hie annexa et in linguam nostram vulgarem confectam : a 


quadam bulla apostolica eiusdem Domini nostri papa 
Leonis decimi plenius continetur ad exponendum et de- 
claran,dum in ecclesiis vestris parrochialibus intra mis- 
sarum vestrarum et aliorum diuinorum solennia cum 
maior in eisdem affuerit populi multitudo diebus domini- 
cis et festiuis vestre plebi id annuncietis : cum ad illud 
per predictum Johanem seu eius procuratorem congrue 
fueritis exquisiti libere permittatis. Ac christifidelium 
elemosinas donationes et largitiones pacifice absque per- 
turbatione colligere sinatis. Et quiquid in hac parte datum 
legatum siue collectum fuerit : id idem Johanni seu pro- 
curatori suo sine diminutione aliquali tradatis seu tradere 
faciatis absque dilatione. In cuius rei testimonium Sigil- 
lum nostrum presentibus est appensum. Ad vnum annum 
a die dat. presentium tantumodo durat. Dat' in manerio 
nostro de Lambeth. Nouissimo die mensis Maii Anno 
Domini M.C.C.C.C.C.xvii. Et nostre Trans. Anno xiiii. 
C The Summe of the hole Indulgence graunted by our 
holy father the Pope and his Cardynalles be .iiii M. viii 
C. xl. dayes. 

The two c Pardons ' might be thought to refer to 
the same unfortunate merchants, but the totals of 
the indulgences do not agree with each other. Nor 
do the separate items in each of the pardons agree 
with the total as stated. The larger promise is 
then either a second edition or a common form 
suggesting the existence of professional captive 
Christians living upon the charity of the benevolent. 
This suspicion is strengthened by an indulgence 
which is preserved in the John Rylands Library, 
and is attributed to the press of Pynson. It is 
printed on a broadside at the top of which is a 
picture of the Virgin and Child, flanked by the 
papal arms and those of England. It reads: 


C These be the articles of the pope's 
Bulle under leade | translated from 
latyn into englisshe. | 

Our holy father pope Leo the. x. of that name unto all 
cristen people that these present letters shall | see sendith 
salutacion and thapostolyque blissynge. | 

C Almyghtygod our creatour and redemptour to thentent 
he wolde delyuer mankynde from the thraldom and 
boundes | of our goostlye ennymye y e deuyll, was con- 
tentyd to sende downe into erth his onlye gotten sone to 
be endewyde with y 6 nature of man | for mannys redep- 
cion. By whose example, our sayd holy father beynge 
moued, enforsith hymselfe with all studye, for to delyuer 
from | the yooke of seruitude all those cristen people, whiche 
for the worshyppynge of cristys feyth in the miserable 
boudage of the ennymyes | of cristys feithe be op- 
pressed. | 

C Item our sayd holy father hath understande y* his 
welbelouyd chylde John Sargy of Corfu layman of the 
diocys of Athenis, be- | ynge borne of an noble progeny, 
with his two bretherne passynge by shyp, upon the see of 
Egey, towardes the lie of Creta, was taken by | certayne 
turkes robbers upon the see and brought by them unto 
myserable seruytude and boundage. | 

C Item our sayd holy father declareth how that the sayd 
John Sargy was delyuered from y 6 sayd seruytude (his sayd 
two brethern | abydynge still in captyuytie) for whose re- 
dempcyon and raunsome thre hundreth ducates of golde 
large was ordeyned for to be payed | voto the sayd turkes, 
whiche by reason of theyr pouertie, they be nat able for to 
paye. Wherfore greatly it is to be dred that onlesse In I 
breue tyme the sayd prysoners be comforted in that byhalre 
with y e deuout almes of cristen people, they beynge nat 
able longe to suffre | the paynes of so cruell thraldome 
shall be compelled for to denye the name of Jesu criste and 
his holy cristen religion. | 


C Wherefore our sayd holy father usynge the rowme 
in erth of our sauyour criste Jesu, who of his pytie and 
mekenes rewardith all de- | uout almoses and mercyfull 
gyftes by oon hundreth folde. And gyueth unto his trew 
people moche more than they can deserue, gladly | moueth 
all trewe cristen people unto the warkes of pytie, by in- 
dulgences and remyssions of synnes, to thentent, that they 
may be more | apte unto the fauours of god, and also by 
meane of theyr temporall gyftes they may deserue to 
obteyne the rewardes of eternall helthe. | 

C Our sayd holy father therfore desyrynge that the sayd 
prysoners shulde be delyuered from the sayd cruell seruy- 
tude, and that cristen | people may more gladly putto theyr 
helpynge handes for theyr redempcion for that, that they 
shall perceyue them selfe to be refresshed | more plenty- 
ously by the gyftes of heuynly grace, trustynge upon the 
mercy of almyghty god, and thau&oryte of Peter and Paule 
his | holy apostels, unto all & euerytrewe cristen people 
bothe man & woman trewly penytent and confessyd, the 
whiche unto the sayd John | Sargy, or unto any honest 
man that by hym shall be deputed, wyll put theyr helpynge 
handes of theyr laufull goodes after theyr de- | uocion for 
the redemynge of the sayd prysoners, as often times as 
they do so, mercyfully graunteth .xv. yeres and as many 
lentes of | pardon and indulgence, in remission of theyr 
synnes. | 

C Item our sayd holy father comaundeth all Patriarches 
archebysshops & bysshops under payne of interdiccion of 
enterynge y e chur | che, and all Abbottes, Priors, Plebaynes, 
Person and, Uycars of parrisshe churches, and prechers of 
the worde of god, and other spi | rituall persons unto 
whom these present letters shall come under payne of the 
sentence of excomunycacion that they publysshe or cause 
to be publysshed the sayd letters, in theyr churches, whan 
the moost people be theyr accompanyed to here the deuyne 
seruyce, and as | often tymes as they shall be requyred 
therunto upon the sayd Johns partye. | 


C Item our sayd holy father comaundeth that in euery 
parrysshe, where y e sayd John shall come, two honest and 
credyble psons shall j be deputed by the sayd curates, 
whiche, by the way or pytie and charyte, shall gether the 
almes and deuocion of people, and the same so | gethered 
they shall trewly delyuer unto the sayd John or his deputis, 
and ferther helpe and fauour them as apperteyneth. | 

C Item our sayd holy father inhybyteth and comaundeth, 
euery man what degre or estate so euer he be of, and also 
the comissaries de- | puted for the buyldynge of saynt Peters 
churche in Rome that they ne any of them trouble moleste 
or let the forsayd John or his depu- | ties in this ther 
present cause. Whiche his holynes wyll nat, to be com- 
prised in any reuocacion or suspencion of lyke indulgence 
made | in that by halfe by his holynes and the holy see 
apostolyque though all the sayd reuocacion be made in 
fauour of the sayd buyldynge of | saynt Peters churche in 
Rome, and the forsayd letters of indulgence his holynes 
wyll, do stande in strengthe and effect only for the ter | me 
of foure yeres next and imediatly folowynge the date of 
the same. Whiche is gyuen at Rome y e yere of the in- 
carnation of our lorde ] Jesu criste. M.CCCCC.xvi. the 
.xii. day before the kalenders of June the fourth yere of 
our sayd holy father the pope. 

C Here foloweth in englysshe the 
contentes of the kyngs moste | honor- 
able letters patentes of proteccion 
under his great scale. | 

C It hath pleased the kyngs moste noble grace not only 
moued with pytie and compassion towardes the redemp- 
tion & delyueraunce | of the aboue named prysoners from 
the seruytude and thraldome of the abouesayd turkes 
ennymyes to the name & relygion of criste | but also 
ryght entierly exerted and required unto the same by the 
popes holynes hath acceptyd and taken the fornamyd John 
Sargy | proctour for hym & his sayd bretherne his ser- 


uauntes and goodes into his moste royall & graciouse pro- 
teccion & defence, whereso euer | he or they shall come 
within this realme, requirynge all Bysshopes, Abbottes, 
Priors, Persons, Vycars and other spirituall per | sonages, 
in whose churches the sayd John or his deputes shall come, 
thankfully taccept and admytte them in that byhalfe. And 
also | straytly comuadeth all his Sheryfes Mayres & other 
his officers and subgettes tempall, that they shall mayn- 
tayne defende and ayde | the sayd John, his deputes and 
seruauntes and goodes where so euer they shall come, for 
alyuynge and getherynge of almes, & chary- | table gyftes 
of cristen people in this byhalfe, and that his sayd officers 
and subgettes shall nat do unto them any iniury hurte 
molesta- | cion trouble or greif, but shall let the same to 
be done by any other, and if any suche malyciouse de- 
meanour be comyttede agaynste hym | his sayd deputes or 
seruauntes, than they shall se it spedely and without delay 
dewly corrected, as more playnly it is expressed in his | 
moste graciouse letters patentes under his great seall ther- 
upon made. Dated at his palace of westmynster the . xxvi . 
day of Octobre in | the .x. yere of his reygne. Whiche 
letters of his sayd most royall & graciouse pteccion his 
hyghnes wyll, that after one hole yere next | ensuynge the 
date herof shall be voyde and of none effect. | 

Archbishop Warham is regarded as liberal in 
the issue of indulgences, and Hook offers a curious 
reason for this. ' Against the chance of opposition, 
in England, to the sale of indulgences,' he says, 
c Leo X had taken due precaution. A fourth of the 
money, if not a third, arising from the sale of in- 
dulgences, represented as an adt of mercy as well 
as a piety, was granted to Henry VIII.' l 

Pardons, genuine or fictitious, were very com- 

1 Hook, " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," vi, 342. 


mon at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of 
the sixteenth century, and were one of the causes 
that led to the controversy of the Reformation. 
The Chetham Library possesses a broadside indul- 
gence, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, in favour of 
the benefaftors of the building of St. George's 
Church, Southwark (' Halliwell Broadsides/ No. 
2193). From Mr. A. W. Pollard I learn that another 
copy of the indulgeuce in favour of John Sargy is 
in the British Museum, pressmark C. 18. e. 2. 
(8). In the same volume of fragments (No. 49) 
there is also a portion of an indulgence, printed by 
Faques, granted by Leo X to the contributories to 
the ransom (2,000 ducats) of a certain Sir John 
Pyllet, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre. This also 
is confirmed by Letters Patent of Henry VIIL A 
list of these English indulgences, including those 
in books the c Fifteen Oes/ for example would 
be very useful. The sale of indulgences was a 
frequent and favourite subjeft for the satirists. 


2 8 7 


HE most interesting novel published 
in France during the last three months 
is undoubtedly Marcelle Tinayre's 
c La Rebelled While it lacks the 
poetry and charm, and perhaps the 
deeper feeling of c La Maison du Peche,' and the 
romantic atmosphere and beautiful prose of c Fran- 
9ois Barbazanges,' it gets nearer to adtual life. It 
is, I suppose, what would be technically called a 
feminist novel. Its main thesis is the right of the 
economically independent woman to arrange her 
emotional life as she pleases, and to be permitted 
the same moral latitude as a man. Here is a 
striking passage which sets forth the matter very 

Que le travail des femmes soit un bien ou un mal, 
je 1'ignore, et 1'avenir seul nous le dira, mais c'est une 
necessite que la femme subit sans Fayoir desir6e, c'est un 
fait qui s'impose et qu'il nous faut accepter avec toutes ses 
consequences. Et la plus importante de toutes, c'est la 
revolution morale qui parait tre Teffet et non la cause de la 
revolution economique. 

Ce n'est point parceque la femme s'est affranchie morale- 
ment qu'elle a souhait6 conqu6rir son indpendance mate- 
rielle. A Tusine, a Tatelier, au magasin, au bureau, a 1'ecole, 
au laboratoire, elle cut priferi peut-^tre Tamour protedleur 
de I'homme et les tendres servitudes du foyer. Mais 
rhomme a ferm6 son foyer a la fille pauvre. Et la fille 


pauvre qui repugne a se vendre et ne consent pas a mourir 
de faim a essay de vivre hors du foyer, sans le secours de 
1'homme. Elle est done all oh elle pouvait gagner sa vie. 
. . . Elle s'est ape^ue, alors, qu'elle avait merite qu'elle 
pouvait conqurir autre chose que le pain quotidien, les 
vtements, et les logis : l'indpendance morale, le droit de 
penser, de parler, d'agir, d'aimer a sa guise, ce droit que 
rhomme avait toujours pris et qu'il lui avait refuse tou- 

Josanne Valentin married young. Very soon 
her husband becomes a chronic invalid, and she is 
forced to earn her own and his living as a journal- 
ist. Under these circumstances she thinks she has 
a right to happiness, and happiness with a French- 
woman seems generally a synonym for a lover. 
Josanne carries on an intrigue with a young man 
and has a child by him. The boy passes as the 
son of her husband, who has no suspicion that all is 
not quite correct. But the lover grows cool, and 
finally marries. By chance Josanne has to review 
for her journal a book by Noel Delysle, 'La 
Travailleuse,' from which the above passage is 
quoted. His interest is awakened by her criticism; 
he seeks out the critic, and falls in love with her. 
But although the sick husband dies, and all con- 
neftion with the former lover is entirely broken, 
Noel does not find it easy to put his theory into 
praftice. He is jealous, as any ordinary man would 
be, of Josanne's past, and the latter part of the 
book is a mere description of his mental and emo- 
tional struggles. But in the end he manages to 
quiet his scruples and marries Josanne in the or- 
dinary way. Conventions are hard to overcome. A 


woman who disregards them is indeed fortunate if 
she finds a man, no matter how great his affection 
for her, willing to disregard them too. But it will 
be many a long day before the history of Josanne 
and Noel becomes that of the average man, and of 
the woman who earns her living. The book 
strikes a new note in fiction, and the theme is one 
that admits of much more discussion. 

In c L'Ecoliere ' Leon Frapie gives a volume of 
short stories chiefly about the very poor of Paris 
or about small official life. He is less happy in 
this genre than he was in his longer book, c La 
Maternelle.' His short stories have a way of de- 
generating into anecdotes, interesting enough, but 
not deserving the name of literature. The title- 
story is perhaps one of the best. A mother who is 
in prison writes a letter to her ten-year old daugh- 
ter, who is at home looking after the younger 
children, finding considerable fault, clear as it is 
that the little girl is simply accomplishing won- 
ders. The irony of the situation is seen in the 
following extracts from the correspondence. c Ta- 
chez-donc,' writes the mother to her children, 
' d'etre plus raisonnables et peut-etre que, des 
mon retour, je vous donnerai encore une petite 
soeur. Et pourtant vous ne le meritez guere.' To 
which the daughter replies: 'Pour ce qui est, 
d'une petite soeur, nous aurions prefere un poele en 
remplacement du notre, qui est tout demoli; nous 
avons eu si froid, 1'hiver dernier! Mais comme tu 
dis: ou a plus vite une petite soeur qu'une paire 
de chaussures neuves.' 

In ' La Menagere/ a sketch almost equally good, 



Dubour, a small official, is known by his colleagues 
to be completely ruled at home by his menagere 
whom they naturally take to be a hedtoring wife. 
None of them, however, have seen her. When 
asked to accompany them on some evening ex- 
pedition of pleasure, he invariably replied: c Merci, 
impossible la menagere m'attend a Theure exa6le.' 
But on one occasion he was prevailed on to join 
them, and drinking more than was good for him, 
one of his friends took him home, and so discovered 
the menagere to be his twelve-year old daughter. 

'Jesse und Maria. Ein Roman aus dem Donau- 
lande,' by E. von Handel-Mazzetti, has curiously 
enough attracted almost more attention in France 
than in the land of its birth. Henri Bremond de- 
voted two long articles to it in the periodical 
' Demain.' It is a religious novel, and Bremond 
hails its advent thus: 

Avec ( Jesse und Maria/ le roman catholique brise ses 
chalnes, sort joyeusement de la prison d'ennui, de banalite 
et de pieux mensonge ou il languit depuis si longtemps et 
devant laquelle tant de solides prjuges montaient la garde. 
Pas de sermons dans ce livre courageux, pas de contro- 
verses mal dguises . . . mais seulement une oeuvre 
d'art, comme < Adam Bede ' et le ' Piccolo Mondo Antico,' 
un roman d'observation attentive et de vrite profonde, 
une oeuvre vivante, jeune, harmonieuse comme une fresque 
de Gozzoli. 

While unable wholly to endorse this somewhat 
extravagant praise, I must confess that the book is 
deeply interesting, and its simplicity of treatment 
and style savour of true genius. The time is 1658; 


the place, the old town of Pechlarn on the Danube. 
Protestantism is kept down by oppressive edifts, 
but has many adherents even among the nobles, al- 
though they fear exile too much to own it. But 
not so Jesse. Heedless of the imperial decrees, he 
studies at the High School of Wittenberg, is mar- 
ried in his own castle according to the Protestant 
rite, and plans to bring over the whole neighbour- 
hood to Protestantism. His enthusiasm, his youth, 
win him all hearts except one, that of Maria, the 
forester's wife. She feels instinctively that Jesse is 
robbing her husband and herself of their faith. 
The young noble is determined to put down image- 
worship, and the image of the Virgin, a miracle- 
working pifture, presented by the forester as a 
thank-offering for recovery from a severe illness, is 
especially obnoxious to Jesse; he sees in it all he is 
struggling against, and regards it as a personal 
enemy. His supporters even do not desire to get 
rid of it. But Jesse is led to mean acftions; he makes 
use of the forester's needs, and promises to pay his 
debts if he will deliver up the image. Maria learns 
what is toward, and determines to prevent it at all 
costs. As none of their relatives will advance the 
money required, she goes to the Jesuit College at 
Krems, denounces Jesse to the Re6tor, and asks for 
the commission against heretics to be sent to Pech- 
larn. It comes. Jesse is brought to trial, and sees 
that there is no help for him. In his rage he 
shoots at the presiding abbot. The wound is not 
mortal, but all the same Jesse is condemned to 
death. Maria, in the hope of saving his soul, visits 
him in prison. But Jesse cares for nothing except 


to have the news of his young wife's safe confine- 
ment before he dies. His grief subdues Maria. She 
goes to his wife, finds she has just been delivered 
of a son, but cannot herself feed him, and no one 
will nurse the child of the godless heretic. Then 
Maria takes him to her own breast. She hastens 
to the condemned cell with her news and Jesse 
no longer regards her as his enemy, but as the 
woman who has saved his child. He sees that he 
has adted wrongly in attempting to rob the people 
of their faith, and goes to death as atonement for 
his sin. And thus do the common feelings of hu- 
manity triumph over religious controversy and 
persecution. The sincerity of the author, who is a 
woman, is undoubted, and all the characters live. 

To adopt a child is a dangerous experiment that 
too often ends in failure. Clara Viebig brings out 
that aspect of a thorny problem in her latest novel, 
' Einer Mutter Sohn.' She there depidts a married 
couple with everything to make them happy ex- 
cept children. They adopt a boy, son of a peasant 
woman of the Eifel distrift, and bring him up as 
their own child. But although they took the boy 
when a year-old baby, and carefully kept from him 
the history of his origin, nature or heredity was 
too strong, and his coarse-grained temperament 
and inherited longing for the free country life 
never permitted him to acquiesce in the refined 
life of his foster-parents, and it was loss and failure 
on all sides. At length, having given himself up to 
the coarsest forms of dissipation, he died at the age 
of twenty. The book is less interesting, less suc- 
cessful than is usual with this author. There are 


signs of effort; a gloominess that becomes at times 
oppressive pervades the narrative. 

Wilhelm Hegeler's new novel is a disappoint- 
ment. In c Flammen,' and c Pastor Klinghammer,' 
he had made a distinct advance in his art, but in 
' Pietro der Corsar und die Jiidin Cheirinca,' the 
movement is as distinctly retrograde. It is a blood 
and thunder story of theatrical pirates and their 
women captives. It does not relate their adven- 
tures, but only the ways and customs of their home 
life, if such it can be called, in the intervals. No 
one of the characters is alive or interesting. Hege- 
ler understands the psychology of the modern man 
and woman better than that of mediaeval pirates 
and robbers. 

* * * ~ * # 

It is a curious coincidence that two modern 
philosophical works inculcating an almost identical 
do6trine should have appeared simultaneously, one 
in France, the other in Sweden. Jules de Gaultier 
in ' Les Raisons de I'ldealisme ' discusses the con- 
ception of substituting the aesthetic for the ethical 
idea as a principal of justification of existence. He 
is here only carrying further the theories of his 
former works, c Le Bovarysme ' and c La fi<5tion 
universelle,' to both of which I have referred in 
former articles. There he dwelt on the power and 
desire of the human being, c se concevoir autre,' 
i.e., to imagine himself to be something different 
from what he actually is, and pointed out that that 
desire or power was really the basis of all human 
action. He concludes his new volume with the 
reflection that c sous le jour de Tidealisme, le fait 


de se concrvoir autre se montre la forme de toute 
existence possible.' Throughout he opposes to the 
ethical sense the speftacular sense. He explains 
the speflacular sense thus: c C'est tout plaisir pris 
a la consideration de quelque evenement indepen- 
damment de son rapport avec les modes directs de 
notre sensibilite ou de notre interet/ 

It is, of course, not possible to treat the subject 
in detail here. Gaultier begins by criticizing the 
methods and views of his predecessors. He ex- 
amines metaphysics and the dualist systems; meta- 
physics and the monist systems; metaphysics of 
matter; metaphysics of thought; Berkeley's idealism. 
He then passes on to idealism and the sensible 
reality; the extreme logic of idealism. Two 
fascinating chapters deal respectively with the 
c rationalism of illusion/ and e idealism and science.' 
Gaultier uses rationalism in the same sense as Kant 
uses pure reason. Gaultier is worth studying from 
beginning to end by all students and lovers of 
philosophy. He seems to get nearer than most to 
the needs of our own time, to the solving of some 
of the metaphysical questions that occupy the minds 
of most serious thinking persons at the present day. 

Ellen Key, the distinguished Swedish writer, and 
author of perhaps the best study of the Brownings 
that has so far appeared, is equally modern in her 
philosophical views, and her latest book, c Der Le- 
bensglaube: Betrachtungen iiber Gott, Welt und 
Seele,' will certainly add to her reputation as a 
thinker. Like Gaultier she is fond of substituting 
new lamps for old, and the most striking chapter 
in the book is perhaps that entitled: c Das Gliick 


als Pflicht' (Happiness as Duty). She chooses as 
motto Spinoza's maxim, c joy is perfection.' Her 
arguments are most interesting and convincing: 
the greater joy we feel, the more perfed: are we, 
the larger share we have in the divine unity; every- 
one has a right to the happiness he can command, 
but its worth depends on the kind of happiness he 
chooses; he who can live in the fullest sense in 
accordance with his nature, is not only himself the 
happiest, but also the most useful to others; while 
unnecessary self-sacrifice is to be avoided it is 
absurd to fulfil a duty at the cost of one's own 
happiness which is not essential for the happiness 
of another every true seeker after happiness knows 
that perfeftion is not to be attained without suffer- 
ing, nor progress without sacrifice. When young 
people ask their elders: What shall we do in order 
to make ourselves useful? Tell them to be seekers 
after happiness, for such are the strength, health, 
and beauty of a nation. And the future of the 
nation evolves above all from the desire of its youth 
for happiness; but let them be sure first to seek 
their own happiness. 

For only through his own complete and powerful desire 
for happiness will a man be filled with sympathy for the 
unhappiness of others. Only through his own demands 
for happiness and the satisfaction of those demands does a 
man know something of the demands of others. Only he 
to whom it is a delight to satisfy his bodily hunger will 
satisfy that of others so that they actually have enough. 
Only he who satisfactorily quenches his own thirst for 
knowledge will be able to quench that of others so that 
they are really refreshed. Only he who seeks the sources 


of joy to be found in nature and art will delight in render- 
ing it possible to others to experience such delights fully 
and wholly. Only he who has possessed love with his 
whole being, or has desired to possess it, will do his 
utmost to make it possible for other men to realize their 
love. Only he who unceasingly endeavours to increase his 
desire for happiness will, when he has to choose between 
his own happiness and that of the rest of mankind, have 
the strength to choose the latter. 

There is perhaps, it may be objected, nothing 
very new in all this. But it is set out in an attractive, 
interesting manner, and engenders thought in those 
who read it. Other chapters deal with the decay of 
Christianity; the change in the idea of God; the 
creed of life; the evolution of the soul through the 
art of living; eternity or immortality. 

Henri Bremond is already known in England by 
his delightful study of Thomas More. His latest 
publication is c Newman; Essai de biographic psy- 
chologique,' and we may mention, by the way, 
that he has in preparation a study of c George 
Eliot. Sa vie, son ceuvre, et sa doftrine.' A few 
sentences from the preface will sufficiently show 
the aim of the book on Newman : c predicateur, 
romancier, controversiste, philosophe, poete.' * Sauf 
un chapitre de pure critique litteraire, on n'a pas 
d'autre objet, dans le present livre, que d'esquisser 
le portrait et que de decrire la vie intime de New- 
man. . . . II ne s'agit ni de construire ni de dis- 
cuter une theorie, mais de sender une ame.' The 
book consists of an introduction, four parts, and an 
epilogue. Full honour is paid to Newman as writer 
and preacher. Bremond observes in the latter con- 


neftion that there are indications that the French 
clergy will soon renounce the oratorical formulae 
on which Christian eloquence has lived so long, 
and of which it is dying. To guide them in the 
new way, Bremond continues, to learn how to keep 
at an equal distance from the ancient and the 
modern rhetoric, from the academic sermon and 
the blustering ledture, they can have no better 
master than Newman. Bremond seals Newman of 
the company of Bossuet and Bourdaloue. He con- 
cludes a very interesting analysis and, indeed, a 
very remarkable one as coming from a foreigner 
of Newman's prose style with the highest praise 
of c cette phrase admirable, fluide comme celle de 
Renan et de Sainte-Beuve, abondante et harmoni- 
euse comme celle de Malebranche, solide comme 
celle de Bossuet.' Bremond's work is a study of 
much originality. 

English history and economics seem to interest 
foreign authors. Dr. Moritz Julius Bonn has been 
studying in Ireland the history of the English 
colonization of Ireland, and finding that Irish his- 
tory so far was written by poets, fanatics, and party 
politicians, he has published himself a work in two 
volumes, ' Die Englische Kolonisation in Irland.' 
His object is to consider critically the methods of 
the English colonial policy in Ireland. He begins 
with the colonization of the Anglo-Normans and 
ends in 1848. It is a very careful study of the 
subject, and much information is packed into a 
small compass. Georges Lecarpentier has made a 


study of 'La question agraire d'Ecosse et les Crofters,' 
which he publishes in the * Bibliotheque du Musee 
Social'; and Paul Mantoux, in c La Revolution 
Industrielle au XVIII 6 Siecle. Essai sur les com- 
mencements de la grande Industrie moderne en 
Angleterre/ points out how modern industry was 
born in England in the last third of the eighteenth 
century, and traces its rapid growth to its remotest 

A complete collection of the letters of Mile, de 
Lespinasse to M. Guibert is now available in the 
c Correspondance entre Mademoiselle de Lespi- 
nasse et le Comte de Guibert publiee pour la pre- 
miere fois d'apres le texte original/ by the Comte 
de Villeneuve-Guibert. It is not a new edition but 
a first complete edition. The volume forms an 
indispensable pendant to the Marquis de Segur's 
admirable book on Mile, de Lespinasse, which I 
mentioned in my last article. All the passages 
suppressed in the original edition of 1809 are here 
reproduced, with twenty unpublished letters in 
addition, and a certain number of letters, also 
never before published, from M. Guibert to Mile, 
de Lespinasse. The book is marred by the absence 
of both index and table of contents. I cannot here, 
fascinating as the task would be, criticize the letters. 
It has been done hundreds of times; I will only 
say that the unpublished letters still further accen- 
tuate the charafter of Mile, de Lespinasse, the 
nature of her relations with Guibert, and the fact 
that her passion was much stronger than his. 


Books about Rousseau are never ceasing, ' ce 
petit bourgeois qui fit de la botanique et remua le 
monde.' It seems curious nowadays that anyone 
should deem it necessary to defend Rousseau, but 
M. Bredif, the author of c Du caraftere intelleftuel 
et moral de Jean-Jacques Rousseau etudie dans sa 
vie et ses ecrits,' states that we ought to respeft 
him even while blaming him because c il fut coura- 
geux vis-a-vis des hommes dans la pensee de leur 
etre utile.' The book is a sort of biography of 
Rousseau's soul drawn from the Emile, the Con- 
fessions and the Correspondence. It is well done 
and should prove interesting to those who desire 
to probe farther into Rousseau's mind and heart, a 
somewhat thankless and surely a somewhat needless 

The following recently published books deserve 

c Histoire de la Peinture Franaise au XIX me 
Siecle, 1801-1900. Par Andre Fontainas.' 

A useful and interesting survey of the subject beginning with 
Louis David and his time. Ingres and Delacroix are next dealt 
with, as also the landscape painters from Corot to Daubigny and 
J. F. Millet. The later painters are described in two chapters, 
' Realists and Impressionists ' and * The Last Years of the Nine- 
teenth Century.' 

' Les registres de Nicolas IV, 1288-1292. Re- 
cueil des Bulles de ce Pape publiees ou analysees 
d'apres le manuscrit original des archives du Vati- 
can. Vol. II. Par Ernest Langlois.' 

One of the volumes, indispensable to students of history, pub- 
lished in the c Bibliotheque des e"coles francaises d'Athenes et de 


Rome,' under the auspices of the Minister of Public Instruction. 
Six works of a similar kind have already been published, and ten 
others are in course of preparation by competent editors. 

c Mon Ambassade en Allemagne, 1 872-73. With 
preface and notes by Andre Dreux.' 

The ambassador was the Vicomte de Gontant-Biron, posted at 
Berlin during a critical and difficult period. The book contains 
nothing very new, perhaps, but it helps to supplement such works 
as 'Occupation et liberation du territoire,' published under the care 
of the Thiers family. 

' Denkwurdigkeiten des Markgrafen Wilhelm 
von Baden. Vol. I. 1792-1818. Bearbeiter von 
Karl Obser.' Published by the Baden Historical 

' Briefe des Generals der Infanterie von Voigts- 
Rhetz aus den Kriegsjahren 1866 & 1870-71.' 
Edited by his nephew, Dr. A. von Voigt-Rhetz. 

The letters were written to his wife. The book, like the two 
just mentioned, forms a sort of supplement to the study of history 
on its main lines. 

c La Fondation de TEmpire Allemand (1852- 
1871). Par Ernest Denis.' 

An attempt, in which on the whole the author is successful, to 
give a general picture of the life of Germany from 1851 to 1871, 
taking in all the various sides political, literary, economic and 
thereby indicating the conditions which prepared and determined 
the formation of German unity. 

c La Litterature Italienne d'aujourd'hui. Par 
Maurice Muret.' 

A capital guide to a subject of which too little is known out- 
side Italy. 




The priest unpaide can neither sing nor say, 
Nor poets sweetlie write excepte they meete 
With sounde rewarde, for sermoning so sweete. 1 

'HE prevalence of a system of literary 
patronage has usually coincided with 
the existence of a despotic or at least 
highly aristocratic and centralized con- 
stitution of society. In such a society 
alone is the bounty of individual benefactors a 
necessity. In a community where power and wealth 
are widely distributed, and literary culture within 
general reach, there are contrived, almost inevitably, 
means of rewarding literary genius, based upon the 
fa6t of its ability to please large classes of men. 
Thus Thucydides, to whom the general vote of the 
Athenian citizens decreed at one time a public gift 
of 2,400, could afford to be independent of indi- 
vidual benefa6tors. A more commercial age, like 
our own, makes even its works of genius articles 
of merchandise, and substitutes for a gratuitous re- 
ward the market value of an edition. 

On the other hand, among conditions such as 

1 Lodge: 'A Fig for Momus,' Eclogue III. 


prevailed at Alexandria under the early Ptolemies, 
in Rome under Augustus, and in the Italy of the 
despots, the patron of literature is a necessity. There 
we find a comparatively small, wealthy, cultured 
society, under the leadership of men to whom the 
gratification of literary tastes is a luxury for which 
they are willing to pay with munificence. And it 
must be confessed that in such a society literary 
genius has flourished at least as well as in com- 
munities of more wide-spread culture. The list of 
writers who profited by the enlightened liberality 
of such patrons as Ptolemy, Augustus, Maecenas, 
Messala, Lorenzo de Medici, Alfonso of Naples, 
and Pope Nicholas V, includes some of the most 
renowned names in literature. 

In England the circle of cultivated aristocrats has 
at all times been far smaller than in Renascence 
Italy, nor have we ever been ruled by a monarch 
who could compare in taste and liberality with the 
great Italian humanist princes. The Teutonic cus- 
tom of befriending and honouring genius in the per- 
son of the scop, was, it is true, handed down to later 
times by rulers such as Alfred, and Henry Beauclerc; 
and this was, in the fourteenth century, reinforced by 
the example of Italy. But the practice was confined, 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, to the 
monarch, the royal family, and some of the greater 
ecclesiastical dignitaries. In the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, influenced again, no doubt, by 
the example of Italy, we find a more general re- 
cognition, on the part of the nobility, of their 
obligations as patrons of literature. But the condi- 
tions of society differed widely from those of England 


of the fourteenth century or Italy of the fifteenth. 
New commercial ideals, more widespread education, 
and the rise of a public if not literary, at least in- 
terested in reading, all tended to disturb the relation 
between patron and man of letters, hitherto accepted 
as natural. The reigns of Elizabeth and James 
mark a gradual disintegration of the aristocratic 
system of literary patronage, and the beginnings of 
economic independence on the part of the writer. 
Like all economic transitions, this was attended 
with very painful experiences for those concerned 
both patrons and proteges. Neither side realized 
the drift of circumstances, and efforts were aimed 
at the conservation of a dying system, which, rightly 
directed, might have facilitated the introduction of 
the new. We shall find that, all through the Eliza- 
bethan period, patronage was regarded as the one 
goal for the writer; hoped for, struggled after, all 
the more feverishly, because of a sense of its pre- 

Moreover, apart from the influence of tradition, 
it was inevitable that literary produftion, so far as 
it existed, should still subsist chiefly upon patronage. 
Books were only just beginning to be recognized in 
the world of trade, and, in that age, all that fell outside 
the sphere of buying and selling at recognized prices 
was matter of patronage. Patronage ruled in every 
walk of life. The halls of great men, the court- 
yards of country gentlemen, the antechambers of 
the court, 1 were thronged with suitors, pleading for 
every conceivable kind of gift, from the office of 

1 G. Goodman: < Court of James I ' (ed. 1839), i. 320. 


Groom of the Chamber to Her Majesty to the 
honourable employment of turnspit in a country 
kitchen. The elaborate mechanism of Civil Service 
Examinations, promotion by seniority, and registra- 
tion, which now shields greatness from the impor- 
tunate, was as yet undreamt-of; and the poet who 
wanted a sinecure or a dedication fee had to urge 
his claims personally amidst a crowd of rival ap- 
plicants. No party government stood in need of 
his services, as in the time of the more fortunate 
Addison; no host of periodicals opened their pages 
to his facile productions, as now; he must gain a 
patron or renounce his profession. Not a single 
writer who persevered in his vocation was free from 
obligations to patrons. Again and again they tell 
us that patronage alone can save, or has saved them 
from sheer want. Massinger declares that he could 
not have subsisted without the support of his 
patrons; 1 Nash openly entreats that some one will 
find him meat and maintenance, that he may c play 
the paper stainer'; 2 Lodge depicts a recognized 
type in his portrait of the unfortunate poet, driven 
by lack of patronage to forsake poetry for the 
plough. 3 

The old form of patronage, as experienced by 
Chaucer and Gower, was a substantial and satisfac- 
tory thing. It provided a sufficient income and 
permanent connection with an exalted family, en- 
suring protection and affording prestige. It de- 

1 ' Maid of Honour ' (Ded.). 

2 c Have with you to Saffron Walden.' < Works ' (ed. Grosart), 
iii. 42. 

3 ' Fig for Momus,' Eel. iii. 


manded in return the production of literary works 
of interest and artistic value, with, possibly, the 
performance of some few more or less routine or 
occasional duties, not infrequently delegated. The 
Writer himself was an honoured servant, regarded 
as reflecting glory upon his patron, and providing 
for him the highest form of refined pleasure. If the 
poet ever had to ask, he asked as one possessing a 
claim; if he suffered vicissitudes, it was that he 
shared those of his patron. 

Times had changed, however, as even Skelton 
had had to realize, half a century earlier. In Eliza- 
bethan days it is rare to find the tie between patron 
and protege so close and permanent. The names of 
those writers who were so fortunate as to meet with 
lifelong patronage are few indeed: Ascham, Daniel, 
Jonson it is doubtful whether another could be 
found. Even in the case of these favoured three 
there are signs enough that their needs were but 
inadequately met. Ascham, in a suit to the queen 
the year before his death, asks no more than to be 
enabled to leave 20 a year to each of his two sons, 
' Which,' he declares, ' will satisfy my desire, al- 
though as small a portion as ever secretary to a 
prince left behind him/ l Jonson was driven more 
than once to sell part of his library, and grieves that 
his fortune humbles him to accept even the smallest 
courtesies with gratitude. 2 By far the most fortun- 
ate seems to have been Samuel Daniel. He finds 
no more serious complaint to make than that, being 
employed as a tutor, he is e constrained to live with 

1 <Cal. State Papers,' Dom. Add., pt. 41. Oft. 10, 1567. 

2 'ToSackville.' Underwoods. 


children? when he should be writing ' the aftions 

of men. * 

The most enlightened and generous patrons of 
literature known to us were various noble men and 
women who group themselves around the central 
figure of Sir Philip Sidney. Though a poor man, 
Sidney was a devoted lover of the beautiful, and a 
true friend to the literary artist. Men of letters had 
special reason to share the almost idolatrous feeling 
with which he was regarded by his contemporaries. 
He is honoured with gratitude by nearly every 
writer of the times, and held up to public view as 
the ideal patron. Nash gave utterance to the general 
sentiment when he penned the following lament: 

c Gentle Sir Philip Sidney, thou knewest what 
belonged to a Scholler, thou knewest what paines, 
what toile, what travell, conduft to perfection: wel 
couldst thou give every virtue his encouragement, 
every Art his due, every writer his desert, cause 
none more virtuous, witty, or learned than thyselfe. 
But thou art dead in thy grave, and hast left too few 
successors of thy glory, too few to cherish the Sonn 
of the Muses, or water those budding hopes with 
their plentie, which thy bountie erst planted.' 2 

Philip's sister Mary, the wife of W. Herbert, Earl 
of Pembroke, shared his tastes, and continued, as 
far as possible, the patronage of his many literary 
proteges after his early death. Spenser dedicated to 
her one of the sonnets prefixed to his c Faery 
Queene'; Breton expresses passionate devotion to 

1 From a letter to Lord Keeper Egerton, prefixed to a pre- 
sentation folio of Daniel's works, 1601. See Grosart's ed., i, 10. 
a * Pierce Penilesse,' 1592. Works, ii. 12. 


her for having succoured him when in distress ; l 
Daniel acknowledges that she ' first encouraged and 
framed ' him to the service of the Muses, 2 and 
urged him to the choice of higher themes; Abra- 
ham Fraunce wrote two poems for her; 3 Nash 
praises her without stint. 4 She was evidently, like 
her brother, a genuine friend to literary art. 

Her son, William Herbert, third Earl of Pem- 
broke, inherited the tastes of his mother and uncle. 
He was educated in the love of poetry by his 
mother's wise choice of Samuel Daniel as his tutor; 
and many literary men later on owed him gratitude 
for kindnesses. The poet William Browne lived 
with him at Wilton; he befriended George Her- 
bert and the dramatist Massinger; John Florio was 
c under heavy obligations to him '; Davison, Chap- 
man, Breton, and John Taylor dedicated works to 
him; Donne was his intimate friend. But the most 
interesting fadt in connexion with him is his re- 
lation to Shakespeare. To him and his brother 
Philip was dedicated the famous First Folio of 
1623, an d he is stated by the editors to have ' pro- 
secuted both them (t.e., the works) and their author 
with much favour ' ! On this statement has been 
based a further conjecture that this same William 
Herbert is the celebrated ' Mr. W. H.' to whom 
the Sonnets were dedicated a conjedture not yet 
completely abandoned. He was of a most generous 
and attraftive nature, like his uncle, as is shown by 

1 'Pilgrimage to Paradise,' 1592 (Ded.). 

a 'Defence of Rime,' 1609. Ded. to Earl of Pembroke. 

3 The Countess of Pembroke's * Ivychurch ' and ' Emanuel.' 

4 Preface to ' Astrophel and Stella,' 1591. 


the following passage in a contemporary private 
letter: 4 My Lord of Pembroke did a most noble 
aft, like himself; for the king having given him 
all Sir Gervase Elwaies estate, which came to above 
1,000 per annum, he freely bestowed it on the 
widow and her children/ 1 Every New Year's 
Day the Earl used to send Ben Jonson 20 to buy 
books. 2 

Elizabeth, Countess of Rutland, Sidney's daugh- 
ter, does not seem to have inherited much of his 
interest in literature. At any rate, though she be- 
friended Jonson, he does not appear enthusiastic 
about her as a patroness of the arts. He makes 
appeal to her noble father's memory to stimulate 
her zeal for letters, reminding her that it would be 
a sin against her ' great father's spirit ' did she not 
inherit his love unto the Muses. 3 

Sidney's uncle, the famous Earl of Leicester, was 
a generous patron of scholars though preferring 
those of learned rather than of artistic bent, and especi- 
ally favouring Puritanical writers. He was friendly 
to Roger Ascham, whose son Dudley was Leicester's 
godson; and we are told that many persons were 
enabled by his generosity to pursue their studies. 
Works were dedicated to him by Greene, Florio, 
Edward Hake, and Spenser. 4 A particular interest, 
that of mystery, attaches to Leicester's relations 
with Spenser, as hinted at in the enigmatic dedica- 

1 James Ho well: 'Letters/ March i, 1618. 

3 Masson: ' Drummond of Hawthornden,' p. 100. 

3 ' To Eliz. Countess of Rutland ' (' The Forest '). 

4 Greene's * Planetomachia,' 1585; Florio's 'First Fruites,' 
1598; Hake's 'News out of Poules Churchyarde ' 5 Spenser's 
'Vergil's Gnat,' publ. 1595, 'long since dedicated.' 


tion of the translation of 'Virgil's Gnat' to the great 
nobleman. The little gnat, eager to save the life of 
a sleeping husbandman, towards whom a c hideous 
snake ' is making its way, makes use of his only 
means, his little sting, to awaken the sleeper and 
is brushed aside and slain by his first hasty move- 
ment. The husbandman is Leicester, the gnat is 
his humble friend Spenser, who thus allegorically 
alludes to their relations : 

Wrong'd yet not daring to expresse my paine, 
To you (great Lord) the causer of my care, 

In cloudie teares my case I thus complaine 
Unto yourselfe, that onely privie are. 

But if that any Oedipus unaware 
Shall chaunce, through power of some divining spright 

To reade the secret of this riddle rare, 
And know the purport of my evil plight 
Let him rest pleased with his own insight. 

But whatso by myselfe may not be showen. 
May by this gnat's complaint be easily knowen. 

In the latter part of the poem the ghost of the 
gnat appears to the husbandman, and reproaches 
him for the death, which has exiled him from all 
joy into the ' waste wilderness ' of Hades. 

Is Spenser referring to his own exile, far from all 
the joys of cultivated society, in Irish wilds? Was 
the patronage of Leicester, which sent the poet to 
Ireland, as secretary to Lord Grey, in reality a con- 
venient mode of freeing himself from a man to 
whom he owed too much ? The riddle is still un- 

Elizabeth's other chief favourite, the Earl of 


Essex, was also the recipient of many dedications, 
and much eulogy from literary men. He was him- 
self something of a poet, a masque-writer, and an 
artist. It was he who took upon himself the 
cost of Spenser's funeral; and he was intimate 
with the Earl of Southampton, Shakespere's friend 
and patron. 

Southampton was probably, after Sidney, the 
most discerning and generous of all the aristocratic 
patrons of literature at the opening of the seven- 
teenth century. He was devoted to the drama; at 
one time, when in disgrace, filling his abundant 
leisure by c going to plays nearly every day.' He 
was a generous friend to Nash, Barnabe Barnes, 
Markham, Florio, Minshew, and Daniel ; and he 
is eulogized by innumerable writers, including 
Chapman, Sylvester, Wither, Brathwaite, Sir J. 
Beaumont and Henry Lok. His relations with 
Shakespere must have been intimate; there is 
a perceptible difference of tone between the two 
dedications (of ' Venus and Adonis * and of ' Lu- 
crece') addressed to him by the great poet; the 
later of the two clearly expressing not so much 
gratitude as personal affeftion. It is most probable 
that he, and not Pembroke, is the friend who is 
addressed in the sonnets. 

Other noble benefactors must be passed over 
lightly. Most famous is Lucy, Countess of Bed- 
ford, the literary daughter of a literary father, Sir 
John Harington. During the reign of James I she 
was the favourite patroness of the literary world, 
generously helpful to many, and receiving from 
writers of acknowledged prominence, such as Dray- 


ton, Daniel, Jonson, Chapman, and John Davies of 
Hereford, grateful praises. Donne addressed several 
of his most beautiful and sincere poems to her. 
She seems to have been peculiarly happy in her 
choice of men of real genius as proteges. Another 
patroness was Margaret, Countess of Cumberland, 
who engaged Daniel as tutor to her daughter, Lady 
Anne Clifford, and accepted the dedication of a 
poem by Spenser; and the Elizabeth Careys, mother 
and daughter, with whom Spenser claimed relation- 
ship in the dedication of his poem c Muiopotmos,' 
and to whom Nash twice acknowledges his great 
indebtedness. 1 

It cannot have escaped notice that all these 
patrons have many proteges; and it will be surmised 
that, this being the case, their patronage was prob- 
ably occasional rather than permanent, and limited 
in amount. 

A frequent form of patronage was the bestowal 
of an annuity, large or small. Jonson had from the 
Crown an annuity of 100 marks, raised at his own 
request to 100. Prince Henry gave Michael 
Drayton a pension of 10, and Joshua Sylvester 
one of 20. It nee d hardly be pointed out that, 
even for the barest subsistence (except in Jonson's 
case) these annuities could only serve to supple- 
ment some other income. 

Maintenance at the University was a form of 
bounty bestowed by many benefaftors upon pro- 
mising youths. It was an old praftice, dating from 
mediaeval University customs, when scholars for 

1 * Terrors of the Night ' (Dedication, 1594). c Christ's Tears * 
(Dedication, 1593). 


the greater part lived upon charity, and when it 
was a work of piety to bestow upon a talented youth 
the training which might fit him for holy orders. 
Camden, and Speght, and many more were thus 
indebted to private benefadtors for their University 
training. It was not, however, the invariable rule 
that such patronage was followed up by adequate 
help later on. 

The least burdensome method of bestowing 
patronage was to confer upon the protege some 
official appointment. Spenser, for example, was 
made secretary to Lord Grey of Wilton, and later 
on a clerk in the Irish Court of Chancery, and to 
the Council of Munster. Whether such appoint- 
ments were likely to aid or to thwart the poet in 
his chief pursuit seems to have been a question 
rarely considered even in earlier days; in Spenser's 
case it can hardly be doubted that, though they 
may for a time have freed him from sordid cares, 
they seriously encroached upon his leisure. If the 
duties of the post could be fulfilled by delegation, 
the evil was, of course, avoided. 

Few generous-minded persons would now care 
to adopt a method of benefaction which appears in 
the sixteenth century to have been amongst the 
most frequent viz., that of affording hospitality to 
the author. Nash was by no means a tadtful or 
delicate-minded man, yet he was probably housed 
for some considerable time by the generous Careys. 1 
It is to be hoped that they met with some recom- 
pense in the caustic wit of his conversation. John 

1 See his reference to them in 'Terrors of Night,' dedication 
and opening paragraph. 


Donne, with his whole family, was hospitably 
entertained for five years by Sir Robert Drury. 
Even the dogmatic, arrogant Ben Jonson lived as 
the guest of Esme Stuart, Lord d'Aubigny, also for 
five years. Spenser, too, was certainly at one time 
the guest of the Earl of Leicester for how long a 
period is not known. 

Other patrons would bestow gifts of money, vary- 
ing in amount. King Charles not usually very 
generous to literary men, once gave Jonson a present 
of 100; an d Mr. Sidney Lee accepts as trustworthy 
the anecdote related by N. Rowe, that the Earl of 
Southampton upon one occasion gave to Shakespere 
the munificent sum of 1,000. 

One fad: emerges clearly as the result of study of 
this period. However widespread was the habit of 
patronizing men of letters, the bounty provided did 
not nearly suffice for the existing writers. It reached 
very few in sufficient amount to satisfy either their 
expectations or their needs. Nor do the writers 
scruple to express their discontent. The most out- 
spoken are Nash who never minced his words 
and the writer of the c Pilgrimage to Parnassus ' 
(1597). Nash describes his fruitless efforts to court 
patronage by his writings. ' All in vaine I sate up 
late and rose early, contended with the colde and 
conversed with scarcitie; for all my labours turned 
to loss, my vulgar muse was despised and neglefted, 
my paines not regarded, or slightly rewarded, and 
I myselfe (in prime of my best wit) laid open to 
povertie. Whereupon ... I accused my fortune, 
railed on my patrons . . .* ' The unfortunate poet 
1 * Piers Peniles.' Grosart, Works, ii, 9. 


in the c Pilgrimage to Parnassus/ spent many years 
in study, looking still to meeting with c some good 
Mecaenas that liberalie would rewarde'; but alas! 
so long did he feed on hope that he well-nigh 
starved ! l 

Why was this bitter experience so common? 
Daniel attributes it, not to indifference, but to the 
barriers between the great and their inferiors in 
station, which keep from them the knowledge of 
the need for their bounty. 

For would they but be pleased to know, how small 

A portion or that overflowing waste 
Which runs from them, would turn the wheels, and all 

The frame of wit, to make their glory last, 
I think they would do something ; but the stir 

Still about greatness, gives it not the space 
To look out from itself, or to confer 

Grace but by chance, and as men are in place. 2 

Daniel speaks charitably. He had indeed himself 
much cause for gratitude. Others might have spoken 
as charitably had they realized the fals, that the 
demands made upon patronage were too heavy to 
be met. The system was breaking down under the 
stress of changed conditions. In olden times, if 
patrons were few, so also were writers. Moreover 
there was then absolutely no resource for the would- 
be writer but patronage or the monastery ; failing 
these a man had to give up the attempt to live the 
literary life. In the days of Elizabeth and James I, 

1 c Pilgrimage to Parnassus,' ed. Mackay, p. 20. 

2 Verses to J. Florio, 1611, prefixed to 'Queen Anne's New 
World of Words.' 


on the other hand, while the latter of these refuges 
had disappeared, thus leaving patronage to bear an 
additional burden, other circumstances, newly arisen, 
tended to increase the number of professional writers 
beyond the old limits. The growing accessibility 
of books fostered literary studies and ambitions; the 
changes taking place in education tended to give 
more prominence to the Humanities; and further, 
the fashionable Court interest in literature, and the 
general popularity of poetry and of drama, seemed 
to open out alluring prospers of fame and profit to 

Hence the class of professional writers increased 
out of proportion to the class amongst whom patrons 
were to be found. The only persons who regarded 
very seriously their obligations as patrons of the 
literary man were the higher nobility, and the older 
country gentry. But these were neither very wealthy 
nor very numerous, and were heavily burdened by 
increased expenditure due to social conditions. On 
the other hand, the wealthy nouveaux-riches either 
held such obligations lightly, or held views which 
rendered them indifferent altogether to belles lettres. 

Hence, inevitably, changed relations between 
patron and protege. Of old, a talented youth would 
be educated by his natural proteftor, the great man 
of his birthplace, and, later on, fostered and en- 
couraged by him in literary production. The return 
to be made for this beneficence was simply the 
creation of learned work for the gratification of his 
patron's immediate circle of friends. Now, he had 
become merely an unattached suitor, with few or 
no special claims, striving amidst a crowd of others 


to snatch for himself a share of the bounty which 
not all could possibly obtain. He had to live in the 
midst of perpetual rivalry; he must for ever be 
striving to bid higher than his fellows. Literary 
productions become, not a graceful and natural out- 
come of favourable circumstances contrived by his 
patron; but eager bids for bounty by the needy. If 
he is so fortunate as to be able to give thanks for 
favours received, beneath the gratitude can con- 
stantly be detefted craven fear lest no more should 
be forthcoming. The reader is saddened by the 
inevitable prominence given, in dedications, to the 
patron's charity, rather than to his taste or judge- 
ment. In this, again, Nash is a most shameless 
offender; see his reason for eulogizing Mistress 
Elizabeth Carey: 1 'Divine lady, you I must and 
will memorize more especially, for you recompense 
learning extraordinarily.' 

The bait which the writer holds out is public 
eulogy. Under earlier conditions of patronage there 
had been but small occasion for this. A gracefully 
turned compliment, a promise of lasting remem- 
brance, the choice, as subje<5t for imaginative treat- 
ment, of some incident connected with the patron, 
this was all that was required. The work itself 
was sufficient return for benefits received; and the 
fad: that manuscript copies were necessarily few and 
expensive rendered it impossible to advertise to a 
world of outsiders the beneficence of the patron. 
But in the Elizabethan age the poet's work most 
frequently owned no natural patron; the patron 
himself had still to be attracted by artificial means. 
1 Dedication, * Christ's Tears,' 1593. 


He must be bribed by the offer of widespread fame, 
must be extolled for virtues raising him above the 
common run of benefactors. Hence extravagance 
of eulogy; hence servile humility in the writer. If 
any one should care to know to what lengths of 
exaggerated praise a man of genius could be carried 
in his desire to earn a patron's good will, let him 
study the verses addressed by John Donne to the 
bereaved father of Mistress Elizabeth Drury, a girl 
of fifteen, and probably unknown to Donne. Trans- 
figured though they are by imaginative power, they 
yet betray unmistakable signs of the effort to bid 
high. The verses reached their mark, and Donne 
became for many years the intimate friend and de- 
pendant of the wealthy Mr. Drury. 

Further evidence is afforded of the casual nature 
of the bond between patron and writer, when a still 
greater poet, Spenser, is found to have written his 
beautiful but conventional lament ' Daphna'ida,' on 
a lady whom he had never seen! How different are 
these two eulogistic mourning poems from Chaucer's 
simple, touching lament for the death of his patron's 
wife, Blanche the Duchess! He had known and 
loved the beautiful, gracious woman whom he 
honoured in his poem; and his verses, artistically 
equalled by Donne's and Spenser's, carry off the palm 
because of their sincerity. 

To the student of the inner history of the lives 
of professional writers in this age, nothing is more 
saddening than such proofs of the loosening of the 
personal bond between patron and poet. Many 
dedications are obviously addressed to complete 
strangers; more to men whose acceptance of the 


dedication is clearly the utmost that the writer 
ventures to hope for. Amongst the most pathetic, 
with its implied reproach to the man on whom the 
writer conceived he had natural claims, is Philip 
Massinger's to Charles, Lord Herbert, son of the 
Earl of Pembroke. 

c However I could never arrive at the happiness 
to be made known to your lordship, yet a desire, 
born with me, to make a tender of all duties and 
service to the noble family of the Herberts, descends 
to me as an inheritance from my dead father Philip 
Massinger. . . , J1 

It is a sure sign of the lack of effective patronage, 
when an author dedicates his works to a great variety 
of patrons. Thus poor Robert Greene has not less 
than sixteen different patrons for seventeen books. 
Nash's one brief period of comparative prosperity 
is marked by the dedication of two successive books 2 
to his generous friends the Careys: his friendlessness 
is shown by the variety of his other dedications. 

Of course, few dedications were in themselves 
adequate to attract more than a passing charity. A 
man could not hope for life-long recognition on the 
strength of an extravagant compliment at the head 
of a literary trifle. Therefore dedications were not 
relied upon to do more than procure a sum of money, 
varying according to the means and disposition of 
the dedicatee, and his estimate of the work. They 
might sometimes induce a man of rank to use his 

1 Dedication of c The Bondman,' 1623. His father's real name 
was Arthur; in 1624 edition (Bodleian) it is given as 'Arthur.' 

a ' Christ's Tears over Jerusalem,' 1593; 'Terrors of the 
Night,' 1594. 


influence in obtaining for the writer some unim- 
portant post: but as such posts were nearly always 
bestowed simply * in reversion/ the applicant often 
preferred a prompt money reward. The uncertain 
value of such reversions is painfully illustrated by 
the life-long waiting of the unfortunate John Lyly 
for the office of Master of the Revels, the holder 
of which persisted in outliving him. In vain the 
unlucky writer pleaded for something more sub- 
stantial, c some lande, some good fines or forfeitures 
. . . that seeing nothing will come by the Revells, 
I may pray (i.e. prey) uppon the Rebells. Thirteene 
yeares your highness* servant, but yet nothing . . . 
a thousand hopes, but all nothing, a hundred pro- 
mises but yet nothing . . . my last will is shorter 
than myne invencion: but three legacies, patience 
to my creditors, melancholic without measure to 
my friends, and beggerie without shame to my 
family.' 1 A humbler instance of the futility of 
many bits of patronage is afforded by the following 
letter from Christopher Ocland to Sir Julius Caesar 
(i3th Sept., 1589). Incidentally it throws interest- 
ing light upon methods sometimes employed for 
filling positions under Government: 

' I made a book of late in English and did for 
some especiall causes dedicate the same to my Lorde 
of Warwicke. I was in consideration of the same 
to see about the Tower and St. Katherine's for a 
gunner's roome (i.e. a post as gunner) in the Tower 
(for they be of my Lord of Warwicke's being 
Master of the Ordnance' gifte) and to finde out a 
man meete for the same who might give me some 
1 E. Arber: 'Euphues,' Introduction, p. 10. 


competent piece of money, and my said Lorde wolde 
for my sake bestow the same roome upon him. 
Whilst I seeke this, fifteen or more days be spent, 
and the time lost. ... I shall have money for the 
same gunner's roome at Easter next, and a yeare 
hence. So frustrate of my purpose I fall into want 
. . . such is my ill hap and fortune.' 1 

A money fee was, then, in most cases preferable, 
and more usual. It was the sixteenth-century sub- 
stitute, not so much for genuine patronage, as for 
the chance charity afforded in mediaeval times to 
the poor University scholar. The scholar was 
always poor, and lived as a matter of course upon 
charity either that of the individual or of the 
public in general. 

Al that he myghte of his frendes hente 

On bookes and on his lernynge he it spente, 

And bisily gan for the soules preye 

Of hem that gaf him wherewith to scoleye. 2 

The Elizabethan literary man, unlike Chaucer's 
Scholar, did little praying for souls; but on the 
other hand he received readily all gifts that fell in 
his way. The usual fee paid for the dedication of 
a drama was forty shillings; 3 but far smaller sums, 
as low even as half-a-crown, were thankfully re- 

There is no evidence of much desire for dedi- 

1 Camd. Soc., vol. 23, p. 71. 

2 Chaucer: 'Canterbury Tales,' Prol. 299-302. 

3 N. Field: Dedication of ' A Woman is a Weathercock,' 1612. 
The sum was probably equal to 10 or 12 present money. 


cations amongst the wealthy; the supply clearly 
exceeded the demand. In this, if in nothing else, the 
sixteenth-century writer was less fortunate than his 
successor in the later seventeenth century. Then, 
the universal fashion in the upper classes of parad- 
ing literary taste and generosity, produced a con- 
siderable demand for dedications so much so that 
writers were known to pen a dedication, hawk it 
round to get the highest offer possible, and then 
write the book as a mere appendage to it. 

It is to be noted that the approbation of a great 
man had a value not to be measured by the bounty 
aftually bestowed upon the writer. Its indirect 
effeft upon the general public was at least equally 
important. Jonson, pleasing himself by anticipating 
the acceptance of his verses by Lord Digby, already in 
imagination sees the public clamouring for copies: 

. . . O, what a fame 'twill be. 

What reputation to my lines and me! 

. . . What copies shall be had, 

What transcripts begged! 

Being sent to one they will be read of all. 1 

It is this consciousness of the power of aristocratic 
example that causes S. Daniel to make dignified 
appeal to the 

. . . mightie Lords, that with respected grace 
Doe at the sterne of faire example stand. 

He urges them to c holde up disgraced knowledge 

1 To Lady Digby Underwoods. 


from the ground/ Alas! he is constrained sadly to 

. . . the small respedl 

That these great-seeming best of men do give. 
(Whose brow begets the inferior sort's negledl.) 1 

Some of these great-seeming ones were so fully 
conscious of the value of their smile, that they con- 
sidered the unfortunate author amply rewarded by 
the mere acceptance of a dedication. But, indeed, 
such acceptance was by no means, in all cases, the 
simple thing it would appear. Patrons occasionally 
realized, to their cost, that certain obligations en- 
tailed by patronage were not so easily evaded as the 
money one. Slight as the bond between patron and 
author had now usually become, the old tradition 
as to the responsibility of the great lord for his de- 
pendants still held sway. The later sixteenth century 
was a suspicious age, as will be shown later on; and 
authors relied upon the proteflion of a powerful 
patron as a sufficient answer to accusations political 
or moral. Spenser, dedicating c Colin Clout ' to 
Raleigh, entreats him to proteft it with his good 
countenance c against the malice of evil mouths 
which are always wide open to carp at and mis- 
construe my simple meaning.' Lodge dare not ex- 
pose his poems to the ill-will of the world c except 
they were graced with some noble and worthy 
patron.' 2 Edward Hake, when dedicating to 
Leicester his c News out of Paul's Churchyard,' 
evidently has in view particularly the powerful 

1 < Musophilus,' 313-19 ; 659-61. 

* < Fig for Momus ' ; dedicated to Earl of Derby. 


protection thus procured for his book, c beset with 
deadly hate/ 

This was all very well so long as suspicion did 
not emanate from, or take root in high places: but 
occasionally patrons were called upon to face their 
responsibilities in somewhat serious fashion. If 
writers sometimes suffered from an unlucky chance 
allusion to the suspefled favourite Essex, Essex him- 
self had at times reason to wish himself less popular 
with writers. Here is an interesting letter relating 
a bit of Court scandal in 1595, exalted names being 
represented by cyphers: 

My Lord, 

Upon Monday last, 1500 (Q. Elizabeth) shewed 1000 
(E. of Essex) a printed book of t t, Title to a a. In yt 
there is, as I here, dangerous praises of 1000, of his 
Valour and Worthyness, which doth hym harm here. At 
his coming from Court he was observed to look wan and 
pale, being exceedinglie troubled at this great piece of 
villanie done unto hym. . . . The book I spake of is 
dedicated to my Lord Essex, and printed beyond sea, and 
'tis thought to be Treason to have it. To wryte of these 
things are dangerous in so perillous a tyme, but I hope 
it will be no offence to impart unto you th' actions of this 
place. 1 

Another mischief-making dedication to Essex is 
noted in March, 1559, in the correspondence of 
J. Chamberlain. 2 

Possibly in both these cases Essex was perfectly 
innocent and had not even seen the objectionable 

1 Letter from Roland Whyte to Sir R. Sidney, 25th Nov., 
1595. Collins: c Sidney Papers,' i, 357. 

2 Haywards' * History of Henry IV.' 


works. But the Earl of Devonshire found difficulty 
in disentangling himself from the difficulties in 
which Daniel, his protege, had involved him by the 
afting of his play, c Philotas' (1604). Malicious 
persons persuaded the authorities that it bore some 
reference to the unfortunate Earl of Essex (executed 
in 1601), and Daniel seems to have tried to prove 
his innocence by asserting his patron's approbation 
of the piece. The Earl, having been implicated 
with Essex, was sensitive, and remonstrated, and 
Daniel wrote to excuse himself. ' I said I had read 
some part of it to your honour, and this I said, 
having none else of power to grace me now in 
Court, and hoping that you out of your knowledge 
of books, or favour of letters, and me, might answer 
that there is nothing in it disagreeing, nor anything, 
as I proteste there is not, but out of the universal 
notions of ambition and envy, the perpetual argu- 
ments of books and tragedies. I did not say that 
you encouraged me unto the presenting of it (/>., 
on the stage) ; if I should I had been a villain, for 
that when I showed it to your honour I was not 
resolved to have it a6ted. . . .' l It is pleasant to 
know that between them the culprits must have 
satisfied the authorities, for ' Philotas J was published 
in 1605, the following year. 

The unfortunate effecfts of the gradual breaking- 
up of the old system of patronage are but too patent. 
The uncertainty of the relation bred uneasiness and 
discontent. These feelings might be absent in the 
case of a man in Daniel's position, conscious of feel- 
ing and of inspiring genuine respedl and confidence. 
1 Quoted by Grosart: Daniel's 'Works,' i, 23. 


They are absent, too, in Shakespeare's case. His 
relations with Southampton, beginning with an 
ordinary dedication expressive of admiration and 
hope, ripened very rapidly into the affectionate in- 
timacy which is the theme of his second dedication; 
and the worshipping love expressed in the Sonnets. 
There could be no question here of the relation of 
patron and dependant. The gratitude Shakespeare 
utters is for affecftion, not for a patron's benefits; 
what he asks for and offers is love not bounty and 
praise. Jonson also betrays very little sense of hold- 
ing an uncertain, difficult position. This is due, 
partly to the consciousness of his greatness, partly 
also, however, to a certain lack of sensitiveness. He 
never shrank from asking, because he felt he de- 
served, and because no delicacy of feeling checked 
him. Hence he boldly writes his c Epistle Men- 
dicant,' calling upon the Lord High Treasurer to 
note that it is c no less renown ' to relieve c a bed- 
rid wit, than a besieged town.' He feels it no dis- 
honour, but a natural thing to send to King Charles 
' The Humble Petition of Poor Ben,' that his pen- 
sion of 100 marks may be increased to pounds. 

But even Jonson takes pride in declaring that, 
though he accepts, he chooses from whom he will 
accept ; 1 and to natures of finer fibre the necessity 
of asking was very bitter. Spenser was fortunately 
spared, for the most part, this unpleasing task; but 
he incurred the keenest humiliation of his life when, 
following Raleigh's advice, he went to lay his 
4 Faery Queene' before Elizabeth. Other men might 
prowl in antechambers day after day in the hopes 
1 To Sackville c Underwoods.' 


of snatching a little c court holy water ' he has left 
upon record the bitterest words ever uttered by a 
suitor at Elizabeth's Court: 

Most miserable man, whom wicked fate 
Hath brought to Court, to sue for had ywist, 
That few have found, and manie one hath mist! 
Full little knowest thou, that hast not tride, 
What hell it is in suing long to bide: 
To lose good dayes that might be better spent: 
To waste long nights in pensive discontent: 
To speed to-day, to be put back to-morrow; 
To feed on hope, to pine with feare and sorrow; 
To have thy Princes grace, yet want her Peeres; 
To have thy asking, yet wait manie yeeres; 
To fret thy soul with crosses and with cares; 
To eat thy heart through comfortless despaires; 
To fawne, to crouch, to waite, to ride, to ronne, 
To spend, to give, to want, to be undone. 
Unhappy wight, borne to disastrous end, 
That doth his life in so long tendance spend I 1 

Such experiences and it must be remembered 
that they were the ordinary lot of the literary man 
were indeed embittering. John Lyly's despairing 
appeal to his Royal Mistress has been noted; Nash 
gives us in detail a pidture of the galling treatment 
experienced by those poets who addressed them- 

1 < Mother Hubbard's Tale,' 11. 891-908; (Pr. 1591). Perhaps 
Sidney's unfailing sympathy for the struggling man of letters was 
to some extent prompted by his own experiences. He, too, knew 
the bitterness of asking, and asking in vain, for much needed help. 
There is extant a pathetic letter from him beseeching Sir Charles 
Hatton to befriend him in a suit to Her Majesty. He hopes 
Hatton's good services will prevail, but if not, adds Sidney with 
reluctance, c I will even shamelessly once in my life bring it to 
Her Majesty myself: need obeys no law!' (i3th Nov., 1581.) 


selves to patrons of lower rank. Nash is not thin- 
skinned; we feel that he would put up with the 
insults were bounty forthcoming; but contemptu- 
ous niggardliness arouses his ire: 

e Alas, it is an easie matter for a goodlie tall fellow 
that shineth in his silkes, to come and outface a 
poor simple pedant in a thredbare cloke, and tell 
him his booke is pretty, but at this time he is not 
provided for him: marrie, about two or three daies 
hence if he come that waie, his page shall say that 
he is not within, or else he is so busy with my Lord 
How-shall-ye-call-him . . . that he may not be 
spoken withal. These are the common courses of 
the world . . . Give ... a dog but a bone, and 
hell wag his tayle; but give me one of my young 
masters a booke, and he will put off his hat and 
blush and so go his waie ... I know him that 
had thanks for three years' work . . . We want 
an Aretine amongst us that might strip these golden 
asses/ 1 

Lucky, indeed, was Camden, who, more fortunate 
even than Daniel in having been early placed in a 
permanent position of independence, could say to 
Usher : ' I never made suit to any man, no, not to 
His Majesty, but for a matter of course incident to 
my place; neither, God be praised, I needed; having 
gathered a contented sufficiency by my long labours 
in the school/ 2 

Sordid rivalry among authors was the inevitable 
consequence of the struggle for favour. Daniel, in 
his noble poem, e Musophilus,' devotes a passage to 

1 < Piers Penniles,' 1592. Grosart: 'Works,' ii, p. 130. 

2 Quoted, D. N. B. 


lamenting the undignified competition for patron- 
age. Because the number of writers has grown so 
great that there is not room for all, they c kick and 
thrust and shoulder/ and quarrel 'like scolding 
wives.' Nicholas Breton expresses the matter in 
still more homely fashion, in his wish that 

... all scholars should be friends. 

And Poets not to brawle for puddings' ends. 1 

Jonson, with his Court pension, his reputation as 
masque writer, and his many noble patrons, was a 
great mark for envy. Nor was he at all grieved by 
this ; in fa6t, he boasts of it, and uses it as an argu- 
ment when asking for c more,' 2 but he was not him- 
self above envying others. He told Drummond 
that Samuel Daniel c was at jealousies with him,' 
but the feeling seems to have been chiefly on his 
own side. He called Daniel c no poet,' he parodied 
his verses, and he could not refrain from a some- 
what childish expression of his annoyance that 
Daniel should be befriended by the Duchess of 
Bedford, and be regarded as c a better verser . . . 
or poet ... in the court account,' than himself. 3 
Nor was Shakspere, in spite of the tie of strong 
personal affedtion which bound him to his patron, 
free from the literary rivalry which dogged the 
footsteps of all Elizabethan writers. One poet, at 
least, seems to have succeeded in stealing from him, 
by 4 the proud full sail of his great verse,' some of 

1 'No Whipping but a tripping.' Breton. In works, ed. 
Grosart, i. xxxiv. 

2 c Humble Petition of Poor Ben.' Underwoods. 

3 To Elizabeth, Countess of Rutland. 'The Forest,' 1616. 


his patron's favour ; Shakespere was blamed for 
being less assiduous in eulogy. The greater poet 
was not above the retort that at least his silence did 
no harm, whereas the words of others brought c a 
tomb ' where they were intended to e give life.' 
But he betrays sensitiveness under this painful 
rivalry, beseeching his patron friend to judge c who 
it is that says most.' Let others, he pleads, be 
esteemed for their e gross painting/ their * precious 
phrase,' their ' breath of words ' ; he would be 
valued for his c dumb thoughts, speaking in effe<3:.' ] 
Amongst other evils entailed upon self-respedting 
writers by their dependence upon patronage was 
the inevitable accusation of c mercenary flattery,' 
and 4 fawning eloquence.' Nor are many of them 
to be wholly acquitted. When a man so highly 
placed as Francis Bacon is to be found soliciting 
from His Majesty a theme for treatment, with the 
remark: 'I should with more alacrity embrace 
your Majesty's direction than my own choice,' 2 we 
cannot be surprised that meaner writers should at 
times display servility. Even a writer so high- 
minded as Massinger apologized for his theme on 
the ground that his own ' low fortune ' prevented 
his refusing * what by his patron he was called 
unto.' 3 From Churchyard, as later passages will 
show, we need not look for much self-respe6t, but 
the following shows him, though a writer of 
some repute in his own day, fallen beneath con- 
tempt. He is dedicating to Sir Walter Raleigh, 


3 'Works,' ed. Spedding, 1874, xiv, 358. (20th March, 1620. 

3 ' A Very Woman.' Prologue. 


and conscious of having shown some servility, thus 
seeks to justify himself. c And if the world say . . . 
I show a kind of adulation, to fawn for favour on 
those that are happy; I answer that it is a point of 
wisdom, which my betters have taught me ... I 
take an example from the fish that follows the 
stream.' l After such an instance of moral debase- 
ment may perhaps fitly follow a reference to the 
dedication in which James I shows, on the other 
hand, his sense of his own exalted position. It 
being impossible for him to assume the properly 
humble attitude of a dedicator to any human 
being, he actually wrote the following irreverent 
and bombastic dedication: 'To the Honour of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Eternal Son of 
the Eternal Father, the only 6edv6(>u7ro$, Mediator, 
and Reconciler of mankind. In sign of thankful- 
ness, His most Humble and most obliged servant 
James, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, doth 
dedicate and consecrate this his Declaration." 2 

On the other hand, as the dedicator tended to 
fall into servile flattery, so, if he escaped this snare, 
was he liable to fall into another, that of impudence 
and shameless effrontery. Dekker points out that 
authors will without blushing claim acquaintance 
with men as patrons whom they scarcely know. 3 
A most flagrant instance of this is familiar to all, in 

1 C A spark of Friendship,' 1588. Harleian Miscell., Series I, 
vol. iii, p. 248. 

2 * Answer to the work of Conrad Vorstius on the Nature and 
Attributes of God.' Folio works, 1616. 

3 'News from Hell,' ed. 1606. Grosart: 'Works,' ii. (Dedi- 


the case of Stephen Gosson's impudent unauthorized 
dedication to Sir Philip Sidney of his attack upon 
poets and others in the ' Schoole of Abuse ' a piece 
of impertinence for which, as Gabriel Harvey de- 
clares, he 'was for his labour scorned.' 1 It is not 
perhaps so generally known that, in the year of 
Sidney's death, he doubled his effrontery by dedi- 
cating to the same lover of art another work in 
which he rendered thanks for the protection which 
Sidney's name had afforded to the earlier one! 1 

Happily there were men who rose superior to 
these temptations. When we find a writer like 
Hey wood, again and again, making of his dedica- 
tion c a due acknowledgement, without the sordid 
expectation of reward, or servile imputation of 
flattery' ; 2 we welcome the proof that he, at least, 
preserves the true poet's self-respeft. Wither dedi- 
cated his c Shepherd's Hunting,' to all the c known 
and unknown sympathisers ' who had felt for him 
during his imprisonment; and we honour the 
manly lines in which he says: 

I have no minde to flatter; though I might 
Be made some Lord's companion, or a Knight. 
Nor shall my verse for me on begging goe, 
Though I might starve, unlesse it did doe so. 
. . . Oh! how I scorne 

Those Raptures, which are free and nobly borne 
Should Fidler-like, for entertainment scrape 
At strangers' windows, and goe play the ape 
In counterfeiting Passion when there 's none. 3 

c Ephemerides of Phialo,' 1579. (Dedication.) 
Preface to < The Fair Maid of the West.' 
Wither's motto Nee habeo. 1621. 


His words suggest, what is only too true, that 
men of weak principle were betrayed by their ne- 
cessities into even worse than servility into a 
deliberate hypocrisy, a degraded pandering to the 
unworthy. That this was so is clear from the 
satiric portrait of the poet given in the ' Pilgrimage 
to Parnassus.' Draining his inspiration from the 
pint-pot, he exclaims: c Nowe I am fitt to write a 
book! Would anie leaden Mydas, anie mossie 
patron, have his asse's ears deified, let him but come 
and give me some prettie sprinkling to maintaine 
the expenses of my throate, and I'll drop out such 
an enconium on him that shall immortalize him as 
long as there is ever a booke-binder in Englande.' 1 
It is by no means certain that Nash in his ne- 
cessities was fettered by very high principles; 
evidently bounty is the one passport to his praises. 
If any Maecenas will bind Nash to him by his 
bounty, then will the writer 'doe him as much 
honour ' as any poet ' of his beardless years ' in 
England. 2 It is, perhaps, only fair, however, to in- 
terpret these and such like reckless utterances in 
the light of his evidently genuine devotion to art, 
as shown in other passages of his work. 

The more scrupulous writers did their utmost to 
avoid the slightest imputation of fawning servility. 
They chose for patrons of their works personages 
of no particular public reputation; they dedicated 
to personal friends and benefactors, as thank-offer- 
ing, not as bait; and they protested against the 

1 * Pilgrimage to Parnassus,' c. 1600, ed. Mackay, p. 6. Is this 
a satire on Nash himself? See the ensuing quotation. 

2 'Piers Penniles,' 1592. 'Works,' ed. Grosart, ii, 64. 


undue servility of their less worthy fellows, by a 
courteous insistence upon the value of their offer- 
ings. Daniel writes to his patrons as to equals. 1 
Chapman assures Sir Thomas Howard that the 
work he presents to him contains matter no less 
worthy the reading than any others recently favoured 
by great nobles; 2 and Webster, in dedicating the 
c Duchess of Malfi ' to Lord Berkeley, takes still 
higher ground. c I am confident, 5 he says, c this 
work is not unworthy your honour's perusal; for 
by such poems as this poets have kissed the hands 
of great princes, and drawn their gentle eyes to look 
down upon their sheets of paper, when the poets 
themselves were bound up in their winding sheets. 5 
Such words go far to redeem the honour of the 
professional writer, soiled by such as Gosson and 

Nor were these the worst of the evils attendant 
upon patronage. To servility and effrontery was 
added fraud. We owe to Dekker an interesting ex- 
posure of the tricks played by cheating knaves upon 
unsuspecting patrons. These rogues first get small 
pamphlets printed generally of matter filched 
from other writers. They then procure the names 
of some large number of gentry, print copies of a 
dedicatory epistle with a different patron's name to 
each; then go round, and obtain as many fees as 
possible for this single dedication and pamphlet. 
If the supposed dedicatee is suspicious, and makes 

1 See his noble, thoughtful epistles to Lord Keeper Egerton, 
and to the Bishop of Winchester, and his Funeral Poem on the 
Duke of Devonshire. c Works,' i. 

2 Dedication of 'Revenge of B ussy d'Ambois,' 1613. 


inquiries amongst the stationers or printers, the 
wily knaves are prepared for him. They have 
already distributed amongst the trade a number of 
copies of the work, but without the dedication 
for which, of course, they are awaiting permission ! 
e Thus the liberality of a nobleman or of a gentle- 
man is abused; thus their bounty is brought into 
scorn and contempt: thus men are cheated of their 
bounty, giving much for that . . . which is com- 
mon abroad and put away for base prices.' 1 

There is another point of view to be considered 
that of the patron himself. To him, it is clear, 
the endless importunity of struggling writers must 
have presented a serious dilemma. Amid so many, 
how decide between their claims? How benefit 
any considerable number in any practical way? Yet 
how distinguish between them? Here and there a 
patron of genuine taste, and sufficient leisure could 
find means of discriminating: here and there 
chance placed naturally under his protection a man 
of real genius. But it is obvious that, for one 
reason or another, many patrons were driven to 
distribute their benefits widely, rather than to con- 
centrate them and thus confer lifelong benefit, and 
that many were content with a perfundtory re- 
sponse to direcft appeals. Sir Philip Sidney stands 
out among the men of rank of his time as one 
whose bounty was always discriminating and 
generous. Yet, as we know, he was a poor man; 
constantly in difficulties for lack of means. It was 
the genuineness and discrimination of his love of 
literature which earned him such warm and un- 
1 'Lanthorn and Candlelight,' ed. 1609. * Works,' iii. 237. 


qualified tributes, and he has come down to pos- 
terity as the one literary patron to whom, though 
no rich man, all writers unite in gratitude. Nor 
can we forget that it was undoubtedly his influence 
that gained for Spenser the favour of Lord Grey. 

To the average young man of rank or wealth, 
unburdened with love of art or letters, the per- 
petual appeal of the professional writer must have 
been simply an unqualified nuisance. He bore with 
it, as a burden incident to rank and fashion; he 
even, to a certain extent, encouraged it as a recog- 
nition of his own superiority, but it was inevitable 
that much patronage should be most grudgingly 
bestowed. Nash was probably perfectly justified in 
his complaint that e there is not that strickt ob- 
servation of honour which hath bene heretofore. 
Men of great calling take it of merite to have their 
names eternized by poets; and whatsoever pam- 
phlet or dedication encounters them, they put it up 
their sleeve and scarce give him thanks that pre- 
sents it.' l Thorpe's satirical advice to Blount on 
the correct behaviour of a patron completely bears 
out Nash's words. 2 Patronage, as a refuge for the 
writer, was moribund. 

It died hard. Struggling authors could not 
afford to let it die. They would c hang upon a 
young heir like horse-leeches'; they followed up 
the tracks of gouty patrons as if ' hoping to wring 
some water from a flint '; they even descended to 
flattering and pandering to lackeys, in order to gain 
admission to the presence of an unwilling great 

1 'Piers Penniles.' 'Works,' ii. 13. 

2 Dedication of Marlowe's ' Lucan.' 1600. 


man. Generations of needy authors begged, 
starved, and passed away before the day when 
Swift pilloried their shameless insincerity in his 
inimitable bookseller's dedication to the ' Tale of a 
Tub.' Generations were to pass before Johnson 
gave the coup de grace to the long tottering system, 
by his scornful retort to Lord Chesterfield. Even 
a quarter of a century after this the help which 
Crabbe received from Burke, and through Burke's 
good offices from Thurlow, shows that neither the 
need nor the possibility of occasional patronage 
had quite died out. Though no longer a necessity, 
to the writer of established fame, it will probably 
never be quite superseded as long as rich men are 
generous, and unknown writers poor. 


Second Series, 

No. 2 8, VOL. VII. OCTOBER, 1906. 



HE man who had a manuscript to dis- 
pose of would, in Elizabethan days, 
bend his steps first of all to St. Paul's 
Churchyard. There were to be found 
all the best booksellers' shops and 
stalls; l and if, as was usual, he had no very definite 
connexion with any particular bookseller, he would 
hawk his manuscript from one to the other until 
he had made the best bargain within his power. 
Some of these stationers were printers also ; other 
printers had no booksellers' shops, and simply 
worked for stationers; or if they brought books out 
on their own account, employed stationers to sell 
for them. If the owner of a manuscript preferred 
to treat dire<5t with the printer he would have to go 
to some other part of the city, for printing offices 
were, for the most part, situated on less valuable 
sites than the Churchyard. 

It was pradtically impossible to dispose of a 

1 Dekker, * Lanthorn and Candlelight,' 1609, Ded. 


manuscript outside London. There were, it is true, 
a few provincial stationers; l but they were, for the 
most part, only booksellers, not publishers. All 
printing was by law confined to London since 
1556, and a provincial publisher would have found 
it impossible satisfactorily to deal with printers in 
town. 2 The only exceptions were the printing 
presses of Oxford and Cambridge, and one permitted 
to a Dutch refugee in Norwich, Antony de 
Solemne. 3 But the former printed very few works 
of general literature, and the latter scarcely any- 
thing but Dutch, for his fellow-refugees. Thus it 
is clear that the professional writer was almost 
forced by the exigencies of his profession to live in 

As for the choice to be made of a publisher, in 
many cases the writer had no choice at all. The 
system of monopolies favoured by Elizabeth had 
invaded the publishing trade, and many books, and 
classes of books, were ' privileged ' or patented to 
particular booksellers as their sole right. 

Thus books on the Common Law might be pub- 
lished by R. Tottel or his successor only; Diftion- 
aries must be brought out by H. Binneman ; 
Primers and Psalters were the monopoly of W. 
Seres; Latin Grammar books must be entrusted to 
T. Marsh; almanacs and prognostications to J. 
Roberts and R. Watkyns, and so on. 4 

Fortunately for the writer on general current 

1 See list in Arber's 'Transcript of the Stationers' Register/ v, 

2 c Bibliographica,' ii, 45. 3 Ibid., pp. 150-154. 
4 See list in Arber's 'Transcript,' ii, 15-16. 


topics, these patents referred for the most part to 
educational books, religion, law, and the dead 
languages; in belles lettres a wide choice of pub- 
lishers was left open to him. Certain stationers 
had, however, a reputation for particular kinds of 
books, and he would consider this in offering his 
manuscript for sale. 

For a work of erudition and importance likely, 
perhaps, to be expensive in production it would 
be well to open negotiations with Christopher 
Barker, or his son and successor, Richard. Barker 
was printer in English to the Queen, owned a 
number of printing presses, and was willing now 
and then to risk an adventurous enterprise, if in- 
terested in the work. He at one time nearly ruined 
himself by the heavy costs he incurred in printing 
expensive Bibles. Failing Christopher Barker, 
George Bishop might be approached. He was par- 
ticularly interested in learned work, especially in 
theological controversy. For one work of this 
nature he is known to have maintained the learned 
Dr. Fulke and two men, with their horses, for nine 
months, and paid the former 40 (200), besides 
bearing the expenses of printing. 1 

There was, besides, John Day, a man not very 
popular with his fellows, being too highly favoured 
by the great. He was under the special protection 
of Archbishop Parker, for whom he sometimes 
printed privately at Lambeth. 2 He had it in his 
power, no doubt, to bring suitable books under the 
notice of the Archbishop. But such notice was, 

1 Article on Arber's * Transcript,' < The Times,' Jan. 5, 1877. 
3 * Bibliographica,' ii, 155. 


perhaps, too risky to be greatly coveted. Day pub- 
lished Foxe's c Book of Martyrs.' 

For foreign books, and translations from Con- 
tinental languages, and from Latin, the most likely 
publisher was John Wolfe; but, indeed, Wolfe 
would undertake anything if it promised gain. He 
was the son of Reyner Wolfe, a native of Strasburg, 
settled as publisher in London, and must have in- 
herited a large printing connection from his wealthy 
father. He was an active man, kept a number of 
presses, and published very largely, perhaps more 
than any other. His special line was, however, 
foreign and dead languages, with some rivalry from 
Blount. His commercial keenness is illustrated by 
some of his entries in the Stationers' Registers. 
Here is an instance. Marlowe died in June, 1593; 
in September J. Wolfe registered his ' Hero and 
Leander,' and his translation of c Lucan,' to secure 
the right, no doubt. He did not publish then, 
perhaps had not even secured a copy; and they 
were only brought out, one in 1598 and the other 
in 1600, by another publisher. He even entered a 
description of Elizabeth's State Entry into London 
before the procession took place. 1 

The owner of a manuscript of genuine literary 
value in the more ambitious fields of belks lettres^ 
would no doubt apply to Edward Blount, William 
Ponsonby, or, failing them, to Nicholas Lynge or 
Cuthbert Burby. The first was a genuine lover of 
literature, with discriminating and generous taste. 
The list of his publications does him the greatest 

1 'Transcript,' ii, 506. 14 Nov., 1588. 


possible credit, including as it does works by Sir W. 
Alexander, Camden, Cervantes, Sir W. Cornwallis, 
Daniel, Earle, Florio, Jonson, Lyly, Marlowe, 
Sylvester, and the great Shakspere Folio of 1623. 
He was a true friend, moreover, to one poet at 
least; daring, when all vilified the character of the 
dead Marlowe, to publish his work with a striking 
expression indicative of genuine personal affection, 
and desire to do justice to his genius. 1 

No less worthy was William Ponsonby in fa6l, 
he was probably a publisher higher in public esteem 
and more entirely scrupulous than Blount. Pon- 
sonby's connexion was largely with the more 
aristocratic among writers; and he was evidently 
sufficiently prosperous to be able to disdain the 
publication of such small ware as ballads and catch- 
penny pamphlets. It was to him that Spenser in- 
trusted the publication of the ' Faery Queen ' and 
other poems; he figures in the Stationers' Register 
as the publisher of all Sidney's writings; he brought 
out the works of Sidney's sister, the Countess of 
Pembroke; and the list of his productions includes 
a translation of Guicciardini, and one of Plutarch. 

But a man of such reputation was of little use 
to struggling, unknown writers, who must hit the 
popular taste, even at the sacrifice of dignity. Pon- 
sonby published two of Greene's earliest pamphlets, 
written in the fashionable euphuistic style ; but 
he published no more for Greene. Nash, Dekker, 
Breton, if they applied to him, applied in vain. 

1 Ded. preface by Edward Blount to edition of * Hero and 
Leander,' 1598. Malone believed the preface to date, probably, 
from 1593, tn ^ 7 ear of Marlowe's death. 


Nor was he the man to buy the manuscripts of 
popular dramas, authorized or not ; in drama he 
preferred such more c correct ' works as Samuel 
Brandon's c Virtuous Oflavia.' 

Ponsonby was, however, an exception among 
publishers. Few could resist the bait of a fair text 
of a popular play, and most were too poor, or too 
greedy, to be above accepting the ever saleable 
ballad, almanac, and pamphlet. 

Among stationers whose names figure largely in 
the issues of plays were T. Thorpe, Andrew Wise, 
and James Roberts. Wise showed a discriminating 
appreciation of the market value, at least, of Shak- 
spere's plays; out of nine books entered by him 
during seven years no fewer than five are Shakspere 
plays. James Roberts brought out the c Merchant 
of Venice/ ' Midsummer Night's Dream,' and 
entered copies of c Hamlet ' and ' Troilus and Cres- 
sida.' As for Thomas Thorpe best known as the 
unauthorized publisher of Shakspere's c Sonnets ' 
he brought out plays by Jonson, Chapman, and 

For the lower forms of literature ballads, catch- 
penny pamphlets, and such John Danter was the 
printer most popular. He was evidently rather poor 
and struggling, glad to print for other stationers, 
and glad to get hold of popular things, cheap to 
buy and produce, and readily saleable. The list of 
publications licensed to him includes a large number 
of ballads. But perhaps because he was a pub- 
lisher of no great reputation, and anxious above 
all things to catch the popular taste, he proved 
very useful to certain struggling, needy pamphlet 


writers. He published for Greene in his later, sensa- 
tional days ; he was a good friend to Nash during 
his acrimonious quarrel with Harvey, which, no 
doubt, brought Danter as publisher considerable 
profit. Nor does he, in spite of dealing with some- 
what sensational literature, seem to have been more 
unscrupulous than other publishers in stealing what 
he could lay hands on. He was quite as ready to 
publish the sensationally religious trad: as the 
frankly secular broadside. Both appealed to his 
class of reader. 

Thomas Creede and the Jaggards (father and son) 
were publishers of medium reputation, able to un- 
dertake the publication of serious work, but not 
anything involving really heavy expense, and, like 
John Wolfe, willing to print anything likely to sell. 
Creede's judgement was not so good as that of some 
of his fellows, or else he was peculiarly unfortunate 
in the manuscripts offered to him; for among the 
seventy-four books licensed to him, there are only 
about five which are known to the ordinary student 
of literature, and three of these only through their 
connection with works by Shakspere. 

William Jaggard was the obje6t of an angry 
attack by T. Heywood in his c Apology for A<5tors,' 
as a most careless and impudent printer. Jaggard 
had printed without permission poems of Hey- 
wood's and also of Shakspere's; and Heywood de- 
clared that the latter c was much offended with 
M. Jaggard.' By a curious irony, it was this very 
printer who, in 1623, printed and published with 
Blount the First Shakspere Folio, the authorized 
monument to his fame. 


The above-mentioned publishers and printers 
include, of course, only a very small number of 
the stationers in London. Many more might be 
mentioned, from C. Burby, with a large, flourish- 
ing, respetable business, down to J. Hodgets the 
bookseller, whose registered publications during 
nineteen years are only twenty-four. 

As will be seen later, the number of printers was 
striftly limited; but any one of the Stationers' Com- 
pany could publish a book if he could get a printer 
for it and a bookseller. 

The matter of c book privileges ' has already been 
referred to. Though of the utmost importance in 
the history of the book trade, and though neces- 
sarily affefting writers, as tending to lower the 
prices paid for work by limiting competition 
amongst publishers, their effeft upon the literary 
professional was only indirect. They rendered the 
struggle for existence more arduous to the un- 
privileged publisher, by placing beyond his reach 
most of the books for which there was a steady, 
large demand, and thus indireflly brought about a 
spirit of unscrupulous rapacity which regarded 
any manuscript, however obtained, as fair booty. 
Further, by keeping the majority of the stationers 
in chronic poverty, these c privileges ' or c patents ' 
reduced the possibilities of fair remuneration to the 
author for such manuscripts as were openly bought. 
That book traders, as a class, did suffer serious 
injury cannot be disputed. More than twenty- 
three monopolies were granted under Elizabeth 
nearly all of them for whole classes of books. 
Long and bitter struggles were carried on between 


the privileged few and the many. Constant com- 
plaints were made by the monopolists concerning 
secret infringements of their rights, and from about 
1582 to 1586 there was an organized conspiracy 
against them. It was headed by the irrepressible 
John Wolfe (who had begun to publish only a few 
years before), and an a6tive agent of his was a cer- 
tain poor printer, Roger Ward. They, with others, 
deliberately printed large editions of privileged 
books and parts of books; and they appealed to 
Burghley, and employed legal advisers to fight out 
the matter. The situation is unbearable, they de- 
clare; nothing is left for the unprivileged stationer 
but ' ballets and toys.' In the end they gained 
something. Certain privileges were relinquished 
by rich stationers to the Company as a whole, in 
order to provide work for the most needy (though 
there was great complaint of the workmanship 
later on), and the commissioners for the inquiry 
framed some very sensible regulations designed to 
mitigate the grievances (1583). In the following 
year still more book privileges were resigned, and 
the evil was further dealt with in the Great Star 
Chamber Decree of I586. 1 

Many years later, however, things were not much 
mended. The books resigned to the Company by 
monopolists, for the benefit of poor members, had 
gradually come to be regarded as the property of 
the ruling stationers, by whom the younger and 
poorer were oppressed. c You would think it were 
insufferable,' says Wither, describing their griev- 
ances. Printers especially suffered injustice. While 
1 Arber, 'Transcript,' ii, 753*7935 '> Il6 > J 44- 


the selling-prices of many books had, owing to the 
monopolies, almost doubled, 1 the printers' charges 
were by enactment kept low; so that they toiled 
simply to enrich men favoured by privileges. 2 

From the general c trade ' point of view, then, 
book patents were a source of great injustice; from 
the point of view of the public, and of writers as 
a class, there is still less to be said for them. Their 
effet was to render necessary books dear and scarce, 
to the great injury of education and learning. The 
upholders of privileges urged that, by enriching 
certain stationers, patents rendered possible the pro- 
duftion of very expensive works of erudition, upon 
which otherwise no stationer would venture. 3 And 
they pointed to Barker's expensive folio Bibles, and 
to the great editions of More's Works, and Graf- 
ton's Chronicle, brought out by Richard Tottel 
(with other printers). But the fa<5ts do not quite 
bear out the contention that patents were necessary 
for this reason, for most of the more adventurous 
publications were, after all, brought out by syndi- 
cates of unprivileged publishers. Thus the Shak- 
spere Folio of 1623, the Holinshed Folio of 1577, 
the translation of the ' moral works ' of Plutarch, 
and Drayton's c Polyolbion,' were all produced by 
c unprivileged ' stationers. It was by no means in- 
frequent for wealthy citizens to help to bear the 
expense of producing works in which they were 
interested. John Bodenham almost certainly bore 
the cost of the Anthologies connected with his 

1 Scintilla. 'Transcript,' iv (1641). 

2 'Scholar's Purgatory,' c. 1624, pp. 109-110. 

3 'Transcript,' ii, 805. 


name c England's Parnassus/ ' England's Heli- 
con/ and others. Thomas Heywood's c Hierarchy 
of Angels ' is adorned with a number of elaborate 
full-page engravings dedicated to various generous 
friends by whom the cost of them was borne. This 
custom lasted at least until the time of Dryden's 
' Virgil.' 

In the case of works of erudition and controversy 
payments to authors seem to have been on a suffi- 
ciently generous scale, as we have seen in the case of 
George Bishop's payments for Dr. Fulke's 'Con- 
futation of the Rhemish Testament.' The six final 
revisers of the Authorized Version of the Bible re- 
ceived each thirty shillings (equivalent to 7 i cxr.) 
per week. 1 

For the catchpenny pamphlet, or the small vol- 
ume of (so-called) poetry, the regular payment 
was forty shillings (equivalent to 10), with, per- 
haps, a pottle of wine. 2 Writers of popular reputa- 
tion could no doubt reckon upon a good deal more 
perhaps double the sum. Nash swears that he 
will be paid dear for his pains; 3 Greene's pamphlets 
were in great demand; and the 'Parnassus Plays' 
represent John Danter, the best-known publisher of 
such wares, offering to raise his fee of forty shillings 
to c anything,' upon learning that an offered manu- 
script is a libel. 4 

For mere hackwork, such as translation, the 

1 'Transcript,' iv, p. 12. 

3 ' Parnassus Plays,' ed. Mackay, p. 89. ' Scholar's Purgatory,' 
115, 130. 

: Have with you. . . .' 'Works,' iii, 189. 

4 c Parnassus Plays,' p. 89. 


author sometimes had no money payment at all, 
only receiving a certain number of copies, to dis- 
pose of at as good a price as he could get. 1 Such 
popular wares sold at twopence, 2 threepence, or 
fourpence; Greene's c Connycatching ' sold at three- 
pence. 3 

They were advertised by nailing or pasting the 
front page, with an attractive catch-title, on the 
whipping-posts in the streets, on the pillars in 
St. Paul's, and on the walls of the Inns of Court, 
to attract the lawyers and their country clients. 4 

Of course a popular pamphlet would run into 
many editions; Nash's 'Piers Penniless' 'passed 
through the pikes of six impressions ' in two or 
three years; and he speaks once of ' many thousands ' 
looking for productions from his pen. Wither 
swears that of his Hymns ' 20,000 might have 
been dispersed.' 5 But unless the author supplied new 
matter if only a new preface it is probable that 
he gained nothing further but fame. Edward Hake 
expressly states that he receives nothing for the new 
edition of his ' News out of Paul's Churchyard.' 

The time for bringing out new books was the 
term, when Westminster was thronged with lawyers 
and clients, and when visitors from the country 
came up to London to see life. Michaelmas term 
was the most favourable publishing season, as bring- 

1 Article by R. B. McKerrow in 'Gentleman's Magazine,' 
April, 1906, on R. Robinson's ' Eupolemia.' 

! Twopenny pamphlets are frequently spoken of. 

3 'Defence of Connycatching.' See Greene's 'Works,' ed. 
Grosart, xi, 45. 

4 Hall, ' Virgidemiarum VI Libri,' v, ii, 45. 

5 ' Scholar's Purgatory,' p. 32, n. d. 


ing the most clients. 1 Writers had therefore to get 
their manuscripts ready for printing well in advance 
during the summer. Greene handed over his c Or- 
pharion ' to the printer during the spring, but, to 
the author's great disgust, the latter delayed the 
printing so long that it did not come out until the 
following spring, a time less favourable. 2 

Most paying to the publisher were Almanacs 
and Prognostications, having a very large sale, and 
requiring c few persons and small stock ' to print 
them. 3 They were the great resource of the ' poorest 
sort of the Stationers' Company,' and great outcry 
was caused when, in 1588, they were granted as a 
monopoly to R. Watkins and J. Roberts. It is not 
likely that very much was to be gained by the 
authorship of such 'toys'; but, if Nash is to be 
believed, there was enough to induce a poverty- 
stricken parson brother of Gabriel Harvey's to try 
to make money by them. 

Plays sold well, if published in the height of 
their popularity on the stage; otherwise they were 
less certain of a market in London, and had to 
be ' vented by termers and country chapmen.' 4 The 
selling price was sixpence, 5 the same as for a 
masque. 6 The players, however, preferred not 
to spoil their own market by allowing the text of 

1 * Lanthorn and Candlelight.' Dekker, ' Works,' ed. Grosart, 
iii, p. 178; Nash, 'Have with you. . . .' Grosart, iii, 206; 
Nash, ' Countercuff,' Grosart, i, 85. 

Greene's ' Works,' ed. Grosart, xii, 7. 

Christopher Barker's Report. 'Transcript,' i, 144. 

Middleton, 'Family of Love,' Pref. (pr. 1608). 

Massinger. 'The Bondman,' pr. 1624. Verses prefixed. 

Lodge, 'Illust. History,' iii, 227. 


plays to become common, and did their best to 
prevent their being printed during a popular 'run.' 1 

The custom of reading in booksellers' shops must 
have interfered with the sale of books to some 
extent. We are told that c many peruse them ere 
they be sold.' 2 But as many customers probably 
bought for country friends rather than for them- 
selves, the praftice of allowing them thus to sample 
the books had doubtless its advantages. 

It was no easy matter, frequently, for the author 
to dispose of his manuscript. Dekker, at a time 
when he must have acquired a fair popularity, 
complains of the difficulty of suiting the stationers' 
taste. c Go to one, and offer a copy; if it be merry, 
the man likes no light stuff; if sad, it will not sell. 
Another meddles with nothing but what fits the 
time.' 3 The narrowness of the market for books is 
shown by the fa6l that the popularity of one or two 
trifling produdlions could effectually check all de- 
mand for any others. Nash suffered from this, but 
he consoled himself by scoring a jest against his 
foe, Gabriel Harvey. He can get no harvest, he 
says, by writing for the press, because c as for the 
printers, there is such gaping amongst them for the 
coppy of my L. of Essex Voyage, and the ballet 
of threescore and foure knights,' that for the most 
attractive wares they will not offer even c the con- 
temptiblest somme that may be, . . . the price of 
all Harvey's works bound up together.' 4 Nor was 

1 T. Hey wood, English Traveller, ' To Reader,' pr. 1633. 

2 N. Breton, < Works,' i, Ixii. 

3 Dekker, c Jests,' ed. 1617, 'To Reader.' 

4 Letter to Sir R. Cotton, believed by Collier and Grosart to be 
by Nash. See Nash, * Works,' ed. Grosart, i, Ixiv. 


this all the difficulty. The market was glutted by 
the practice, indulged in by many stationers, of 
saving the expense of payment for new work by 
c buttering o'er again, once in seven years/ anti- 
quated pamphlets, and issuing them as new. 1 The 
needy writer was driven to all sorts of unworthy 
expedients in the endeavour to produce work at- 
tractive enough to compete with these cheap 

Meanwhile, it should be noted that the writer's 
reward ended with the sale of his manuscript. This 
became the property of the buyer, whether he were 
a bookseller intending to publish, or a player's 
company buying for production on the stage, or a 
middleman speculating to sell again. It does not 
appear that the custom of giving ' royalties ' existed 
at all; nor does it appear that the author was ever 
regarded as entitled, in law or in equity, to share 
in any extraordinary profits. 2 On the other hand, 
of course, the publisher was responsible for all 

It is not clear upon what terms Gabriel Harvey 
published his pamphlets against Nash. He under- 
took, certainly, to bear the expense of publication. 
On the other hand, Nash expressly states that the 
manuscript was the c copy ' of the printer, to be 
disposed of at will. 3 Probably the arrangement was 
that, if the sale did not pay expenses, Harvey was 
to make good the deficit. 

1 Jonson, c Staple of News,' i, sc. v. 

2 Henslowe once, in a fit of generosity, gave ten shillings to be 
divided amongst the authors of a successful play. 

3 Nash, c Have with you. . . .' < Works,' ed. Grosart, iii, 
141-2, 39. 


Strangely enough, authors never complain of the 
injustice of a system which compelled them to 
sell outright a manuscript which might afterwards 
prove of unexpected value. Even Wither, in his 
diatribes against the iniquitous stationer who sucks 
the blood of the unfortunate writer, and steals the 
product of his studious labours, fails to point out 
the real root of the difficulty in the selling custom. 
No doubt stationers would have resented bitterly 
any innovation calculated to reserve to the author 
a pecuniary interest in the manuscript after it had 
once left his possession. Their doctrine, upheld by 
legal opinion, was that only members of the Sta- 
tioners' Company could lay claim to the benefit 
arising from the sale of books. 1 Thus they placed 
the claim of the stationer before that of the pro- 
ducers, regarding these latter as bound to produce 
for their benefit. 2 Such a position seems in the 
present day quite untenable; but that it was seri- 
ously maintained is made clear by the history of 
Wither's famous quarrel with the Company. In 
order that he might benefit by the sale of his 
own work, he had asked for and obtained a privi- 
lege, giving him the sole right of publishing his 
Hymns and Songs. There were, it is true, special 
circumstances about this privilege which were cal- 
culated to arouse opposition; but the ground on 
which it was contested was the principle stated 
above, viz., that Wither, not being a stationer, could 
derive no profit from the sale of books. Wither 
was, however, not the only instance of a c privileged ' 

1 Wither, 'Scholar's Purgatory,' p. 31. 
3 Ibid.y p. 10. 


author; Samuel Daniel got a patent for his ' His- 
tory of England' in 1618; John Norden had a ten 
years' patent for his ' Speculum Brittanniae ' ; Arthur 
Golding got the sole right of publishing his own 
works; 1 and Alexander Nevill even obtained the 
prohibition of every translation of Livy but his own. 2 
There does not, however, appear to be a single 
instance of the granting of a patent to authors 
except those of learned or religious works. The 
ordinary professional writer had no resource but to 
dispose straightway of his copyright for the largest 
sum he could secure. 

If, however, writers had had no subject for com- 
plaint but an inconveniently hard and fast system 
of selling, they would have called for no special 
sympathy. They suffered a far greater injustice in 
the fact that the law regarded or was popularly 
believed to regard possession of a manuscript, 
apart from any previous entry in the books of the 
Stationers' Company as implying ownership, and 
consequently the right to dispose of it. There was 
thus a regular trade carried on, to the injury of 
writers, in the illicit procuring and selling of manu- 
scripts a trade rendered more possible by the ex- 
isting custom of preserving work for some time in 
manuscript and circulating it privately in copies 
made by the scriveners. The following passage 
illustrates the facilities thus afforded for stealing 
from authors. In the dedication to ' Terrors of the 
Night,' Nash thus writes: " A long time since hath 

1 See Lists of 'Privileges.' 'Transcript,' i, 111-16; v, Ivii- 

3 See ' Transcript/ ii, p. 312. (3 May, 1577.) 


it been suppressed by mee: untill the urgent im- 
portunitie of a kind friend of mine (to whom I was 
sundry waies beholding) wrested a coppie from me. 
That coppie progressed from one scrivener's shop 
to another, and at length grew so common that it 
was readie to be hung out for one of their signes. 
. . . Whereuppon I thought it as good for mee to 
reape the fruite of my owne labours, as to let some 
unskilfull pen-man . . . startch his ruff and new 
spade his beard with the benefite he made of them.' 
Nash was lucky in that no possessor of one of these 
numerous copies had yet carried it to the stationers 
for sale. Manuscripts far less commonly known 
had frequently that fate, to the permanent injury 
of the author's prospects of gain. No complaint is 
so often met with as that of the theft and illicit sale 
of manuscripts. Lodge protests against the wrong 
done to him by the piratical publication of certain 
of his poems, ' owing to the base necessity of an 
extravagant melancholy mate.' 1 Daniel grumbles 
at an instance of the ' unmannerly presumption of 
an indiscreet printer,' who had ventured to print a 
garbled text of a masque a6ted by the Queen and 
her ladies, 2 and again rebukes ' the indiscretion of 
a greedy printer ' who had published some of his 
manuscript sonnets. 3 

Playwrights, more perhaps than other writers, 
suffered from the wrongful publication of their 
works; only in their case the loss was rather in 
reputation than in money. The financial loss fell 

1 'Glaucus and Scylla,' 1589, Ded. 

2 'Vision of Twelve Goddesses,' 1604, Ep. Ded. 

3 < Delia/ Ded. 


upon the players who had bought the manuscript, 
which it was to their interest to keep from pub- 
lication. Copies were procured by the agents of 
grasping publishers in various ways. Sometimes it 
was found possible to procure a full players' text 
and print from this; but an actor's copy gave 
usually only the single player's part, with cues; 
there would probably be only one or two com- 
plete manuscripts, and these no doubt jealously 
guarded. But a method of shorthand writing had 
already been invented, and this the publisher's 
agent found extremely useful in procuring the text 
of plays. An instance of this is afforded by the 
fortunes of the Play of Queen Elizabeth ( c If you 
know not me, you know Nobody '). As the author 
tells us in the prologue to his own published edition: 
It ... 

Did throng the seats, the boxes, and the stage, 
So much, that some by stenography drew 
The plot ; put it in print (scarce one word true) 
And in that lameness it hath limp't so long 
The author now to vindicate that wrong 
Hath took the pains upright upon its feet 
To teach it walk; so please you sit, and see't. 

We are undoubtedly indebted to this practice of 
surreptitious publication for many authorized and 
correct printed copies of works that would other- 
wise never have passed through the press. It seems 
to have become more and more customary for 
playwrights to see their works through the press. 
Thus Jonson carefully issued all his; Massinger 
and Middleton about half theirs. Repeatedly the 
author in his preface explains and excuses publica- 
tion on the ground of its necessity, to forestall or 


supplant inferior pirated editions. Thus Chapman 
prints ' All Fools ' 

Lest by others' stealth it be imprest 

Without my passport, patched with others' wit. 1 

Sometimes, against his will, the author found him- 
self forced to authorize a publication in order to 
get the opportunity of insuring that it should at 
least be correft. In all probability, in such cases, 
he gained little besides the knowledge that he had 
protected his reputation; the manuscript was no 
longer his property. Still, though Heywood pro- 
tests vigorously that he at least is above the dis- 
honest praftice of selling his labours twice, 'first 
to the stage and after to the Press,' 2 it is clear 
from the protest itself that some authors did make 
money by this means. 

The playwright suffered from piracy chiefly in 
reputation; the ordinary writer suffered both in 
reputation and in purse. He was defrauded of the 
price of his manuscript, and it was mangled, pieced 
out by other work, and attributed to other men's 
labour; so that he found himself cheated of his 
due reward on all sides. Thus the printer Richard 
Johnes published a little book called ' Breton's 
Bower of Delights,' at which Nash unkindly sneered 
in his preface to c Astrophel and Stella.' But out 
of all the poems in it Breton had aftually written 
only three or four of the best, and he was justly 
irritated, both at the theft of these and at the in- 
justice done to his poetic skill. 3 Again, to take 

1 Chapman, < All Fools/ Ded. 

1 T. Heywood, 'Rape of Lucrece,' ed. 1608. c To Reader.* 

* 'Pilgrimage to Paradise,' 1592. Pref. Ep. 


another sphere of authorship, the learned Dr. Turner 
complains, in a dedication to no less a personage 
than Elizabeth herself, of the manner in which ' a 
crafty, covetous, and Popish printer handled me of 
late, who, suppressing my name, and leaving out 
my Preface, set out a book (that I had set out . . .) 
with his preface, as though the book had been his 
own ' (I568). 1 Shakspere was saddled with the sup- 
posed authorship of two such inferior plays as ' Sir 
John Oldcastle' and c The London Prodigal.' The 
ingenious preface to c England's Helicon,' by L. N., 
suggests that much pains would have been required, 
in many cases, to trace the authorship of poems in 
this colleftion; it almost hints that L. N. would 
regard the task as a little superfluous. 

The worst of it was that a book once printed 
and entered in the Stationers' Register became the 
property of him who entered it, and no other 
person could safely publish it, however necessary 
might be an amended edition. Wither states the 
case clearly. c The Stationers ... by the laws and 
orders of their Corporation . . . can and do settle 
upon the particular members thereof a perpetual 
interest in such books as are registered by them at 
their Hall . . . and are secured in taking the full 
benefit of those books better than any author can 
by virtue of the King's grant, notwithstanding their 
first copies were purloined from the true owner, 
and imprinted without his leave. 2 It must have 
been indeed galling for the author whose work had 
been stolen and mangled, to have to make terms 

1 Turner's < Herbal,' 1568. Ded. 

2 Wither, c Scholar's Purgatory,' p. 29. 


with the thief in order to secure the issue of a 
truer text! 

In other ways, still, the unscrupulous publisher 
was capable of doing injury to an author. If Wither 
is to be believed and though angry, he is an honest 
man they would even go so far as to arouse sus- 
picion of a book in the minds of the authorities, 
caring little for the good name and personal safety 
of the author, so their own interests were served 
thereby. Here is the passage referred to, from the 
' Scholar's Purgatory ': 

The Bad Stationer c will not stick to bely his 
author's intentions, or to publish secretly that there 
is somewhat in his new imprinted books against 
the state, or some Honourable personages; that so, 
they being questioned, his ware may have the 
quicker sale. He makes no scruple to put out the 
right author's name, and insert another in the 
second edition of a book; and when the impression 
of some pamphlet lies upon his hands, to imprint 
new Titles for it (and so take men's moneys twice 
or thrice for the same matter under diverse names) 
is no injury in his opinion ' (sic). 1 

Mere carelessness caused a good deal of harm, 
cheating the public with imperfed copies, and thus 
hindering the sale. The unfortunate Drayton, who 
had had great difficulty in inducing stationers to 
accept the risk of publishing his ' Polyolbion ' at 
all, suffered from their carelessness even then. He 
complains that ' some of the stationers that had the 
selling of the First Part of this poem, because it 
went not so fast away in the sale, as some of their 

1 Wither, 'Scholar's Purgatory,' p. 121. 


beastly and abominable trash (a shame both to our 
language and nation), have either despitefully left 
out, or at least carelessly neglefted the Epistles to 
the Readers, and so have cozened the buyers with 
imperfect books.' l (It is not impossible that this 
was mere accident due to distribution of the print- 
ing of the book among several master printers a 
practice not infrequent when the number of presses 
allowed was strictly limited.) Such dealing was not 
calculated to encourage the sale of the Second Part 
of the poem. 

The author usually, when a manuscript had been 
openly agreed for, superintended its passage through 
the press. In fa6t, unless absent from London, or 
unless a personage of too great importance, he was 
expefted to attend personally to supervise during 
the aftual printing. Nash speaks of being ' called 
away to correft the faults of the press ' that es- 
caped during his absence from the printing house. 2 
Barnaby Yong and N. Breton both crave the reader's 
indulgence towards printer's errors because they 
were prevented by more important affairs from 
c attendance at the press.' 3 

But the publisher would not scruple to ignore 
the author's natural desire to superintend, if he 
could thereby secure an earlier sale. Nash's ' Piers 
Penniless ' was c abroad a fortnight ere ' he knew of 
it; offering itself ' unconnected and unfinished . . . 
to the open scorn of the world.' The second im- 

1 Preface to * Polyolbion,' Part II. 
3 Lenten Stuff. * Works,' ed. Grosart, v, 198. 
3 Yong; Preface to translation of Monte mayor's * Diana'; 
Breton, 'Wit's Will,' ed. 1599. Grosart, ii, p. 63. 


pression was also well in hand before Nash was 
informed. 1 It certainly rested with the publisher 
to determine whether or not a work should be re- 
issued; if courteous, however, he would probably 
give the writer the chance of seeing it through the 

It is not surprising, considering all the dis- 
abilities under which printers laboured, and the 
frequently surreptitious manner of production, that 
the standard of workmanship should have been very 
low as low as was, only too often, the standard of 
literary worth. It is a fact that some of the (prob- 
ably illicit) books of the period are in passages quite 
unintelligible, so that the marvel is how readers 
were obtained for them. 

How lightly even the university printer estimated 
his responsibilities may be judged from the follow- 
ing jaunty preface by the Oxford printer, Joseph 
Barnes, prefixed to a pageant composed by John 
Lyly. c I gathered these copies in loose papers I 
know not how imperfect, therefore I must crave a 
double pardon; of him that penned them, and those 
that reade them. The matter of small moment, 
and therefore the offence of no great danger.' 2 

In the published text of c The Famous Victories 
of Henry the Fifth,' verse is written as prose and 
prose as verse; passages are quite unintelligible. The 
1598 edition of Greene's 'James IV contains a 
publisher's note stating that in the earlier edition 
the text had been so mangled that in some parts it 

1 Epistle to Printer, c Works,' ed. Grosart, ii, 5-6. Is this whole 
letter a publisher's trick, intended to excuse imperfections? 
8 'Speeches ... at the Progress ... at Bissam,' 1592. 


was impossible to follow the thread of the dis- 
course. Students of the quarto editions of' Hamlet ' 
will remember the remarkable lapses from sense 
that here and there disfigure the First Quarto. 

This is the First Quarto version of Hamlet's 
celebrated soliloquy on death: 

To be, or not to be, I there 's the point, 

To Die, to sleepe, is that all ? I all : 

No, to sleepe, to dreame, I mary there it goes, 

For in that dreame of death, when wee awake, 

And borne before an euerlasting Judge, 

From whence no passenger euer returned, 

The vndiscouered country, at whose sight 

The happy smile, and the accursed damn'd, 

But for this, the joyful hope of this, 

WhoPd beare the scornes and flattery of the world, 

Scorned by the right rich, the rich curssed of the poore ? 

The common practice of dictating to compositors 
was doubtless responsible for many errors. Thus 
c impotent and bed-rid/ mis-heard, becomes c im- 
pudent and bedrid '; and ' a spirite of hell ' appears 
as ' a spirite of health.' l 

On the other hand, low as was the general 
standard of the printing-press, instances can be met 
with, during this period, of excellent workmanship. 
Bacon's Essays, issued in 1612 from the printing- 
press of James Beale, is a most excellent production. 
The type is clear, well-formed, and pleasant to the 
eye, the margins generous, the text inclosed within 
a plain framework or border. Another edition of 
the same year, printed for J. Jaggard, though less 
pretentious, is beautifully clear and accurate. Clearly 
it was not that skilled labour was lacking, but that 

1 < Facsimile of Hamlet,' First Quarto, A& III, sc. vi. 


the conditions of ordinary production fostered care- 
less work a carelessness, by the way, not infre- 
quently shared in or condoned by authors. 

Occasionally an author who felt himself in a 
position to incur the risk would publish his own 
work. This was the case with George Turberville. 
But it was an unusual course to pursue, and the 
writer not dependent upon the press for his liveli- 
hood generally preferred dignity to notoriety, and 
kept his works in manuscript. An exception must 
be made of a writer such as Bacon, who published 
work written with a definite view to public utility. 

A safer method, where found practicable, was to 
bring out by subscription, thus substituting for 
private patronage and sale to the bookseller, a 
reliance upon what Leslie Stephen has called ' col- 
le<5live patronage. 5 John Foxe's 'Tables of Gram- 
mar' (1552) were thus published, eight Lords of 
the Privy Council subscribing. A method some- 
what analogous must have been pursued by Samuel 
Daniel, when he printed sumptuous editions of his 
works, and of his ' History of England/ to be 
privately presented to certain persons. 1 He must 
have had some guarantee beforehand that he would 
be recouped. A writer of a very different order of 
merit, John Taylor the Water Poet, made a practice 
of collecting subscriptions beforehand for nearly 
every pamphlet he published. For one little pro- 
dudtion, c The Pennyless Pilgrimage/ he obtained 
i, 600 names. But apparently most of his patrons 
expefted, and tried to exadt, their full pennyworth. 

1 See his Note to Reader at close of Part I of his c History of 


On one occasion, to his great indignation, half the 
' mongrel' subscribers refused to pay up. 1 

Under the conditions already described, it was 
inevitable that the bond of relation between author 
and publisher should be usually of the slightest. 
True, there are honourable exceptions. William Pon- 
sonby published everything that is known of Spen- 
ser's, except his first work, the ' Shepherd's Calen- 
dar.' So also Simon Waterson published nearly all 
Daniel's writings ; and was appointed executor at 
the poet's death. But most writers seem to have 
formed no lasting connection with any publisher; 
and so far is this the case that we even find instances 
of two parts of the same work being issued by dif- 
ferent publishers. Thus Stubbes' ' Anatomy of 
Abuses,' Part I, was brought out in 1583 by 
R. Johnes ; and Part II, in the same year, was 
published by W. Wright. Greene's c Mamilia' was 
licensed to T. Woodcock in 1581, and the Second 
Part to W. Ponsonby in 1583. Bacon employed 
several different publishers; Greene had dealings 
with seven or eight ; S. Rowlands published with 
a great variety. 

But perhaps the most remarkable instance of the 
entire absence of any sentimental connection be- 
tween the stationer and those for whom he pub- 
lished is seen in the relations of John Wolfe and 
Cuthbert Burby with Nash and Harvey. Every 
one knew that Nash and Harvey were at daggers 
drawn, and that Wolfe was the publisher of Harvey's 
attacks. Yet this very publisher is found (i7th 
September, 1593) proposing to publish a book by 
1 See Taylor's preface to ' A Kicksey- Winsey.' 


Nash. There had probably been a quarrel with 
Harvey. Cuthbert Burby brought out Harvey's 
next diatribe against Nash; and he again followed 
it up within a few months by a pamphlet by Nash 
himself. Harvey was evidently unable to enlist a 
publisher in his interest. 

This detachment of interest is the more remark- 
able in cases where the writer was definitely em- 
ployed by the publisher. It seems to have been at 
times customary for the stationer to lodge and 
board the writer while engaged upon the stipulated 
work. Nash lived for some considerable time in 
the house of the printer, John Danter, provided 
for by the good man's wife; l and, in the same way, 
John Wolfe provided board and lodging for Gabriel 
Harvey when busy writing in town. 2 

It is possible that some of the evidence here 
quoted must be taken with some allowance. Both 
the complaints of authors and the statements of 
satirists are apt to be highly coloured. But merely 
from the pages of the Stationers' Register it is easy 
to see that the publishers of the late sixteenth and 
early seventeenth centuries (with some honourable 
exceptions) cared for nothing save the making of 
such livelihood as they could. No doubt the struggle 
for existence among the unprivileged was very severe, 

1 c Have with you. . . .' * Works,' iii, 170. 

3 Nash, 'Have with you. . .' Grosart, iii, 132. Respectable 
citizens, and booksellers in particular, frequently let lodgings both 
in England and on the Continent. Sidney and Languet lodged at 
the house of a publisher in Frankfort. Lyly represents Euphues 
and Philautus as lodging in a merchant's house and frequenting 
the court (see Arber's Reprint, p. 309). Fox-Bourne, ' Life of 
Sidney,' p. 61. See also Calendar MSS. Hatfield, passim. 


and this led them to prefer the cheap and sensa- 
tional to the more lastingly valuable among the 
productions of the age. Public taste was largely 
responsible ; but the stationer cannot be absolved 
from the charge brought against him by Wither, 
of refusing the work of the self-respe&ing artist 
and expert, in order to escape paying a fair reward, 
' seeing that he can hire for a matter of 40^. some 
needy Ignoramus to scribble upon the same subject, 
and by a large promising title make it as vendible 
for an impression or two as though it had the 
quintessence of all art/ 1 


1 C 

Scholar's Purgatory,' n.d., p. 1 30. 

3 66 


HE struggle of old and new in educa- 
tion has had at least one good result, 
in that it has forced the defenders of 
the old regime, while still defending 
it, to base their claims on a more 
reasonable foundation. The knowledge of a little 
Greek grammar is no longer spoken of as if it 
were a magical spell, able of itself to open the gates 
of culture to its fortunate possessors ; the Classics 
are now generally compared as literatures with other 
literatures, and from such a comparison their adherents 
have nothing to fear. For example, the valuable 
report recently issued by the Curriculum Com- 
mittee of the Classical Association puts a literary 
training in the first place, and the study of the 
Classics in the second, as a means to that end, not 
as an end in itself. While public opinion is being 
thus educated to a just appreciation of literature in 
this field, we may hope to find Carlyle's definition 
of the true University as a collection of books ap- 
plied (with its proper limitations) to school as well 
as to University. 

Carlyle's definition is profoundly true, since at 
the age at which a boy goes up to Oxford or Cam- 
bridge he really needs little more than a competent 
adviser in his private reading, if and this is the 


root of the whole matter he has been properly 
trained at school to read for himself, at his own 
judgement, in his own times, and by his own initia- 
tive. If his school has not given a boy by the time 
he is nineteen the will to fix his hours of work, the 
judgement to choose the books he will gain most 
by reading (of course with the help of an older 
mind according to the measure of his own inex- 
perience), and the desire to read them, then it has 
failed ignominiously of its primary purpose. And 
it is most unlikely that it should more than occa- 
sionally succeed, unless its teachers have under their 
hand as an instrument for continual use (for them- 
selves as well as their pupils, since there is no 
teaching without learning) a collection, small if you 
will, but carefully and liberally chosen, of the best 
books on every serious subject that is being taught 
and learnt. The keeper and controller of such a 
collection, if he is, as he should be, an enlightened 
and thoughtful man, will find, in the course of his 
work, many questions which need solution, and 
many suggestions which need following up and 
considering. To set out his duties in detail would 
involve drawing up a list of rules, many of which 
would be concerned with cataloguing, placing, and 
circulating books, and similar details, neither sug- 
gestive in themselves nor interesting to the reader. 
The broader lines of his policy, however, may be 
briefly sketched out here. 

At some of the larger public schools each house 
has a small collection of fiction and other books 
designed solely to amuse. In such cases the keeper 
of the School Library is a happy man, but I do not 


think the plan a good one. It tends to separate the 
two sorts of reading, instead of co-ordinating them, 
and to cut off the less intelligent from their chances 
of improvement. I was once on a visit to a young 
friend at one of the greatest English schools, and 
asked him to show me the School Library. He 
did not know where it was, nor even that it existed. 
I remembered a similar incident in that amusing 
book, c About Some Fellows/ where the scatter- 
brained but typical Pevensey announces to his 
bored companions his astounding discovery of the 
Library; but I had read it as farce, and did not 
expecSt to find it not only possible but true. 

The better plan seems to be that which obtains 
at most of the smaller schools, including that in 
whose excellent library I laid the foundation of my 
small experience and great love of books, that is, 
to combine the libraries of amusement and edifica- 
tion into one collection. This formation of a single 
whole seems at first sight to be a simplification; it 
is really, however, a complication of the Librarian's 
duties, for he has then a double care, to provide for 
the delegation of boys of all temperaments, stand- 
ards and ages from thirteen to nineteen, and to 
supply each branch of school-work with the best 
books and the best only. 

It is the first of these duties that breaks the heart. 
The taste in books of Caliban junior, the small 
British boy, is desperately wicked. Fortunately, 
however, while the interest, and to a certain ex- 
tent the preference, of this class of boy must be 
considered, it is not necessary or desirable to follow 
closely his depraved taste for sensational or merely 


stupid books, books, that is, which are respectively 
the intoxicants and narcotics of the mind. The 
average boy would perhaps prefer them; but for- 
tunately the average boy will take fairly kindly to 
whatever is given him, provided that it is within 
the range of his comprehension. Above all things 
books written specially for the young are to be 
avoided; vice perhaps is purged out of them, but 
so also is virtue, and the residuum is generally a 
charadterless and brain-softening pulp, which too 
often has the effeCt of checking the proper develop- 
ment of a taste for reading. Even in the nursery, 
and much more at a public school, good grown-up 
books are preferable; the evil that they may con- 
tain is not intelligible to children, often not to 
growing boys, and runs off their minds like water 
off a duck's back. For them the value of a book 
lies, not in the absence of evil, which, as Milton 
finely said, c is but a blank or excremental white- 
ness/ but in the presence of good. 

The sound way to provide books for boys of any 
age whose minds are undeveloped, lies, as so often, 
between two extremes, on one side the extreme of 
yielding to their bad taste, and on the other that 
of ignoring their limitations entirely and giving 
them books which are outside their mental horizon. 
Nearly all boys and girls have in them, just as 
races have in their childhood, a strong mythopoeic 
and (if I may coin a word) mythophilic faculty, 
which weakens when adolescence brings with it 
greater thoughtfulness and the sense of beauty. In 
fa<5t they love a story. And there is a fairly large 
class of novelists, headed by Scott and Dumas, who, 



without possessing the highest merits of style or 
thought, do contrive to tell a story excellently 
well. The novels of such writers, assisted by in- 
telligently and attractively written books of natural 
history, biography, travel, and even sport, may be 
made into an easy and attractive ladder between 
mere trash and fine literature. 

The choice of literature really concerns both the 
library of study and the library of pleasure. In 
every scheme of liberal education yet propounded 
literature takes a high and a necessary place. And 
in the appreciation of literature is to be found one 
of the finest and most enduring pleasures of life, 
because it stands the test of the axiom that c that 
good only profits, which can be tasted with all doors 

The basis of a good school-library should of course 
be English, and here selection is naturally much 
more catholic than in other languages. It is well 
not to buy much literature that is less than twenty 
or twenty-five years old, because the art of anti- 
cipating the judgement of posterity is a rare gift, 
and in most cases the result of purchasing new 
books largely is a mere accumulation of ephemera. 
If English is taught, the books will supplement 
the teaching, while if the head master fears, as 
many good educationalists do (though it seems 
to me a strange confession of weakness), that to 
do so would give a distaste for reading, the more 
intelligent boys can still feed their own taste for 
literature. Classical Latin and Greek authors should 
be represented by the best, not necessarily though 
often the most recent, texts, translations and com- 


mentaries; boys on the classical side of course have 
their own copies of texts, but good commentaries 
are often rather expensive, and it should be held the 
duty of the library to provide them. French and 
German should be represented by a selection 
chosen for fine literary value or great historic in- 
terest, and the Italian master-poets might be included. 
The two former languages are taught in all our best 
schools, and I have known schoolboys who had 
some knowledge of and taste for Italian poetry. 

For other educational purposes the chief need is 
of books of reference and standard works generally, 
following the chief school subjefts. In any subje6l 
of which he himself has little or no knowledge, the 
librarian can easily get advice as to the choice of 
books from the special teachers, and his main objed: 
should be to keep his selection up to date. For this 
purpose he ought to have a reserve of hopelessly 
superseded books, which he can keep to its smallest 
possible limits by trying to buy only books of a 
permanent value. The salt which keeps a book 
fresh is a quality very much more easy to discern 
in scholarship than in science. The former moves 
except in the field of archaeological research 
very slowly, as it has been continuously worked upon 
for centuries; the advances of the latter are so rapid 
that many works, excellent when written, are left 
in a few years, like fossils, proving only the exist- 
ence of lower strata of knowledge, which have been 
covered by the accumulations of scientific progress. 

History is generally treated as an important 
school subjedt, and a choice of historical books will 
devolve upon the librarian. It is not a very difficult 


choice, but there are two schools of historians; the 
first is that of which Lecky was perhaps the last 
exponent, which takes a wide sweep of subjecSt and 
shows its relation to a single dominating idea; the 
second is the new school, which prefers to gain in 
accuracy of detail what it loses in breadth, by 
specializing in very closely limited fields of inquiry. 
Some choice must be made between these two 
ideals of history, if only to determine in what pro- 
portion each is to be represented. The specialist 
might prefer the latter; but for stimulating the 
mind there can be no comparison between them, 
and a wise choice of historical books for boys must 
be largely composed of works by writers of the class 
of Motley and Lecky. 

But apart from this question there is a class of 
subje6ls, grouped together under the name of socio- 
logy, to which history in the narrower sense of 
the word is only an introduction. Or perhaps it 
would be juster to say that the political history of 
nations, dignified exclusively by the name of his- 
tory, is only one aspe<5t of humanism, which is 
completed by the history of political, philosophical, 
and literary ideas. From humanism, as the word 
should imply, nothing human is alien, and little 
that concerns the progress of the human spirit, 
' the proper study of mankind,' is useless in a liberal 
education. One might, indeed, go so far as to say 
that without the study of humanity in one or more 
of its aspects, no amount of scientific learning in 
purely non-human nature can be otherwise than 
barren in its influence on the mind. 

The important truth is that in all books which 


are neither of pure science nor of pure imagination, 
the quality of suggestiveness is infinitely more valu- 
able than any mere trustworthiness in matters of 
fa<5t. Carlyle's c Cromwell ' is discredited as his- 
tory, but it is a magnificent presentment of a political 
point of view; and Professor E. B. Tylor's ' Prim- 
itive Culture,' though it retains its reputation for 
sound dodrine, is valuable to the present writer 
because it first opened the eyes of his mind to the 
duty of independent thought. It is to be hoped 
that few any longer regard the child-mind as a 
sausage-skin, to be stuffed with assorted opinions 
of the teacher for meat. One of the most hopeful 
signs of the new movement is that all its leaders 
insist on the duty of training the assimilative power 
to work for itself. Better is a mind little stored 
with knowledge but apt to learn and apter to think, 
than the mightiest human encyclopaedia. Better, 
in books as in teachers, is an ounce of inspiration 
than a ton of knowledge. In this truth lies the 
essence of good education; and if we are to at 
upon it, the choice of books is of the greatest 

How far should the keeper of a school library be 
a bibliographer? This question asks another. What 
is bibliography? If it is a knowledge of rare books, 
or of details of book-production, the answer is 
negative. The triumphs and excitement of the 
au6tion-room will not be his, for books of the high 
standard which he requires are probably in sufficient 
demand to achieve constant reprinting. Some school 
librarians, however, seem only to buy from pub- 
lishers' lists of current books, by which means they 


fail to fill many gaps in older standard works. This 
is absurd. If a copy is in clean and sound condition, 
it suffers nothing by being second-hand, and is often 
appreciably cheaper. In the matter of the external 
form of his books, his point of view is the same as 
in regard to their contents. In each case the essen- 
tial is permanence ; and this really answers the 
second question asked above. The true biblio- 
grapher is one who cares that books should be so 
produced as to last as long as possible. Of course 
there is no need to allow books to be of mean ap- 
pearance; he may fairly be allowed to 'love that 
beauty should go beautifully.' The aim of the school 
librarian is to make reading attractive, and the graces 
of book-produ6tion are by no means to be despised, 
though they may not be so necessary in a permanent 
collection as the more solid and utilitarian virtues of 
durability and strength. The width of a margin is 
less important than permanent paper, strong binding 
and clear type, except to the taste of the individual. 
But there is really very little to alter in Ruskin's 
description of his suggested ' royal series ' of books 
for public libraries, ' chosen books, the best in every 
kind, prepared for that national series in the most 
perfefl way possible; broad of margin and divided 
into pleasant volumes, light in the hand, beautiful 
and strong, and thorough as examples of binders' 

If, as I have tried to show, a good colle<5tion of 
books is the most indispensable instrument of 
education, how is it that so often a school library 
(even excluding the cupboard of trashy boys' fiction 
which at some preparatory schools usurps its place 


and name), is treated as a kind of subsidiary play- 
ground, a little less important than the gymnasium 
and workshops? The status of the library and the 
choice of a librarian are of immense importance, 
and when head masters and governors realize that 
fat, they may allot a more adequate share of the 
available funds to the purchase of books; and it is 
to be hoped that they will also treat the librarian- 
ship as an official appointment, both as regards 
salary and leisure from other duties. The work, if 
it is to be well done, involves labour and time, 
which can ill be spared from the hours of a hard- 
worked teacher; and it demands both a wide know- 
ledge and a fine judgement of books. 


37 6 

MENTS OF 1536. 

JN 1536 three quarto editions of the 
New Testament in English were 
printed in Antwerp. They are very 
similar in appearance, and have no 
__ indication of place or printer. All 

three contain a woodcut of St. Paul standing with 
a raised sword in his right hand, from whose handle 
hangs a pair of scales. In his left hand is an open 
book, and his left foot rests upon a stone. One 
detail separates these three woodcuts at a glance. 
In one the face of the stone is blank, and the edi- 
tion in which it occurs is known as the ' Blank 
Stone' edition; in the second the figure of a mole 
is engraved on the stone, and gives its name to the 
c Mole ' edition. The third has upon the stone a 
merchant's mark with the initials A. B. K., and 
the edition containing it is known as the ' En- 
graver's Mark ' edition. In spite of the great atten- 
tion paid to these early editions, and the researches 
of many bibliographers, no one, so far as I am 
aware, has solved the mystery of the engraver's 
mark, and the initials A. B. K. Now this woodcut 
occurs again in 1536 in the following book: 'Storys 
and prophesis out of holy scriptur garyschede with 





ANTWERP, 1536. 


faire ymages, . . . oursien and approuved by ... 
maester Nycholas Coppyn de Montibus, Deane of 
Saindte Peters and Chanceler of the universitie of 
Louven. Anno M.CCCCC.XXXV.' At the end of the 
book is the St. Paul woodcut with the engraver's 
mark, and below it the following colophon: 'This 
boke is prentyd in Andwarpe vpon the Lombardes 
walle over agaynst the golden hande, By my Symon 
Cowke. Anno xxxvi.' Thus though this book gives 
no clue to the identity of A. B. K., it adds one piece 
of information, and that is that some time in 1536 
the woodcut was in the hands of Simon Cock, the 
well-known Antwerp printer. 

It will be noticed that the book was overseen and 
approved in 1535. Now in that year Simon Cock 
printed a book, c Enchiridion, compluscula eorum 
quae in Sacris Bibliis traduntur picfturis expressa 
continens addito insuper textu ac mox precationibus 
piis e lingua vernacula in Latinam per G. de Bran- 
teghem tralatis. Excudebat Simon Coquus Ant- 
verpiae 1535.' This book was lot 281 (and so per- 
haps escaped burning) in the Offor sale. I have not 
seen a copy, but from the title it might be a Latin 
version of the ' Storys and Prophesis/ and might 
also have contained the St. Paul woodcut. 

The key to the riddle I found unexpectedly. I 
was going through the six or eight large scrap- 
books of wood-engravings which form part of the 
Douce colleftion in the Bodleian, when I suddenly 
came upon this identical woodcut on a leaf which 
was manifestly the last leaf of an oftavo book 
Below the cut was a short colophon, setting forth 
that the book was printed in 1537 at Antwerp by 


c Mattheus Cromme voor Adriaen Kempe van 

Here was the plain solution, but who was Adriaen 
Kempe, and what book did the leaf belong to? 

It very probably belongs to a Dutch version of 
the ' Storys and prophesis,' of which an imperfe6l 
copy was also in the OfFor collection. The title 
runs ' Historien en Prophecien wt der heyliger 


schriftueren met devote ghebeden.' The book was 
imperfeft, wanting the last leaf, but the title-page 
was dated 1537. So far we have got to the fafts 
that Adrian Kempe was apparently a publisher, that 
the woodcut of St. Paul was his device, and that in 
1536 he was in partnership with Simon Cock, and 
in 1537 with Matthew Crom. In tracing various 
clues I turned up in Brunet Gulielmus de Brante- 
ghem, who had translated the 'Storys and prophesis' 
into Latin, and here a new book appeared, 'Jesu 
Christi vita juxta quatuor evangelistarum narra- 
tiones, artificio graphices perquam eleganter pifta, 
una cum totius anni evangeliis ac epistolis.' The 
colophon runs : c Antverpiae, apud Matthaeum 
Cromme, pro Adriano Kempe de Bouchout. Anno 
M.D.xxxvii. 24 Decemb.' 

In the Huth Catalogue (vol. i, pp. 196-7) a copy 
of the 'Jesu Christi vita' is entered, and the follow- 
ing note added: ' By whom the very artistic wood- 
cuts in this volume were designed is not mentioned, 
although at the end of the preface we find some 
Latin verses " In laudem pidtoris tabellarum hujus 
libelli." In the British Museum is a copy of the 
book with a MS. note by Mr. W. B. Rye to the 
effet that the engravings are by Lieven de Witte 


of Ghent, but he does not give his authority for the 
statement, and Nagler says nothing on the subject. 
The same cuts were used in an English New Testa- 
ment printed at Antwerp in 1538 by Matthew 

Mr. Rye having discovered the fa6t and stated 
it, apparently preferred to leave it to the ingenuity 
of later searchers to find the source of his informa- 
tion for themselves. Had Mr. Huth's cataloguer 
examined more carefully the prefatory verses he 
would have found that they form an acrostic, and 
that the initial letters of the lines read downwards 
form the words LEVINVS DE VVITTE GAN- 

Lieven de Witte, a painter and architect of 
Ghent, is of especial interest at the present time, 
since he is considered to have been one of the 
artists who worked on the celebrated c Grimani 
Breviary,' preserved in the library of St. Mark's at 
Venice, which is now being reproduced in fac- 
simile. According to Bryan he devoted himself to 
buildings and other perspective subjects, but also 
produced historical pictures. The windows of the 
cathedral of St. Bavon, in Ghent, were painted 
from his designs. 

A French version of the 'Jesus Christi vita' was 
issued two years later with the colophon, c En 
Anvers par Adrien Kempe & Matthieu Crome. 
M.D. xxxix.' Very fortunately the original privilege 
for the book, dated December 7, 1537, * s re p r i nte d 
in this edition, and we find that it was granted to 
c Adrian Kempe de Bouckhout, Imprimeur de 


In 1540 Crom reprinted the French version, and 
in 1541 the Latin, but in the colophons of neither 
does the name of Adrian Kempe occur, so that after 
1539 we have at present no further trace of 
him. It would seem that he began to work with 
Simon Cock at least as early as 1536, but that when 
Crom commenced business, which so far as we 
know cannot be dated earlier than 1537, Kemp 
deserted Cock to join him. With the data we 
possess so far I think we are quite justified in con- 
sidering Simon Cock to have been the printer of 
the ' Engraver's Mark ' edition of the 1536 English 
New Testament. 

As to Adrian Kempe himself, was he a printer, a 
stationer, or a wood-engraver?' The privilege men- 
tioned above states distinctly c Imprimeur de livres/ 
but the fad: that every book in which his name 
occurs was printed by some one else, shows that he 
was not himself a practical printer. 

The probable explanation is that he was a wood- 
engraver, who published his own work himself, 
getting another printer to print the necessary letter- 
press and to share in the venture. A somewhat 
similar case will be found in connexion with Albert 
Diirer, several of whose books have the colophon, 
' Impressum Nurnbergae per Albertum Durer,' 
sometimes with the word c pi6lor ' added, some- 
times without. In this case Diirer was the engraver 
and designer, and not the printer of the letter- 

To return to the woodcuts of St. Paul. Many 
writers on the subjedt of the New Testaments seem 
to have taken for granted that the three woodcuts 


were identical, and that the different marks on the 
stone were produced by 'plugging' or inserting 
new engraved pieces into the old block. Common- 
sense might have suggested the improbability of 
the cut appearing with initials in 1535, again with 
initials changing to a mole, and finally with a blank 
space in 1536, and then returning to its original 
condition in 1537. 

On examining the three side by side it will be 
noticed that the A. B. K. and blank stone ones 
differ only in very minute details, and are at first 
sight identical, while the Mole cut, though copied 
from the same original, is much more coarsely 

In 1553 the Blank Stone cut was in the posses- 
sion of Hans van Ruremond, the son of the Chris- 
topher van Ruremond who died in England in 
1 53 1, and whose widow continued to issue English 
New Testaments, so that she may very well have 
been the printer of the Blank Stone edition of 

One great difficulty in the way of definitely 
identifying the printers of Antwerp books comes 
from their habit of borrowing and lending each 
other material, and that difficulty is very notice- 
able in the case of these Testaments, increased by 
the fadt that as the contents of the page agrees in 
the three editions, many copies have been made up 
with leaves which do not rightly belong to them. 

Assuming Simon Cock as the printer of the 
Engraver's Mark edition, and the widow of Chris- 
topher van Ruremond as the printer of the Blank 
Stone edition, there remains the Mole edition. This 


is ascribed by Mr. Sayle in his c Catalogue of early 
English books in the University Library, Cam- 
bridge,' to Simon Cock, and I have no evidence on 
the matter to bring forward. Living as I do in the 
great town on the Mersey, which, as Mr. Birrell 
writes, ' all unabashed now boasts its bookless self a 
city/ there are no opportunities of working on 
original sources of information. 




F a serious article may be prefaced 
by a light allusion, if the dignity and 
propriety of c The Library ' can coun- 
tenance any approach to levity, if its 
well of English undefiled can tolerate 
a drop or two of American slang, I should like to 
begin with a phrase current in the United States 
with special application to my own state, Missouri. 
It is said of a genuine Missourian, or (in the ver- 
nacular of our legislative halls and political hustings) 
a native of c Imperial Mizzoura,' that he ' must be 
shown/ This does not signify exaftly that he is a 
doubting Thomas, but that before adting he insists 
on being sure of his ground, that he stands by the 
motto of Davy Crockett, c First make sure you're 
right, and then go ahead.' 

In this, as in other qualities, the American gives 
evidence that he comes of English stock. John Bull 
also wants ' to be shown.' He does not buy a nag 
till he has examined it at all points. He is, indeed, 
slower of persuasion than Brother Jonathan. He is 
especially cautious about his money investments. 
He must be well assured of fair returns in one form 
or another before he will loose his purse strings. 
Jonathan, despite the Missouri proverb, is more 
easily persuaded; he is more ready to go into a new 


scheme; and he goes into many, sometimes losing, 
but generally winning. When he is deluded into 
buying a gold brick, e.g., the protective tariff, he 
makes no confession of error, but rather points with 
pride to his counterfeit wealth and glories in his 
fiscal folly. John makes mistakes sometimes; but 
having once burned his hand badly, he leaves other 
people to rake in their own chestnuts. 

Very early in his career before, indeed, he was 
out of leading-strings Jonathan evolved from his 
fertile brain, sharpened by necessity and freed from 
the trammels of tradition, a novel and brilliant idea, 
the working out of which has brought him wealth 
and strength and leadership. It was not strange that 
such a thought should arise in a new bracing atmo- 
sphere clear of the mists of custom, and among a 
people whose voluntary expatriation proved them 
to be possessors of more than ordinary intelligence, 
enterprise, and hardihood. His thought was this: 
that since capacity for education forms the dis- 
tinction between man and the brute, and the pos- 
session of education in varying degrees marks the 
grades of men, it would be well to educate all his 
children. It was plain that a nation composed of 
men and women who are all educated must be 
stronger and more prosperous than a nation with 
only an educated class. This seems axiomatic; yet 
it had never before occurred to any national genius. 
With him, to think was to act. He planted side 
by side in the wilderness the church and the public 
school; and on these foundation-stones he reared 
his national edifice. In this, up to a certain point, 
he but followed his progenitor. He claimed, how- 



ever, that his domicile was better proportioned and 
more symmetrical, and afforded more comfort to 
the occupants. John Bull admitted that it was more 
commodious and more modern (with a contemptuous 
inflexion on the 'modern'), but averred that it 
was not so comfortable, and above all not so safe 
as his mansion that it was likely to be blown over 
any time by a tornado arising from the heat of a 
zone subject to political cyclones. 

However, not so much for fear of an overthrow 
as from the growth of ideas and ideals as to what 
constitutes a proper home for a family or nation, 
there arose in the middle of the nineteenth century 
simultaneously on both sides of the Atlantic a feel- 
ing a convidtion that the foundations of the 
national edifice were not entirely sufficient. It was 
observed that in a critical and doubting age the 
church was not accepted by all, that there were, 
indeed, many whom it did not reach at all. It was 
further apparent that, though constantly improving, 
the school was inadequate to the task of educating 
the rising generation, because its influence was ex- 
erted for only a few years on the vast majority 
for not more than four to six years. It was plain 
that the intellectual education that stopped at ten 
or twelve was wholly inadequate. At best it was 
a scant outfit for the mere wage-earner, the bread- 
winner: it did not even meet the nation's demands 
for industrial development; it took no account of 
fatherhood and motherhood and of citizenship in a 
free state. Hard economic conditions prevented the 
extension of school years for the vast majority; yet 
it was evident that for the growth and security of 


the nation and, indeed, for its industrial advance- 
ment, a broader basis of intelligence and morality 
was necessary. The two supports formerly relied 
on were proving inadequate: a tripod was necessary 
for stable equilibrium; and the third support was 
supplied in the shape of the public library. This 
is so broad that it fills two whole sides, supple- 
menting the school on one corner and strengthen- 
ing the church on another, extending the founda- 
tions in all directions, and furnishing unshakable 
support for the state in diffused intelligence and 
growing morality. 

I have given some emphasis to the unfortunate 
fact that a large majority of children in Great 
Britain and the United States leave school before 
they are twelve years of age; but the necessity of 
the public library as a factor in popular education 
would be only in slight degree lessened if all 
children were able to attend school till fifteen or 
sixteen. For what does the boy leaving school at 
the latter age know? He may be well-grounded 
in the three ' R's ' and be sufficiently developed 
intellectually to earn a good living, possibly to 
accumulate a fortune. But if he knows only the 
class-room and not the library, if he knows only 
what he has learned from his school text-books, if 
he knows nothing of real books, nothing of the 
lessons of history, of the delights of literature, of 
the joys of the imagination, of the life of the spirit, 
he has not laid the foundation of an education that 
will fit him for the duties of citizenship or the 
higher life of man. 

But I have gone a little ahead of my argument, 


I have been led off into generalizations to the 
negled: of my special theme. I began by referring 
to a characteristic common to our two English 
nations, viz., an insistence on knowing the reason 
why for any proposed course of aftion, especially 
if it involves the expenditure of money. A man 
who believes in the higher ends of education will 
never question the value of the public library, will 
never doubt that it returns to the community sup- 
porting it two pounds for every pound invested in 
its establishment and maintenance; but there are 
Gradgrinds on both sides of the ocean who care 
naught for the joys of the imagination, for the de- 
lights of the spirit, and believe that all the poetry 
in all the libraries of the world is not worth a yard 
of cloth. They want 'fates' nothing but fafts. 
They demand visible, tangible, material results for 
any effort or expenditure to which they are ex- 
pefted to be a party. They will cheerfully throw 
1,000 into the fire in the form of coal and crude 
metal if assured of a finished product worth 2,000. 
But they c must be shown/ Now the most hard- 
headed and close-fisted Gradgrind that ever was 
to be safe, I'll say that now is will admit that the 
chief fadtor in converting the 1,000 worth of 
rough metal into 5,000 worth of fine cutlery is 
the educated brain. The wonder-working machine 
is the produ6l of the brain; and upon the further 
development of the brain must depend the further 
improvement of the machine. Now, whence is the 
broader knowledge, the higher mental training to 
be obtained by the average boy, who leaves school 
at twelve or fourteen? The public library was 


created to meet this requirement. In it is stored 
all the knowledge the world has accumulated since 
the dawn of history. 

The school, of course, must come first. A start 
being obtained here such a start as Franklin ob- 
tained by going to school up to the age of ten, or 
Lincoln in ten months scattered through his early 
years the boy of ambition and eager desire may, 
through the public library, make himself a well- 
informed and well-educated man at thirty, the 
intellectual superior of the average college-bred 
man of America. And, a fa6t that should appeal 
to Gradgrind, he can be self-supporting and a con- 
tributor to the industrial wealth of his community 
while he is thus educating himself for ever higher 
usefulness. And this with an expense to the com- 
munity of not more than six shillings a year. 

The total cost for maintenance of the St. Louis 
public schools last year was $2,023,531, an average 
of about $25 per pupil. With an expenditure of 
one-tenth (thus far its annual cost has not been 
one-twentieth) of that amount the public library, 
co-operating with the public schools, can double 
the value of the education received by the child 
while in school, and, what is still more important, 
induce him to continue his education after leaving 
school and provide him with facilities for doing so. 

Commenting on the folly of spending large sums 
of money on elementary schools and failing to com- 
plete the work by means of the library, Stanley 
Jevons said: 

In omitting that small expenditure on a universal system 
of libraries which would enable young men and women to 


continue their education, we spend the fyj and stingily 
decline the ,3 really needed to make the rest of the jioo 

Or, I may say in homelier phrase, it is like giving 
3 iqs. for an overcoat and refusing an additional 
shilling for buttons to make it serviceable. 

Setting aside, for the moment, the other func- 
tions of the public library, which would furnish 
material for a separate article, let us take some 
statistics from the St. Louis Public Library as 
evidence of what the public library in general is 
doing direftly for the promotion of industrial pro- 
gress. What it is doing indireflly, by raising the 
standard of general intelligence, far excels in value 
its direct influence. Here is a sample list of books 
on the productive and mechanic arts which have 
been added to our collection the last few years, with 
the number of times each was issued during a given 

Bacon. Forge Practice. 1 3 times in 8 months. 

Chase. Mechanical Drawing. 9 times in 5 

Robinson. Hydraulic Power. 8 times in 6 

Hofman. Metallurgy of Lead. 8 times in 8 

Hodgson. Sheet Metal Working. 6 times in 
4 months. 

Mathers. Strength of Materials. 8 times in 6 

Sewall. Wireless Telegraphy. 36 times in i 


Rawson. Dictionary of Dyes and Mordants. 
1 6 times in 2 years. 

Abbott. Telephony. 26 times in i year, 10 

Lavergne. Automobile. 42 times in 2 years, 8 

Fowler. Copper Dam Process for Piers. 38 
times in 3 years. 

Poppewell. Prevention of Smoke. 1 1 times in 
i year. 

Baldwin. On Heating. 3 1 times in 3 years. 

Lawler. Modern Plumbing. 35 times in 4 

Begtrup. Slide Valve. 33 times in 3 years. 

Barnard. Tools and Machines. 17 times in i 
year, 7 months. 

Modern American Tanning. 14 times in 2 years. 

Hope. Small Yacht Construction. 10 times in 
i year, 4 months. 

Park. Cyanide Process of Gold Extraction . 30 
times in 3 years. 

Hurst. Soaps. 48 times in 4 years. 

Edminster. Architectural Drawing. 58 times 
in 5 years. 

Halstead. Barn Plans. 18 times in 2 years. 

Sabin, Technology of Paint and Varnish. 13 
times in 7 months. 

Taylor. Concrete. 8 times in 6 months. 

Dawson. Engineering and EleCtric Tradtion 
Book. 47 times in 3 years. 

Hughes. Gas and Gas Works. 36 times in 3 

Hart. Hints to Plumbers. 48 times in 4 years. 


Hiscox. Horseless Vehicles. 76 times in 5 

Hiscox. Compressed Air. 42 times in 2 

Phillips. Engineering Chemistry. 9 times in 

8 months. 

Reinhardt. Mechanical Drafting. 64 times in 
5 years. 

Raymond. Alternating Currents. 18 times in 

9 months. 

Hodgson. Up-to-date Hardwood Finisher. 9 
times in 5 months. 

Jackson. Theory and Practice of Design. 15 
times in 7 months. 

Hopkins. Home Mechanics for Amateurs. 15 
times in 5 months. 

Young. Complete Motorist. 9 times in 4 

Goodrich. First Book in Farming. 5 times in 
2 months. 

Hills. Gas and Gas Fitting. 12 times in 8 

Haines. American Railroad Management. I 
copy, issued 9 times in i year. 

The above list is confined to the productive and 
mechanical arts as most convincing to Gradgrind's 
demand for practical instruction. But he will ad- 
mit that the commercial arts are essential to busi- 
ness on a large scale. To show the work of the 
library in this department of practical education I 
mention a few books with the number of issues in 
given periods. 


We have only i copy of Arnold's Cost-keeper. 
The fadt, just discovered, that it has been issued 16 
times in the last fourteen months will lead to the 
purchase of another copy. 

We have 6 copies of Barnes' Shorthand Manual. 
One of these copies has been drawn 14 times in 
1 6 months. 

Of Goodwin's Book-keeping, the shelf-list re- 
cords 13 copies. The date-label in one of these 
shows that this one copy has been drawn 3 1 times 
in 1 6 months. 

Berlitz. French, With or Without a Master. 
2 copies, i of them drawn 27 times in 2 years. 

Chambers. Complete Letter-Writer. 4 copies, 
I copy drawn 32 times in 3 years. 

International Correspondence School. Book- 
keeping, a copy, issued 9 times in 7 months. 

Keister. Corporation Accounting. 7 copies, i 
issued 1 1 times in 7 months. 

Hill. Manual of Business Forms. 3 copies, i 
of them issued 14 times in 18 months. 

These figures show that the volumes mentioned 
have been all but constantly in the hands of readers, 
having been drawn once or twice every month. 
The list might be indefinitely extended; and these 
hundreds of volumes represent thousands of readers 
who have, by means of our public library, become 
better-informed mechanics and more useful citizens. 
It is impossible to calculate the total effeft on our 
industrial progress that comes from the study of such 
books by thousands of artisans and manufacturers 
from year to year. It is not to be expefted that in 
the tangled web of the activity of a great city a 


single thread of cause and effe6l can often be traced. 
But an illustrative instance can be cited. Some 
years ago the information found in a book in the 
Cincinnati public library (which at the time could 
be obtained nowhere else) saved the city over 
$300,000 a sum sufficient to pay the expenses of 
the library for six years. Such an instance of di- 
reftly traceable cause and effeft is, of course, rare; 
but we know that knowledge and intelligence are 
the necessary forerunners and fundaments of indus- 
trial and all other progress ; and it is easy to show 
that the public library is the most potent agency 
for the diffusion of knowledge and the develop- 
ment of intelligence that exists in the world to-day. 
It is, in faft, the reservoir of all knowledge ; and 
further, it is an ever-flowing fountain of inspira- 
tion. It is at once the accumulator and the trans- 
mitter of social energy. 

I have dwelt on the visible, tangible, material 
benefits of the public library, because I am en- 
deavouring to show that money appropriated for 
the support of a public library is not money spent., 
but money invested, with a surety of direft material 
returns; but I should do even the most worldly- 
minded of my readers injustice if I were to suppose 
that they looked on material results as the only 
gauge of the value of an institution. Let me briefly 
summarise what a public library does for the com- 
munity that supports it. 

i . It doubles the value of the education the child 
receives in school, and, best of all, imparts a desire 
for knowledge which serves as an incentive to con- 
tinue his education after leaving school; and, hav- 


ing furnished the incentive, it further supplies the 
means for a lifelong continuance of education. 

2. It provides for the education of adults who 
have lacked, or failed to make use of, early oppor- 

3. It furnishes information to teachers, ministers, 
journalists, authors, physicians, legislators, all per- 
sons upon whose work depend the intellectual, 
moral, sanitary, and political welfare and advance- 
ment of the people. 

4. It furnishes books and periodicals for the tech- 
nical instruction and information of mechanics, 
artisans, manufacturers, engineers, and all others 
whose work requires technical knowledge of all 
persons upon whom depends the industrial progress 
of the city. 

5. It is of incalculable benefit to the city by 
affording to thousands the highest and purest en- 
tertainment, by substituting the reading-room for 
the bar-room, and thus lessening crime and dis- 

6. It makes the city a more desirable place of 
residence, and thus retains the best citizens and 
attra6ts others of the same character. 

7. More than any other agency, it elevates the 
general standard of intelligence throughout the 
great body of the community, upon which its ma- 
terial prosperity, as well as its moral and political 
well-being, must depend. 

Finally, the public library includes potentially 
all other means of social amelioration. A man who 
founds a hospital does a good aCt; yet the benefits 
of his beneficence reach comparatively few. An 


art museum is a very useful institution in a com- 
munity ; yet how limited is its influence compared 
with that of a public library; And, above all, the 
hospital is only a hospital ; it is a definite, a limited 
good; it is a finished structure, a marble shaft; it 
cannot reproduce itself. A library, on the other 
hand, is a living organism, having within itself the 
capacity of infinite growth and reproduction. It 
may found a dozen museums and hospitals, kindle 
the train of thought that produces beneficent in- 
ventions, and inspire to noble deeds of every kind, 
all the while imparting intelligence and inculcating 
industry, thrift, morality, public spirit, and all those 
qualities that constitute the wealth and well-being 
of a community. 




|T has been observed that the lovers of 
Peacock are born and not made, and 
though he has been c discovered ' and 
his c Crotchet Castle ' has attained the 
dignity of a threepenny edition it is 
not impossible that he may still remain caviare to 
the general. If we may believe the author of 
' Obiter Di6la ' the time reserved by the British 
public for the study of poetry is the sacred after- 
dinner hour when the mental pabulum must not be 
so stimulating as to interrupt digestion nor so dull 
as to induce drowsiness and spoil a good night's 
rest. Judged by these important standards it is 
probable that the Peacockian novel would also fare 
badly, for it cannot be denied that it calls for a cer- 
tain mental effort and does not belong to that class 
of novel which the general public delights to 
honour. For to be called to a Peacockian banquet 
is to have joined the company of c those who know,' 
and woe to him who without the wedding garment 
shall venture into the presence of these intelleftu- 
ally chosen. 

Thomas Love Peacock was born at Weymouth 
in 1785. His early works are of minor import- 
ance. In 1 8 1 2 he made the acquaintance of Shelley, 
an acquaintance which ripened into a steady friend- 
ship and strengthened until Shelley placed a special 


trust in Peacock's judgement and named him, with 
Lord Byron, as an executor of his will. In 1815 
* Headlong Hall ' was written, in which Peacock 
struck that chord in novel-writing so peculiar to 
himself, and of which he afterwards gave such 
brilliant examples in c Nightmare Abbey,' c Crotchet 
Castle ' and ' Gryll Grange.' The Shandean novel 
is hardly more guiltless of plot than Peacock's; 
what there is being always subordinate to the play 
of thought to which it gives rise. Amongst the 
many striking portraits given us we have only the 
embarrassment of choice; they are presented more 
as types than as individualities; we find no delicate 
revelation of charafter, his men and women come 
before us with a reputation to keep up; they have 
been dissedled, classified and labelled. Their raison 
d'etre is intellectual, for us it remains to enjoy their 
sparkling interplay and caustic wit. And what 
more delightful than a ramble with Dr. Opiminian 
through his beloved forest scenery to watch with 
him the deer under the oaks, to admire the patches 
of foxglove and the long reaches of fern. And how 
one would have enjoyed to assist (in the French sense) 
at that passage of arms between Mr. Crotchet and 
the Reverend Dr. Folliott on the propriety of 
having so many Venuses of sorts scattered about 
the room. One seems to hear the ' God bless my 
soul ' of the Doftor, as he falls on the carpet in a 
right angle of which his back was the base. These 
reverend gentlemen are the produfl of an older 
world; they belong not to to-day with its ' astound- 
ing progress of intellect, its march of mind, its vast 
diffusion of education, and its art of finding the 


most unfit man by competitive examination'; with 
leisure they dined and drank their wine cool, from 
classical sources they drew their inspiration. 

c I think, Dodor,' said Mrs. Opiminian, c you would 
not maintain any opinion if you had not an authority two 
thousand years old for it.' 

c Well, my Dear,' replied the dodor, c I think most 
opinions worth mentioning have an authority of about that 

As to the reverend Do6lor Opiminian his tastes 
were these, a good library, a good dinner, a pleas- 
ant garden and extensive country walks. He was 
an ' athlete in pedestrianism.' His household shared 
his general love of comfort, and everybody, from 
the master to the tom-cat, showed a ' sleek and 
purring rotundity of face and figure.' Newspapers 
were his abhorrence. 

For, let us see what is the epitome of a newspaper ? In 
the first place, specimens of all the deadly sins, and infinite 
varieties of violence and fraud ; a great quantity of talk, 
called by courtesy legislative wisdom . . . lawyers barking 
at each other in that peculiar style of hylaclic delivery 
which is called forensic eloquence, and of which the first 
and most distinguished practitioner was Cerberus ; bear- 
garden meetings of mismanaged companies, in which 
directors and shareholders abuse each other in choice terms 
not all to be found even in Rabelais. 

What could be more humorous than the unex- 
pected irruption of the worthy doftor into the tower 
of Mr. Falconer, and his surprise, not unmixed 
with consternation, on finding the domestic fire of 
that young gentleman maintained by seven charming 


vestals vestals, moreover, who distressed the do<5tor 
by wearing their hair unshaved, and even grace- 
fully arranged in defiance of classic tradition. How 
great the relief to his mind when a reference to the 
' Fasti ' convinced him, that the Roman vestals did 
wear their hair of second growth but wrapped up 
in wool in a vitta. Should he recommend his 
young friend to wrap up the heads of his vestals in 
a vitta ? It would be decidedly safer. Next morn- 
ing the adventure of yesterday was revealed to Mrs. 
Opiminian, and that lady pronounced a very un- 
pleasant but striftly virtuous verdift on the sisters. 
In vain did the doftor cite ' Agapetus and Agapete ' 
as the relation between Mr. Falconer and his ves- 
tals; in vain did he strengthen his position by the 
statement that Saint Paul had used words of similar 
import in reference to certain female co-religionists. 
The lady was obdurate. 

c There used to be seven deadly sins/ she cried. c How 
many has modern progress added to them ? ' 

{ None 1 hope, my dear,' was the reply. c But this will 
be due, not to its own tendencies, but to the comprehen- 
siveness of old definitions.' 

Then there is Dr. Gaster, hardly so attractive a 
chara6ter as his brethren of the cloth, the doctors 
Folliott and Opiminian. Next to a bad dinner he 
detested any unsoundness in doftrine, and would 
have held through thick and thin that corredt the- 
ology came second only to culinary efficiency. He 
and Squire Headlong had met in town; a learned 
dissertation on the art of stuffing a turkey com- 
pleted what a natural affinity had begun, and a 


warm invitation to spend Christmas in Wales fol- 
lowed. Behold, then, the worthy doftor bound for 
the Hall, braving the wild passes of Merioneth- 
shire in the depth of winter, the calm security of 
Kew and Putney left far behind. He had little love 
for natural beauty at any time; under present cir- 
cumstances he would have given his eyes to be able 
to shut out of sight the yawning chasms beneath 
him. This was impossible, so he controlled his 
terror by some choice quotations from the Book of 
Job. On the subject of sound doflrine what so 
fitting and becoming as that the reverend gentle- 
man should himself speak. Hear him as he sits with 
his fellow travellers at the inn breakfast, daintily 
clearing away the debris of eggshell preparatory 
to inserting a piece of butter in the egg itself. 

c I am really astonished, gentlemen, at the very heterodox 
opinions I have heard you deliver; since nothing can be 
more obvious than that all animals were created solely and 
exclusively for the use of man/ 

c Even the tiger that devours him ? ' said Mr. Escot. 

c Certainly/ said Doctor Gaster. 

c How do you prove it ? ' said Mr. Escot. 

c It requires no proof/ said Doctor Gaster, c it is a point 
of doctrine. It is written, therefore it is so." 

c Nothing can be more logical/ said Mr. Jenkinson. 
' It has been said/ continued he, " that the ox was ex- 
pressly made to be eaten by man ; it may be said, by a 
parity of reasoning, that man was expressly made to be 
eaten by the tiger : but as wild oxen exist where there are 
no men and men where there are no tigers, it would 
seem that in these instances they do not properly answer 
the ends of their creation.' 

c It is a mystery/' said Doctor Gaster. 



c Nightmare Abbey ' is perhaps one of the most 
finished of Peacock's novels. It was written in 
Shelley's society at Great Marlow, and the char- 
after of Scythrop Glowry is thought to have been 
suggested by that of the poet. 

Scythrop was the only son of Mr. Glowry, a 
Lincolnshire squire. He was first sent to a public 
school, where a little learning was painfully beaten 
into him, and thence to the university, where it 
was carefully taken out. At the house of a friend 
Scythrop met the beautiful Miss Emily Girouette. 
He fell in love, was favourably received, but after 
a dispute between the respective fathers the lovers 
were torn apart and the lady was resignedly led to 
the altar by the Honourable Mr. Lackwit. This 
was Scythrop's first experience of the hardness of 
Fate. To support him his father read him a com- 
mentary on Ecclesiastes, composed by himself (was 
this suggested by Sir Timothy Shelley's readings of 
Paley's evidences ?), and proved to his disconsolate 
son, beyond the possibility of doubt, that all is vanity. 
From this pleasant occupation Mr. Glowry was 
torn by a lawsuit, and the exigencies of the High 
Court of Chancery leaving Scythrop at the Abbey 
with the owl in the ivy for company. And here 
his love of reading revived, though, in justice to his 
college let it be noted, that the university had done 
its best to stifle it. c The sorrows of Werter,' fol- 
lowed by German tragedies and a dive into tran- 
scendental philosophy aroused a burning desire to 
reform the world. To this end Scythrop shut him- 
self up in his study in gloomy meditations, his 
nightcap did duty as a cowl, his calico striped 


dressing-gown as a conspirator's mantle. He wrote 
a treatise which he expected to revolutionize the 
world and to convulse society. Nothing of the sort 
occurred; at least, if it did, the details never reached 
Nightmare Abbey. What did come was a commu- 
nication from the bookseller. It stated that seven 
copies of the treatise had been sold, and ended quite 
unpleasantly by requesting a cheque for the balance. 
The ardent revolutionary was nothing daunted, and 
the interval of his father's absence was employed in 
guarding against future contingencies. He invented 
cells, secret passages, and sliding panels in his tower, 
which, with the secrecy and solemnity the occa- 
sion required, a dumb carpenter was smuggled in 
to execute. For with that fine eye for consequences 
which characterized Scythrop throughout he had 
foreseen that he might be involved in dangers and 
difficulties (what captain of salvation has not been?), 
and for the good of humanity he conceived it his 
duty to safeguard his life as far as possible. Again 
fate intervened in the person of Miss Marionetta 
Celestina O'Carroll. Philosophy or Time had 
worked a miracle of healing, and Scythrop speedily 
succumbed to the charms of the lady. As he grew 
ardent Marionetta grew cold, and baffled and hurt 
by the change the lover again retired into his 
tower, where wrapped in dressing-gown and night- 
cap he summoned the perfidious fair one before an 
awful imaginary tribunal. Just at the moment when 
cowl and mantle were being discarded with a 
magnificent gesture, and the imaginary Marionetta 
was to be clasped to a relenting heart the real 
Marionetta entered. They paused she, in astonish- 


ment, he, in confusion but with some little en- 
couragement he flung himself at her feet and un- 
burdened his soul in the fervid language of romance. 
The lady listened till the whirlwind was ended, and 
then begged him to deliver himself c like a man of 
this world.' The flippancy of the suggestion so 
wrought upon the frantic lover that Marionetta 
found it necessary to soothe him down. Accord- 
ingly, in her most dulcet tones, she asked him 
what he would have. 

* What would I have ? What but you, Marionetta ? 
You, for the companion of my studies, the partner of my 
thoughts, the auxiliary of my great designs for the emancip- 
ation of mankind/ 

c I am afraid I should be but a poor auxiliary,' Scythrop. 
c What would you have me do ? " 

c Do as Rosalia does with Carlos, divine Marionetta. 
Let us each open a vein in the other's arm, mix our blood 
in a bowl, and drink it as a sacrament of love. Then we 
shall see visions of transcendental illumination, and soar 
on the wings of ideas into the space of pure intellig- 
ence. ' 

Marionetta could not reply; she had not so strong 
a stomach as Rosalia, and turned sick at the pro- 
position. She disengaged herself suddenly from 
Scythrop, sprang through the door of the tower, 
and fled with precipitation along the corridors. 
Scythrop pursued her, crying, 

c Stop, stop, Marionetta my life, my love ! ' and was 
gaining rapidly on her flight, when, at an ill-omened 
corner, where two corridors ended in an angle, at the 
head of a staircase, he came into sudden and violent con- 


tact with Mr. Toobad, and they both plunged together to 
the foot of the stairs, like two billiard balls into one 
pocket.' 1 

Where almost everything is quotable the a6l of 
choosing becomes a work of despair. How far and 
to what extent quotation is fitting and permissible 
may be open to question, but in dealing with Pea- 
cock one is tempted to go on and to forget that 
there comes a point at which the critic is in 
danger of exchanging his craft for that of the 
anthologist. Were this not so, the scene between 
Mr. Scythropand his father might be given at length, 
so irresistibly funny it is up to the thrilling mo- 
ment when the bookcase slides apart, and irate Stella 
emerges to the thunder of Mr. dowry's words. 

' Pray, sir, to which act of the tragedy of the 
Great Mogul does this incident belong?' 

Throughout Peacock's novels there breathes a 
keen observation and enjoyment of nature, and he 
has a fine contempt for the ' civic poet whose cow- 
slip is always in bloom.' In ' Maid Marian ' we 
are in truth transported into the depths of merry 
Sherwood. We rise to the song of birds, we wor- 
ship in the forest's vaulted aisles, we feel the 
springing of the sward beneath our feet as we rove 
the greenwood with Friar Tuck and Little John. 
With them we share the ale abroach under an oak 
and gather round the foresters' fire where the fat 
deer are roasting. Nor has Peacock less love for 
the forest scenery of the nineteenth than for that of 
the twelfth century. Here time has made but little 
change, and the ghosts of bygone years might rove 
in their accustomed haunts and be unaware of the 


flight of time. Suddenly we come to one of those 
mossy platforms so dear to Peacock's heart, where 
the trees are less dense and allow the sun's rays to 
penetrate, and here we find the fern and foxglove 
which he so lovingly describes. 

There was no great poet with some of whose scenes 
this scenery did not harmonize. The deep woods that sur- 
rounded the dwelling of Circe, the obscure sylvan valley 
in which Dante met Virgil, the forest depths through 
which Angelica fled, the enchanted wood in which Rinaldo 
met the semblance of Armida, the forest brook by which 
Jacques moralized over the wounded deer, were all repro- 
duced in this single spot, and fancy peopled it at pleasure 
with nymphs and genii, fauns and satyrs, knights and 
ladies, friars, foresters, hunters, and huntress maids, till 
the whole diurnal world seemed to pass away like a vision. 

Nor is Peacock less appreciative of Nature in 
wilder and sterner mood. In c Headlong Hall' and 
' The Misfortunes of Elphin ' the scene is laid in 
Wales. Both novels are full of passages of descriptive 
beauty, and we are made to feel the charm of the 
mountain scenery as we did the sylvan beauty of 
Sherwood. Take for instance that elemental de- 
scription of the tempest in c The Misfortunes of 
Elphin/ when the sea over-riding its artificial 
boundary comes swelling around the castle of Prince 
Seithenyn. The whole scene is weird and magical 
the torches burning low and uncertainly in that 
disordered hall the revellers asleep, unconscious 
of their doom the sudden appearance of Angharad 
in their midst while outside the white breakers 
thundered for entrance, and the wind rose in fitful 
gusts and died away in sobbing silence. Suddenly a 


voice, that seemed one of the many voices of the 
wind, uttered the fateful words 

'Beware of the oppression of Gwenhidurg.' 
Then uprose the old bard as the ' awen ' came 
upon him, taking the rush and rise of the waters 
for the breath and voice of inspiration as the strains 
of his harp mingled with the roar of the elements. 
The crash of the falling tower cut short his song, 
and carrying with it a portion of the main build- 
ing it revealed the raging waters through the 
' volumed blackness of the storm.' ' It was one of 
those tempests, which occur once in several cen- 
turies, and which by their extensive devastations 
are chronicled to eternity/ 

And now having tried to show something of 
Peacock's love of nature let us introduce Marma- 
duke Milestone, Esquire, the picturesque landscape 
gardener,and see how he fares when the flashes of the 
author's wit play around him. Having arrived at 
Headlong Hall he perceived the 'great capabilities ' 
of the Welsh scenery, and he burned to perform the 
lofty feat of polishing and trimming the rocks of 
Llanberis; nay, he was loud in his assurances that 
if the place were under his care for a twelvemonth 
at the end of that time it would be unrecogniz- 

'The rocks shall be blown up, the trees shall be cut 
down, the wilderness and all its goats shall vanish like 
mist. Pagodas and Chinese bridges, gravel walks and 
shrubberies, bowling-greens, canals, and clumps of larch, 
shall rise upon its ruin/ 

'This, you perceive,' said Mr. Milestone, 'is the 
natural state of one part of the grounds. Here is a wood, 


never yet touched by the finger of taste, thick, intricate 
and gloomy. Here is a little stream, dashing from stone 
to stone, and over-shadowed with those untrimmed boughs. 
. . . Now, here is the same place corrected trimmed 
polished decorated adorned. Here sweeps a plantation, 
in that beautiful regular curve : there winds a gravel walk : 
here are parts of the old wood, left in these majestic 
circular clumps, disposed at equal distances \ 'ith wonderful 
symmetry: there are some single shrubs scattered in 
elegant profusion : here a Portugal laurel, there a juniper : 
here a lauristinus, there a spruce fir, here a larch, there a 
lilac : here a rhododendron, there an arbutus. The stream, 
you see, is become a canal ; the banks are perfectly smooth 
and green, sloping^'to the water's edge ; and there is Lord 
Littlebrain, rowing in an elegant boat/ 

'Magical faith!' says Squire Headlong, and 
' magical faith ' say we. One seems to see the scene. 
The c here a lauristinus, there a spruce fir/ while 
Mr. Milestone waves a hand to indicate the glorious 
metamorphosis. Peacock, in the background, gazing 
from under his shaggy brows, his lips tightly com- 
pressed to keep back a smile. 

It is well-known that Peacock's characters are 
often portraits or caricatures of living persons ; that 
Mr. Toobad is meant for Irving, Mr. Flosky for 
Coleridge and Mr. Paperstamp for Wordsworth. 
Possibly Mr. Milestone may also have had a living 
counterpart, but we hardly think so. That so en- 
tirely delightful a being ever walked this earth is 
hardly possible; he can have existed only in the 
author's brain. 

Just a word about Peacock's women. His gallery 
is not large but the portraits are pleasant and varied. 
Whatever may be said it cannot fairly be charged 


against them that they are ' mere musical dolls to 
be set out for sale in the great toy shop of society.' 
When Peacock sketched in the character of Mrs. 
Glowry he made a mental note that the type was to 
be avoided; one so often buys a musical doll and finds 
it ' confoundedly out of tune.' His women are open 
air characters and have a touch of Shakespeare about 
them. Who so charming a dinner neighbour as 
Lady Clarinda, with her pointed epigrams and 
playful sallies of wit! With whom could the Welsh 
mountains be explored better than with Susannah; 
and what more delightful than to wander through 
Sherwood with Maid Marian, if indeed that athle- 
tic maiden could be properly described as wan- 

c A mad girl, a mad girl,' said the little friar. 

c How a mad girl ?' said brother Michael. c Has she not 
beauty, grace, wit, sense, discretion, dexterity, learning 
and valour ? ' 

c Learning ! ' exclaimed the little friar ; c what has a 
woman to do with learning? And valour! Who ever 
heard a woman commended for valour ?' . . . 

c She is the all in all,' said brother Michael, c gentle as 
a ring-dove, yet high soaring as a falcon : humble below 
her deserving, yet deserving beyond the estimate of pane- 
gyric: an exact economist in all superfluity, yet a most 
bountiful dispenser in all liberality : the chief regulator of 
her household, the fairest pillar of her hall, and the sweetest 
blossom of her bower : having in all opposite proposings, 
sense to understand, judgment to weigh, discretion to 
choose, firmness to undertake, diligence to conduct, per- 
severance to accomplish, and resolution to maintain.' 

Without pressing analogy too far may we not 
say that here is the precursor of the Meredithian 


woman a woman painted by a man from a 
woman's point of view ? But not only in his women 
does Peacock seem to be the forerunner of Mere- 
dith. Who that has read the chapter on the c aged 
and great ' wine, can doubt that Dr. Middleton is 
in the dire<5l line of apostolic succession from Dr. 
Folliott and Dr. Opiminian. Both writers have a 
decided and peculiar flavour; their characters shine, 
they have, in short, a ' leg.' But while intellectu- 
ality is Peacock's last word, Meredith probes deep 
into the mysteries of charadter. 

Throughout the novels are scattered ballads and 
songs which are full of true feeling. Perhaps the 
most charming is, c I played with you mid cowslips 
blowing,' in ' Gryll Grange,' founded upon an in- 
cident in the author's life. Very pretty, too, is the 
' Terzetto,' in * Headlong Hall,' imitated from the 
opening lines of the eighth canto of the ' Purga- 
torio,' in which he has caught the spirit of the sad 
beautiful sunset hour. 

But Peacock's claim to immortality does not rest 
upon his verse. It is by his prose that he will live; 
by that ' lightness, strength and chastity ' of diftion 
of which Shelley spoke. To a wide audience he 
may never appeal, but he is with the classics, and 
the very causes which prevent a general apprecia- 
tion may also secure his literary immortality. 



|N enforced confinement to the sofa, 
and the do6tor's mandate that there 
must be a temporary cessation of hard 
mental labour, set me reading a num- 
ber of novels English, French, Ger- 
man, Italian. I could not help making comparisons. 
We are forever being told that the public always 
gets what it demands in matters of art. If that is 
so, the less said about the English public responsible 
for the average English novel of to-day the better. 
France and Germany seem to demand something on 
a very different level, and to get it. There the least 
ambitious efforts of comparatively unknown writers 
contain excellences entirely to seek in works of 
similar rank in this country. Each foreign novel I 
have read possesses a sense of form, a choice of lan- 
guage, artistic plot development, consistent draw- 
ing of character. A distinft idea is invariably 
formulated; a point of view with which we may 
disagree, but which demands our attention, is put 
forward ; a more or less interesting piece of human 
life is depifted. Inconsistencies and longueurs 
are seldom to be detected. Thus the following 
novels chosen at random as light reading for an 
invalid offer material for a review, and may be 
recommended to all in need of recreation and 


" Criminel ? " by Mary Floran is only the hack- 
neyed theme of the abducTion of a child, the crime 
being for a long time attributed to an innocent person. 
But the story nearly becomes a tragedy, and is told 
with such charm, with such care, that we become 
most interested in the simple country folk concerned 
in the love idyll of the two chief characters. The 
whole is drawn in the fewest lines, but the fine 
effedt produced is quite remarkable. The book 
may safely be put into the hands of young people. 

" Benjamine," by Jean Aicard, is a curious 
psychological study. A marriage is forced on a girl 
by her parents with the result that everybody is 
made unhappy. Benjamine, who steadily refused 
from the very beginning to live with her husband 
as his wife, meets again after her marriage the lover 
she had been compelled to give up. She yields to 
him and has a child. As long as the child lives she 
is comparatively happy, but when the little girl 
dies, life loses the slight savour it had, and Ben- 
jamine kills herself. She is a complicated nature, 
selfish, weak, but made so possibly by the harsh 
treatment dealt her by her parents, who make no 
scruple of sacrificing their daughter to their mean 

In 'Le Bon Temps/ which is, of course, lajeunesse, 
Henri Lavedan describes the new Bohemia. Some- 
how it is not so amusing, so natural, so spontaneous, 
so gay, so pathetic, as the old. It rings less true; 
there is, or seems to be, a certain straining after 
effe6t that is the note of so many sections of society 
in the present day. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that Lavedan J s boheme is la boheme doree^ and so 


necessarily more artificial than Murger's boheme 
sans sou. A young man, the son of middle-class 
parents, is thrown into that bohemian society. He 
speedily loses his head, the women fall in love with 
him, the men are jealous of him, he fights a duel 
with his best friend, and finally returns to his 
mother, and the respectable parental home. The 
dialogue is the best part of the book, but even there 
less wit and sprightliness is evident than in ' Nou- 
veau Jeu,' and c Le Vieux Marcheur.' 

In ' L'lle inconnue,' Pierre de Coulevain de- 
scribes life in England among the middle class, 
among smart society in London and in country 
houses. She believes that England is practically 
unknown to the French, and thus the book is of 
greater interest to French than to English people. 
There is a thread of story, but the long arm of co- 
incidence plays too large a part. Her observations 
are fairly accurate, but middle-class people who in- 
habit Wimbledon or some other suburb, are not all 
such perfect and contented human beings as those 
depicted by Pierre de Coulevain, nor are our aris- 
tocracy, whether of birth, wealth, or intellect, so 
cynical and immoral as she represents them to be. 
Again, this volume does not reach the standard of 
c Sur la Branche,' or c Eve Victorieuse.' It is all 
very well to write a novel the purpose of which is 
to strengthen the entente cordiale^ but until the novel 
is dissociated from the social pamphlet or treatise, 
fiction as an art must continue to suffer. 

Although Pierre Loti's * Les Desenchantees ' 
savours also of the treatise, the theme is so deeply 
interesting that we easily forgive him. The modern 


spirit has penetrated the Turkish harem; the 
women, having taken steps to educate themselves 
very highly, desire their emancipation. It is a most 
pathetic situation, this clashing of the old and the 
new. The life led in the harem is beginning to 
weigh on these women who think for themselves, 
and know how different are the lives of other 
European women. Here is Loti's description of 
the Turkish lady's day in winter : 

Se lever tard, mme tres tard. La toilette lente, avec 
indolence. Toujours de tres longs cheveux, de trop pais 
et lourds cheveux a arranger. Puis apres se trouver jolie 
dans le miroir d'argent, se trouver jeune, charmante, et en 
tre attriste. Ensuite passer la revue silencieuse dans les 
salons pour verifier si tout est en ordre; la visite aux 
menus objets aimes, souvenirs, portraits, dont 1'entretien 
prend une grande importance. Puis dejeuner, souvent 
seule, dans une grande salle, entourde de ngresses ou 
d'esclaves circassiennes; avoir froid aux doigts en touchant 
1'argenterie Sparse sur la table, avoir surtout froid a 
l'me; parler avec les esclaves, leur poser des questions 
dont on n'6coute pas les reponses. 

Et maintenant que faire jusqu'a ce soir? Que faire 
done? de 1'aquarelle, ou bien jouer du piano, jouer du 
luth ? Lire du Paul Bourget ? ou bien broder, reprendre 
quelqu'une de nos longues broderies d'or, et s'interesser 
toute seule a voir courir ses mains, si fines, si blanches, 
avec les bagues qui scintillent? . . . C'est quelque chose 
de nouveau que Ton souhaiterait, et que Ton attend sans 
espoir, quelque chose d'imprevu qui aurait de Feclat, qui 
vibrerait, qui ferait du bruit, mais qui ne viendrait jamais. 
. . . On voudrait aussi se promener malgr6 la boue, 
malgr la neige, n'6tant pas sortie depuis quinze jours, 
mais aller seule est interdit. Aucune course a imaginer 
comme excuse; rien. On manque d'espace, on manque 


d'air. Me 1 me si on a un jardin il semble qu'on n'y respire 
pas, parceque les murs en sont trop hauts. On sonne ! 
Oh! quelle joie si cela pouvait e"tre une catastrophe, ou 
seulement une visite! Une visite! C'est une visite, car on 
entend courir les esclaves dans Fescalier. On se leve; vite 
une glace pour d' arranger les yeux avec fievre. Que 9a 
peut-il tre ? Ah! une amie jeune et delicieuse. Mariee 
depuis peu. 

c Est-ce que je tombe bien? Que faisiez vous, ma 
chere? ' 

c Je m'ennuyais.' 

Bon, je viens vous chercher pour une promenade en- 
semble, n'importe ou/ 

Un instant plus tard, une voiture ferm6e les emmene. 
Sur la siege a c6t du cocher un negre: Dilaver, 1'in- 
evitable Dilaver, sans lequel on n'a pas le droit de sortir 
et qui fera son rapport sur Femploi du temps. Leur 
voiture roule au grand trot de deux chevaux magnifiques. 
Elles ne devront pas en descendre, ce ne serait plus comme 
il faut. Et elle envient les mendiantes libres qui les 
regardent passer. 

The return of the husband, an officer of the 
Sultan's bodyguard, from the palace, does not help 
to mend matters, and the little wife asks permission 
to go to her room where ' elle pleure a sanglots, la 
tete sur son oreiller de soie pendant que les Euro- 
peennes a Pera vont au bal ou au theatre, sont belles 
et aimees sous des flots de lumiere.' Sooner or later 
emancipation must come, but like the three charm- 
ing heroines of this book, the pioneers will hardly 
live to reap its benefits. 

The book has another aspecl, which reveals in an 
undertone Loti's own frame of mind. As one of his 
French critics well puts it, ' C'est aussi le drame 


poignant de rhomme comble par la vie, du nomade 
et tendre Don Juan qui, chaque jour, se voit moins 
jeune, et qui, tout has, s'en epouvante.' But although 
the mood is depifted with great skill, the interest 
of the book lies more in the fates and fortunes of 
the Turkish women. The feelings that come to 
men and women sur le retour have often been de- 
scribed or hinted at, and perhaps more convincingly 
than by Loti, but so far as I know never before has 
such a vivid pifture been drawn of the position of 
Turkish women. 

A somewhat remarkable and unusual French 
novel may be read in the three volumes of 'Jean- 
Christophe ' (i, L'Aube; 2, Le Matin ; 3, L' Adol- 
escent), by Remain Rolland. The scene is laid in 
Germany, in a little town on the Rhine; the per- 
sonages of the story are German. The hero, who is 
born on the first page and attains his majority on 
the last, is a member of a family of third-rate 
musicians. Melchior Krafft, who played the violin 
in the orchestra of the Court Theatre, to the scandal 
of his father, Jean-Michel, married a domestic ser- 
vant, and the boy, Jean-Christophe, is their son. 
The first volume, c L'Aube,' is by far the best, and 
I never remember to have read anywhere so mar- 
vellously true a description and analysis of an in- 
fant's gradual awakening to life, to the life observed 
around him, to the life of the imagination, of the 
mind, of the heart. I quote one or two passages. 
The child is in his little bed. It is morning. 

Un coin de del bleu sourit a la fentre. Un rayon de 
soleil se glisse sur le lit, a travers le rideaux. Le petit 
monde familiers aux regards de 1'enfant, tout ce qu'il voit 


de son lit, chaque matin, en s'eveillant, tout ce qu'il com- 
mence a peine, au prix de tant d'efforts, a reconnaitre et a 
nommer. Afin d'en tre le maitre, son royaume s' illu- 
mine. Voici la table ou Ton mange, le placard ou il se 
cache pour jouer, le carrelage en losange sur lequel il se 
traine, et le papier du mur dont les grimaces lui content 
des histoires burlesques ou effrayantes, et 1'horloge qui 
jacasse des paroles boiteuses, qu'il est seul a comprendre. 
Que de choses en cette chambre! II ne les connait pas 
toutes. Chaque jour, il repart en exploration dans cet 
univers qui est a lui: tout est a lui. Rien n'est in- 
different, tout se vaut, un homme ou une mouche; tout 
vit egalement: le chat, le feu, la table, les grains de pous- 
siere qui dansent dans un rayon de soleil. La chambre est 
un pays; un jour est une vie. Comment se reconnaitre au 
milieu de ces espaces immenses? Le monde est si grand! 
On s'y perd. 

... II est a la maison, assis par terre, les pieds dans 
ses mains. II vient de decider que le paillasson 6tait un 
bateau, le carreau une riviere. II croirait se noyer en sor- 
tant du tapis. II est surpris et un peu contrarie que les 
autres ne fassent pas attention comme lui en passant dans 
la chambre. II arrte sa mere par le pan de sa jupe. c Tu 
vois bien que c'est 1'eau! II faut passer par le pont.' Le 
pont est une suite de rainures entre les losanges rouges. 
Sa mere passe sans mme ecouter. II est vex6, a la fa$on 
d'un auteur dramatique qui voit le public causer pendant 
sa piece. 

The whole of that portion of the book is delight- 
ful. The author is scarcely so successful when the 
child grows older, but the first volume will well 
repay careful reading. 

Under the title, 6 Sociologie et Litterature,' Paul 
Bourget has published a very interesting and sug- 



gestive collection of essays. They are reprinted 
from various scattered newspapers and periodicals, 
and it is a good thing to have them in this per- 
manent form. He calls the first group 'Notes 
Sociales.' A very thoughtful essay defends c 1'ascen- 
sion sociale,' and points out the necessity of classes 
and the mirage of democracy. The second group 
deals with ' Romanciers et poetes,' among them 
Viftor Hugo, Balzac, Maupassant, Eugene-Mel- 
chior de Vogue. A study dealing with Heine and 
Musset is a very acute piece of criticism. It is not 
often that a man of letters is at once novelist and 
critic. The creative and the critical mind are rarely 
combined. But Bourget, it must be confessed, ex- 
cels in both arts. 

* # * * * 

Bernhard Kellermarm is a new writer ; ' Inge- 
borg ' is his first novel. The author is young and 
of an original turn. He has discovered a fresh set- 
ting for a very old theme a fascinating woman 
who allures many lovers without herself caring really 
deeply for any, who tires of them all, yet is not 
satisfied to let them go entirely. The style of 
writing, too, has a stamp of its own. The sentences 
are short, of very simple construction, and there is 
a large amount of reiteration. We are reminded of 
the Viennese writer, Peter Altenberg, of whose 
work I have written in these pages. The back- 
ground of forest is finely indicated. The story is 
told by the lover-in-chief. 

" Sometimes I think of the maiden from the forest. I 
have not forgotten her yet, no. But it is not as it was 
when I could see no flower by the wayside, no hand- 


breadth of blue sky without thinking of her. It is not 
like that any more, but I do think of her now and again. 
She was ... I called her ornament of the world and 
favourite of the Lord. 

. . . How was that evening ? It was wind which has 
passed over flowers. It was the dream of two little birds 
sleeping in a hedge of roses. God sent us a smile and a 
greeting many greetings. 

The stars came out. The sky was blue and full of mys- 
terious love. We sat beneath an apple-tree in full bloom. 
Its blossoms were like foam ; the white blossom and the 
blue sky, it was heaven. 

I looked at Ingeborg and said : c Beautiful, beautiful, 
beautiful art thou! Thou givest heaven.' 

And I shook the apple-tree, and the blossom fell on 
Ingeborg's beautiful head. 

Ingeborg said: c No, it is thou who art beautiful! Thou 
knowest it not. Thou art as beautiful as if thou wert not 
a mortal ! 

German humour is so often dependent on local 
peculiarities, often quite incomprehensible to out- 
siders, that it is pleasant to come upon an amusing 
book that all can understand and appreciate. Such 
a volume is ' Erlebtes Erlauschtes Erlogenes/ by 
Ernst von Wolzogen. It contains a number of 
humorous sketches, all of a different character. 
One of the best is ' My first Adventure ' (' Mein 
erstes Abenteuer'). A young man, a baron, meets 
in London by chance an old friend who has married 
since their last meeting. He is a poor, struggling 
violinist, and his wife, a feckless sort of young 
woman, elefts to go back to her parents in Ger- 
many. Her husband asks his aristocratic young 
friend, who is himself returning, to escort her. 


He agrees, and there begins a series of comic ad- 
ventures. A baby is sprung on him at the last 
minute, and his efforts to be polite and gallant lead 
to a series of complications. On board the boat, and 
at the hotel at Hamburg he finds himself forced 
to behave as if he were the lady's husband and the 
baby's father. He is shadowed by the police as a 
c wanted ' criminal, is put to all kinds of straits in 
consequence of lack of ready money he had just 
enough for his own expenses and finds his travelling 
companion has none at all and not until things are 
at a really serious pass does it occur to him to tele- 
graph to his father, who speedily arrives on the 
scene and rescues him from his difficulties. The 
* Life-saver,' and the ' Cholera-Cigar ' are almost 
equally good. 

c Lebensmorgen,' by Wilhelm Fischer, a writer 
who hails from Styria, is a colleftion of modern 
fairy tales. They show a pretty fancy, but are not 
especially striking. 

c Gekronte Sanguiniker, Historische Parallelen,' 
by Hans Leuss is a study of men of sanguine tem- 
perament in history, such as Charles the Bold, 
Maximilian I, Gustavus III, Frederick William IV. 
The sanguine man is the energetic, versatile man, 
the man who is amiable, eloquent, at home in every 
place, and in every subje6t, with artistic leanings, 
and a patron of art and learning. The author's 
chief obje6l here is to prove that the sanguine tem- 
perament in history is similar in its influence in dif- 
ferent times and in different men. 


The following books are worth reading: 
' Le Voile du Temple.' Par Jean Dornis. 

A novel, the main theme of which is the separatist influence of 
different religious beliefs even to-day. Religion parts lovers, hus- 
bands and wives, parents and children. It is perhaps the best thing 
this author has as yet written. 

c L'Eglise habillee de feuilles ; La Pensees des 
Jardins.' Par Francis Jammes. 

The first of these is a new book of nature-poems from a poet 
whose work is always interesting and full of charm, and the second 
a volume of little essays or detached reflections in which he is less 

A A 

' Ames pai'ennes, Ames chretiennes.' Par Madame 
Lucie Felix-Faure-Goyau. 

In the introduction the author explains her intention, * II n'est 
qu'une humble offrande aux vertus m6prises. La Pense les inter- 
roge parfois, pour savoir si elles ne seraient point les pures gardiennes 
de la joie. Obissance, humilit, patience, abnegation : ces mots, 
aujourd'hui, sont prononce"s le plus souvent avec un ddaigneux 
sourire.' Among the ames chrhiennes chosen for examples is 
Christina Rossetti. 

' Nordsee und Hochland.' Zwei Novellen. Von 
Wilhelm Jensen. 





JN 1496, Johann Reger printed at Ulm 
an illustrated edition of an account of 
the Siege of Rhodes in 1480, written 
by Gulielmus Caoursin, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the Order of S. John of Jeru- 
salem, by the knights of which the island was de- 
fended against the Turks. It happened to me to 
take down this book while the Siege of Port Arthur 
was fresh in my memory, and the contrast between 
the two was so striking that I made a little summary 
of Caoursin's narrative, which is here offered to the 
reader accompanied by some reduced copies of 
illustrations from the Ulm edition. As will be seen 
this forms part of a volume of miscellaneous writ- 
ings by Caoursin about the Order, with which is 
usually found his edition of its Statutes, also printed 
by Reger, with numerous illustrations. As might 
be expefted, however, the account of the siege it- 
self was written, and several editions of it printed, 
soon after the defeat of the Turks, and many years 
before the publication of the Ulm edition a version 
of it had been printed for English readers. 

In its English form Caoursin's book is one of 
the unsolved puzzles connected with our handful 
of incunabula, as the type in which it was printed, 
though apparently identical as to many of its letters 
with one of Machlinia's, in other letters shows varia- 


tions and modifications, which suggest that it had 
passed into the hands of another printer. The book 
is a small folio of twenty-four leaves, and begins 
with a dedication: c To the moste excellente/ moste 
redoubted/ and moste crysten kyng: kyng Edward 
the fourth Johan Kay hys humble poete lawreate, 
and moste lowly seruant: knelyng vnto the ground 
sayth salute/ As Edward died in April, 1483, the 
translation must have been made before that date, 
and indeed there is every reason for bringing it as 
close to the events narrated as we can. The same 
argument applies to some extent to the printed 
edition, and Mr. Duff points out that 1483, from a 
typographical point of view, is a very probable date 
for the book, 'as by that time Machlinia had started 
by himself at the Flete Bridge with new type, and 
Lettou had disappeared, so that the type which they 
had used together in 1482 might have passed into 
the hands of another printer,' and undergone some 
slight variations. However this puzzle may be 
settled, John Kay's translation will serve us very 
well for our quotations, though we shall take the 
liberty, as they are only quotations, of rendering 
them in modern spelling. 

Caoursin begins his narrative by telling how 'the 
cruel tyrant Mahumet, great Turk and insatiable 
enemy to our Christian faith, when that he had 
conquered many empires, kingdoms and lordships, 
was wroth to see the little city of Rhodes, standing 
so nigh his kingdoms and lordships, not subject nor 
contributory to him. Therefore four divers times 
with ships and men of war he assaulted the castles 
and places of the Isle of Rhodes, where both by 


land and by water through God's grace he was van- 
quished and overthrown.' 

Having failed in these attempts, the Turk tried 
to persuade the Rhodians to become his tributaries, 
or at least to send him c royal gifts/ which in course 
of time could be represented as tribute. But c the 
noble and viftorious Prince and renowned lord, the 
Lord Master of Rhodes and his prudent council, 
refused of their enemy peace, nor would be of amity 
with him that was a persecutor of Christ's faith and 
Christ's religion. And so day and night the most 
noblest knights of the said religion, according to 
their order, helped and defended our faith and the 
said city of Rhodes,' till the wrath of the Turk 
waxed furious. 

In his designs on Rhodes, Mahumet was spurred 
on by various renegades, more especially by one 
called Antonio Melagolo, who came from the island, 
' a man unkind to God and man, noble of birth and 
evil of conditions and living, the which through 
evil guiding and unthriftiness had brought himself 
to poverty.' Melagolo made drawings of the de- 
fences of the island, and so did another traitor, 
Demetrio Sophiano. They both assured the Turk 
that the fortifications were decayed, and the city 
always ill-manned and ill-vi<ftualled. This seems to 
have been true when the attack was first mooted, 
but the Grand Master, Pierre d'Aubusson, hearing 
of the likelihood of a siege, spent three years in 
remedying the defefts, so that by the end of this 
time, the information given by the renegades was 
quite out of date. Despite some misgivings on this 
score, the Turks resolved to attack. 


The Turkish forces assembled in Lycia, and tried 
to deceive the Rhodians as to their intentions. The 
knights, however, were not to be beguiled, and 
hurried on their preparations. 

c All the people of the Isle of Rhodes withdrew 
to their strongholds with their goods and chattels. 
And the barley that was ripe lightly they gathered 
it up and took it with them. And because the 
wheat and other manner of corns were not all ripe, 
they plucked them up from the ground as they were, 
and brought them to the towns and holds. And 
when they were in doing of these works with great 
haste and fury, the watch that was on the top of 
the hill beside Saint Stephen, showed a token and 
a knowledge, that in the west, toward Constantinople, 
was on the sea sailing a great number of ships.' 

These were the hundred transports sent to convey 
the Turkish host from Lycia, and on ' the x. kalendre 
of the moneth of June' [i.e., May 23], 1480, the 
disembarkation began. The Turks encamped on 
the hill of S. Stephen, and the hardiest of them 
made a dash at the city, running up to the walls 
'with great menacing and cracking (boasting).' This 
and a subsequent attack were defeated with the loss 
of only one man, and then artillery was brought into 
play. ' Three bombards of great violence ' were set 
by the Turks in the churchyard and garden of Saint 
Anthony, and covered with great logs and trees to 
enable them the better to attack the tower of Saint 
Nicholas, while three rival bombards on the side 
of the Christians, cast c great and mighty stones ' 
through the right side of the Turkish host. 

On the morning that followed this artillery duel 


there was a dramatic episode. The arch renegade, 
Antonio Melagolo, had been ' mischievously slain ' 
in Constantinople four days before the Turkish 
Pasha started. The Pasha had taken with him, 
however, not only Demetrio Sophiano, but also a 
Greek named George, who had attracted attention 
by a plan of the Rhodian defences, and was re- 
garded as a ' great gunner.' This man * suddenly, 
as amazed, ran to the ditch of Rhodes, towards the 
palace of the Lord Master, and saluted and greeted 
the Rhodians friendly, and meekly cried and prayed 
that he might come into the city, and so he was 
received/ though not without a little rough hand- 
ling. On his declaring that zeal for the Christian 
faith had led him to desert, he was made much of, 
and seems to have used the credence given him to 
spread exaggerated reports of the strength of the 
Turks. A few days later arrows were shot into the 
city, bearing letters which professed to come from 
well-wishers in the Turkish camp. These warned 
the Rhodians ' to be ware of the treason of George.' 
Six men were therefore set to guard him, but his 
opinion was still asked on military matters. 

The enemy were attacking the tower of S. Nicho- 
las which defended the entrance to the harbour. 
The upper part, which was new, was easily over- 
thrown, but the old lower part had been very 
strongly built. The Master strengthened it with 
stones and trees, stationed his best fighters to de- 
fend it, and prepared bombards and fireboats to 
repel the expefted assault. An attack by fifty 
Turkish galleys was beaten back, and in a hand-to- 
hand combat seven hundred Turks were over- 



thrown and put to death, besides others who were 
wounded or drowned. ' After this the Lord Master, 

clean armed and riding 
upon a mighty horse, 
came again to Rhodes 
with his fellowship, 
as an Emperor vic- 
torious,' and gave 
thanks to God and the 
Blessed Virgin. 

The Turks now tried 
to batter the city walls 
with their bombards, 
and after ordaining 
c processions general 
with great devotion/ 
the Master caused the 
Jews' quarters to be 
destroyed, apparently 
that it should not yield 
the^enemy cover. He 
also constructed inner 
walls and ditches in 
case the outer ones should be carried. 

The noise of the Turkish artillery was so great 
that (imaginative) people a hundred miles away 
declared afterwards that they had heard it, and the 
enemy also annoyed the besieged with constantly 
slinging upon them great stones, so that shelters 
had to be constructed for the women and children. 
On a dark night guns and great bombards were 
brought up to the very banks of the ditches, and 
the position of the city might have become critical 

NO. 2. 



if fifty of the defenders, headed by one of the 
knights, had not sallied out, killed or routed the 
artillerymen, and turn- __ __ __ __ __ _____ 

bled the bombards 
into the ditch. 

After some time 
spent by the Turks in 
preparing a floating 
bridge and by the 
Rhodians in digging a 
new ditch and repair- 
ing their walls, on I7th 
July there was a new 
attack on the tower. 
The assault was re- 
pulsed and the bridge 
broken, but the Turks 
attacked again, and 
fighting went on from 
midnight till ten the 
next day. Again the 
Rhodians were suc- 
cessful, and according 
to the account of prisoners inflifted upon their 
enemy (a loss of 3,500), including many notable 
captains, c so that the basse (pasha) by the space of 
three days, for sorrow and thought, spake with no 
man of his company, nor with none other, and 
anon advised the Great Turk of the mischief that 
was befallen them.' 

Baffled a second time in their attack on the 
Tower, the Turks turned again to the rampart, 
approaching it with mines, and filling in a section 

NO. 3. 


of the ditch where the wall was battered, ' so that 
lightly they might come for to fight hand to hand 
with the Rhodians.' The defenders undermined 
this, so as to be able secretly to draw away the 
stones and logs over which the Turks had meant 
to advance. They built also an earthwork behind 
the broken wall, and by the advice of the renegade, 
George, brought up a great bombard to annoy the 
Turks. When this drew a destructive fire from the 
enemy, George was accused of having worked with 
this intent. More letters, shot into the city, in- 
creased the suspicions against him, and he was put 
in prison. 

c And anon by wise men was examined and 
found variable in his answers; wherefore with 
tokens sufficient was put to torment, where he 
confessed how that the Turk had sent him thither 
to betray Rhodes, if he might, as he had betrayed 
many other places in Greece, which confession he 
confirmed after also without torment. And said 
how the Turk had bid him, if Rhodes might not 
then be gotten, to abide nevertheless in Rhodes all 
the siege time and longer, to espy all the condi- 
tions and manners of their defence, and that after- 
ward he should tell it to the Turk for to purvey 
stronger siege, more to the purpose of victory.' 

Such a confession as this might obviously have 
been manufactured, and we are told of no evidence 
as to George having in any way helped the Turks 
after he took refuge in the city. But the nerves of 
the Rhodians were perhaps by this time a little 
shaken, and he was hanged (as in the picture, 
cut 4) much to the delight of the inhabitants. 



The Turks now threw letters into the town 
declaring that their quarrel was only with the 
knights, not with the 
citizens. They sent 
also another Greek by 
night to the edge of 
the ditch to ask leave 
to send an embassy, 
and the offer being 
accepted, an ambassa- 
dor came the next day 
(cut 5) and exchanged 
boastful observations 
with a delegate from 
the Lord Master with 
the usual absence of 
efFeft. Negotiations 
proving fruitless, c the 
more waxed the Turks 
furious against Rhodes. 
And anon after this 
with great bombards, N0 . 4 . 

guns, engines and all 

other such instruments of war they vexed and 
grieved the Rhodians, and purposed to prove if 
the deeds of the Rhodians should accord with their 
great words. Therefore likewise as they had done 
a great and horrible assault against the tower of 
Saint Nicholas, xxxvii days past, [they] ordained 
and dressed all their bombards and guns of war, all 
their ordonnance and their might against the prin- 
cipal strength and most newest walls of the city of 

43 2 


Three thousand five hundred bombard shots were 
used in this new battery, and the damage done both 

to the walls and the 
buildings of the town 
was considerable. And 
so the Turks ' by two 
or three evenings fol- 
lowing came to the 
ditches with their ta- 
barets and made songs 
of mirth, hoping that 
within short days they 
should get Rhodes. 
And the Rhodians 
from the other side of 
the broken wall an- 
swered them as merrily 
again with trumpets 
and clarions.' Previous 
to their assault the 
Turks ' made a com- 
NO. 5. mon cry ' or procla- 

mation, threatening all 

the inhabitants over ten years of age with a bar- 
barous death. Then ' after their false belief they 
called to their help Mahumet, and washed them all 
naked in running water in token of purgation of 
their sins, and after they arrayed them everyone 
after their quality of war, and brought sacks with 
them to put in the goods of Rhodes, and tied at 
their girdles ropes to bind their prisoners, for they 
hoped in their god Mahumet that they should with- 
out fail have vidtory of Rhodes.' Then there was 



another furious bombardment to break down the 
walls afresh where they had been repaired, and then, 
about eight o'clock of the morning, in c the fyfte 
kalendre of the monethe of August* [July 28] 
they swarmed over the ditch, and ' climbed lightly ' 
on the wall on the op- 
posite side and set their 
standards on it. 

The Rhodian re- 
inforcements had to 
climb the wall by 
means of ladders as if 
they were themselves 
the assailants, and one 
of the four chief lad- 
ders was captured by 
the Turks, who came 
pelting down it into 
the city, so that it had 
to be cut. In regain- 
ing the walls the Lord 
Master himself re- 
ceived five wounds, 
and the fighting seems 
to have been desperate, 
' for upon the broken 
walls of Rhodes and in the places that we have 
said were two thousand and five hundred Turks in 
clean harness/ and behind them, ' following by and 
by,' were forty thousand more. For two hours 
viftory was in doubt, and then ' the Turks were 
put utterly to the worse/ and the brother of the 
Lord Master pursued them to their tents. ' In that 


NO. 6. 



assault for certain were slain three thousand and five 
hundred Turks, for their carrions and bodies were 
found and seen and numbered by the Rhodians,' 
and as quickly as possible burnt in a great heap. 
According to the Turkish prisoners the total loss 

of the enemy during 
the siege amounted 
to nine thousand killed 
and fifteen thousand 
seriously wounded. 
The prisoners also re- 
ported that on the day 
of the great assault the 
Turks had themselves 
seen hovering over the 
city Christ and the 
Blessed Virgin and St. 
John Baptist, ' with 
great number of fair 
and well beseen men 
in arms, as if they 
would have come 
down to the help of 
the Rhodians.' It was 
taken for a great argu- 
ment of the truth of 
this miracle that it was the Turks who reported it, 
and not the Christians, and Caoursin himself is moved 
to expatiate on this theme. 

Just at this conjunction two great ships arrived 
from Naples to help the Rhodians. They were 
unable to enter the haven at once owing to the 
attacks of the Turks, and a storm arising towards 

NO. 7. 



night, one of them was driven out to sea. In the 
morning it had returned to within a mile and a 
half from the port, when the wind suddenly fell, 
and it lay there in a calm exposed to the attack of 
twenty Turkish galleys. But viftory was again with 
the Christiansen three 
hours they slew four 
times their own num- 
ber of Turks, and the 
day following ' with 
full sail and standards 
of victory and tri- 
umph entered into 
the port of Rhodes/ 
bearing letters from 
the Pope to the be- 
ample succours if they 
would hold out. 

'Wherefore the 
Rhodians all with 
one voice thanked 
God and magnified 
with great praisings 
our Holy Father the 
pope Sixtus the fourth, 
the which tidings went anon to the host of the 
Turks and feared them sore. Wherefore the sooner 
they departed from Rhodes, where they had been 
at the siege three months save a day, and turned 
again to the country of Lycia and arrived to the 
great town Physcum, where they tarried and re- 
freshed them nearhand six days, and afterward 

NO. 8. 


turned to their country with their great shame, 
their hurt and great mischief, Deo Gratias/ 

So ended this siege of Rhodes, which, save that 
the engines used for battering the walls were 
charged with some not very powerful form of gun- 
powder instead of being worked by pulleys, seems 
to have differed very little from the siege of Plataea 
as described by Thucydides nearly nineteen cen- 
turies earlier. Yet with the passing of but a fourth 
of the time more, instead of combatants singing and 
trumpeting against each other on opposite sides of 
a ditch, we have all the mysteries of high-angle fire 
and a city being devastated by assailants hidden from 
it by lofty hills! 

Within a year after the defeat of his armada the 
Sultan died, and for some time the relations between 
Rhodes and Constantinople became more friendly. 
The new Sultan sent his brother Zyzymy as an 
ambassador to the Knights, and Caoursin's illustrator 
shows his courteous reception by the Grand Master 
and entertainment at his table (cuts 6 and 7). For 
a time the ties of friendship were drawn closer still, 
for an angel warned the Turk (cut 8) to present to 
the Knights the most precious relic conceivable, 
nothing less than the arm of their patron, St. John 
the Baptist. Naturally it was received with 
triumphal processions, and it may well have seemed, 
when the pagans were presenting Christians with 
such a relic, that a new era had set in. None the 
less in 1530 the Turks captured Rhodes. 




|Y invitation of the Corporation of 
the City, and of its Public Libraries 
Committee, the twenty-ninth Annual 
Conference of the Library Association 
was inaugurated in the beautiful Cart- 
wright Memorial Hall at Bradford on Tuesday the 
4th of September last. The session opened, as usual, 
at 9.30 a.m., when the presidential chair was oc- 
cupied by Sir William H. Bailey, whose long and 
deep interest in the welfare of the public libraries 
is well known. In a few words the Mayor of 
Bradford extended a warm welcome to the city, 
and expressed his best wishes for a successful Con- 
ference. To these kindly sentiments Mr. Alderman 
Toothill (Chairman of the Bradford Public Lib- 
raries and Art Gallery Committee) added his ex- 
pressions of goodwill in his own breezy manner; 
the formal preliminary business was rapidly dis- 
posed of, and in a few minutes the meeting had 
settled down, some three hundred strong, to the 
presidential address. 

One cannot readily conceive of Sir William as a 
pessimist ; at all events there was nothing despond- 
ent in his outlook. He early struck his accustomed 
note of strong confidence, when, in his second sen- 
tence, he remarked that ' there are few associations 


whose work is of more value to this country, for its 
labours mould and shape the destinies of all classes 
of people, old and young, rich and poor.' The 
Library Association is, he added, c a great educa- 
tional machine,' having a ' sublime mission ' ; it was 
engaged in c the work of the Empire, and it would 
be better for the Empire if more use were made of 
the libraries it contained.' After paying graceful 
tribute to the memory of the late Dr. Richard 
Garnett (as one of his predecessors in the chair), and 
to the late Mr. Franklin T. Barrett of Fulham, he 
pointed out how the agitation for the first Public 
Library A61 followed hard upon the emancipation 
of slaves in British dominions, at a time when suc- 
cessive movements of reform had made it patent to 
statesmen that increased political power could not 
safely be entrusted to ignorant men. They, there- 
fore, ' wisely considered that it was safer to teach 
the knowledge of duties, as well as to grant rights, 
to the recently enfranchised. On the other hand, 
the true lovers of education insisted that, apart from 
this danger, the getting of knowledge is the highest 
employment of man, and always a profitable invest- 
ment; that it is stupid economy to permit poor 
natural genius to lack opportunities of strengthen- 
ing the nation, and that the fine art of seeing straight 
and thinking righteously is a valuable national 
asset.' Sir William calculated that there were now 
in the free public libraries of Great Britain and 
Ireland 5,109,196 books, and computed, after con- 
ferring with competent authorities, * that nearly 
50,000,000 readers used these free libraries last 
year.' The refining influence of this reading, in 


developing thought, training the intelligence, and 
brightening the lives of readers of all classes, must, 
he argued, be very great ; and he proceeded to cite 
instances which had come under his own observa- 
tion of inventors and others who acknowledged 
their great indebtedness to public library books. 
He had a good word for the good novel, too, and 
some of his happy phrases on this topic might well 
have been quoted had space permitted. We can, 
however, only stay to mention that he asked for 
consideration from those critics who themselves can 
travel, attend concerts, plays, operas, etc., at will, 
whereas most of the novel readers are debarred 
from any save the slightest participation in such 
recreations, and are happy to be content with an 
innocent book. The relations of libraries to industry 
were briefly, but pradtically, touched upon, and 
among other points in the address the value of 
co-operative work, ideal librarianship, children's 
libraries and reading-rooms, and the more strictly 
educational aspe<5ts of library work were suggest- 
ively handled. 

Mr. Miles E. Hartley's c Survey of the Public Lib- 
rary Movement in Bradford ' was by the courtesy of 
the author taken as read, and has since appeared in the 
c Library Association Record.' Mr. Scruton's c His- 
tory of the Bradford Library and Literary Society ' 
was presented in an abbreviated form, as was also 
the e Brief History of the Bradford Mechanics' 
Institute Library/ by Mr. G. A. Federer. This 
cleared the way for Mr. J. Daykin's account of 
' Village Libraries, with especial reference to York- 
shire.' Mr. Daykin, who is the Organizing Secretary 


of the Yorkshire Union of Institutes and Yorkshire 
Village Library, explained in detail the origin and 
development of the local libraries of Yorkshire, 
which can exist only by co-operative effort; and 
described their present condition and organization. 
It was an encouraging story, and one that may well 
be studied by those who are perplexed by the pro- 
blem of how to make village life attractive. It was 
followed by a somewhat discursive discussion, into 
which crept a debate on the attitude of opponents 
to the adoption of the Library A6ts. The practical 
result of it all was that it was agreed to make 
arrangements, if possible, for the publication of pro- 
pagandist literature and for the preparation of a 
lantern lecflure on the benefits of public libraries. 

An attractive feature of the exhibition connected 
with the Conference was the display of binding 
leathers. It is, of course, no news to say that the 
Association has for several years past paid consider- 
able attention to the question of sound leather, and 
as evidence of the interest taken in the matter, it 
may be noted that the edition of e Leather for 
Libraries ' prepared by a special committee has 
already been exhausted, and a new work is about 
to be prepared. The first afternoon session opened 
with an address and demonstration on leathers, by 
Dr. Gordon Parker, of Herold's Institute, Ber- 
mondsey. Assuming that the members were suffici- 
ently well acquainted with the evils of acid treat- 
ment, and the merits of sumach-tanned skins, Dr. 
Parker dwelt more particularly upon 'varieties of 
leather and their thickness. Real pigskin, he de- 
clared, was unsuitable for small books, on account 


of its thickness. The skins of sheep and goats, if 
honestly tanned and properly dyed, were to be 
commended; the price of thoroughly satisfactorily 
prepared leather need not be appreciably more than 
that of the chemically prepared leathers now in 
such common use; and he deprecated the giving of 
binding work to the ' lowest tender/ as it was a 
matter of considerable difficulty to detedt by ex- 
amination whether the binding was done in the 
real leather or was only a clever imitation of the 
article required. This point was emphasized by 
Mr. Douglas Cockerell, and a lively discussion was 
prematurely ended by the clock. The remainder 
of this session was occupied by Mr. Councillor 
Roberts (Chairman of the Bradford Education 
Committee), who entered a warm plea for the 
extension of public libraries, museums, and art 
galleries. This subject has been so fully gone into 
at recent conferences, that little fresh could be said. 
Nevertheless, it was distinctly valuable to have the 
opinion of such an authority upon the question, 
and all interested in library work will be gratified 
to know that in Bradford, as in other parts, this 
triple agency is regarded as a great instrument of 
culture, and as one of the necessities of modern 
civilization. Mr. Roberts confined himself stridtly 
to his subjedt, and education was his theme. He 
drew attention to the fa6t that, from an educational 
point of view, children leaving school were not 
in evidence again for several years, after which 
time many of them attended secondary or other 
classes. It was the duty of the library to bridge 
this gap. Lecture halls, classes, and good literature 


should be placed before the youth in the street; 
this youth, who in time becomes an eledtor, who 
helps to determine the national character, and who 
takes his part for good or ill in shaping the policy 
and the destiny of his country. The struggle for 
existence is growing keener year by year; the en- 
terprising foreigner threatens to crush us in the 
commercial markets, and it would be a poor policy 
which refused to provide opportunities for the self- 
improvement of the young men and women who 
would so soon be engaged in the strenuous battle 
of life. The library had a great opportunity here: 
it was a part of the educational machinery of the 
day; and it deserved all the support that could be 
given to it. Such views found ready acceptance 
with his hearers: it remains to procure a similar 
reception for them in the world outside. 

The second morning session was opened by Mr. 
H. W. Fovargue (Hon. Solicitor to the Associa- 
tion), by a short explanation of a proposal to legis- 
late for the establishment of county councils as 
library authorities. Local parish rates were quite 
incapable of providing the necessary funds for the 
successful working of small libraries. Amalgama- 
tion of common resources and a system of travelling 
libraries was the solution. There were no real ad- 
ministrative difficulties. Metropolitan and county 
boroughs would retain their individual authority; 
and local committees could attend to all the details 
of management. The idea obtained hearty approval, 
and led up to a discussion on the new Library Bill 
which the Council already has in hand. Of this 
bill Mr. Fovargue's proposal forms a part, the 


other portions seeking to remove the limit of the 
library rate, to exempt libraries from rating, to 
permit administrative agreements between differ- 
ent library authorities, and also (if a suggestion 
thrown out is adopted), to make legal the payment 
of library Ie6lures out of the library funds. The 
bill is to be introduced at the earliest opportunity, 
and members were warmly urged by Mr. Councillor 
Abbott to secure for it all the support, particularly 
of committees and of local members of parliament, 
that could possibly be gained. Mr. Abbott's impas- 
sioned speech in support of the bill was really 
stirring, and he did not fail to draw attention to 
the fact that a recent conference at Cambridge, 
between the Summer Meeting of the Cambridge 
University Extension Conference, there was a joint 
meeting with the Workers' Education Association 
and the southern section of the Co-operative Union 
at which there was a discussion on ' Libraries and 
the Education of Workpeople/ At that conference 
the following resolution, proposed by Mr. E. Rogers, 
Secretary of the National Committee of Organized 
Labour, and seconded by Mr. G. J. Wardle, M.P., 
was unanimously carried: 'That this Conference, 
representative of working-class and educational or- 
ganizations, is of opinion that the education of 
workpeople may be promoted to a great extent by 
the use of Public Libraries. It affirms that the 
educational effect of public libraries has been greatly 
enhanced by joint action with University Extension 
centres, and other educational institutions; as also 
by the provision upon library premises of frequent 
popular lectures on such subjects as the value of 


definite study, or the right choice of books, or the 
best methods of making a study of the best authors; 
and urges an extension of these and similar activities. 
Further, having regard to the educational import- 
ance of the early acquirement of a correct taste in 
literature, this conference emphasizes the import- 
ance of directed children's departments as features 
in public library organization/ 

The remainder of the session was occupied by a 
paper and discussion on a proposal made by Mr. J. 
McKillop, Secretary and Librarian of the London 
School of Economics, to establish in the Metro- 
polis a large central library of the works of reference 
which borough libraries find it so difficult to pro- 
vide because of the costliness of first and amended 
editions. This collection of works, he suggested, 
should be provided by the London County Council, 
and books should be lent out to the metropolitan 
public libraries upon request. The cost of establish- 
ment was estimated at 60,000, spread over ten 
years; and the expenditure on maintenance was put 
at 5,000 per annum. The proposal was backed up 
by an array of startling comparisons showing the 
great inequalities of library provision in different 
library districts. Twenty-five out of the twenty- 
eight London boroughs supported between them 
some eighty-five buildings. But whereas Hamp- 
stead had a library for every 14,000 inhabitants, 
Stepney could show only one for every 75,000. In 
Hampstead one out of every eight inhabitants re- 
gistered themselves as borrowers : in Shoreditch, 
one out of every thirty-three. The penny rate at 
Stoke Newington could not produce at present 


more than 1,400, whereas the same limit at West- 
minster would allow of 23,000, but it was not 
found necessary to levy rates for such a large 
amount. To put it in another way, whilst West- 
minster could, by its penny rate, spend 120 on 
each thousand of its inhabitants, Stepney would 
have to be content with 19 at most. This seemed 
to invite debate upon the idea of equalisation, and 
in the discussion which ensued, a confident opinion 
was expressed that ere long the London County 
Council would be the library authority for the 
whole of London. It was finally decided that Mr. 
McKillop's proposals be referred to the Council of 
the Library Association to consider what steps may 
be taken to carry his suggestions into effeft. 

By some oversight the business meeting was 
timed to precede an evening social function, with 
the result that there was no undue flow of oratory. 
The Catalogue Rules Committee reported that its 
four years' labour was pradtically over. It had pre- 
pared a code, and had been in communication with 
the American Library Association. The A. L. A. 
had met it very generously, and except for some 
points of detail which were outstanding, a common 
code had been agreed upon by the two committees. 
Armed with the power, thereupon given, the Eng- 
lish committee can meet its confreres upon equal 
conditions, and the code will be printed without 
undue delay. 

Classification was the problem which engaged 
attention on the following morning, when Mr. E. 
A. Savage dealt in pra6tical fashion with the 
increasing necessity of rational and exact classifica- 


tion. Objections to various current systems were 
considered in detail and points of improvement 
were suggested; but Mr. Savage stopped short of 
his syllabus and said nothing respecting the adop- 
tion of a standard classification for English use. 

During the remaining session the subject of the 
education of the librarian was the sole subject of 
consideration. Mr. H. D. Roberts, whose ten 
years' honorary secretaryship of the Educational 
Committee was acknowleged by a honorary fellow- 
ship of the Association treated of elementary con- 
ditions, urging that an increasingly high standard 
of general knowledge should be required of candi- 
dates for positions of library staffs. Mr. E. A. Baker 
concerned himself with a more advanced curricu- 
lum leading up to a c degree ' of equal honour with 
that conferred by universities for art and science ; 
he would make elementary classes somewhat more 
easy, and proceed by graduation. In the discussion 
the dominant feeling was that good work was 
already being done at an increasing rate, and no re- 
volutionary steps should be taken. It only remains 
to add that another successful Conference was 
made more enjoyable by the welcome presence of 
several American friends. They are always wel- 
come guests. 



Abbott, T. K., review of his Cata- 
logue of Fifteenth-Century 
Books in Trinity College, 
Dublin, 105 sq. 

Adams, Miss Agnes, her tribute to 
Dr. Garnett in * The Bookman,' 
247 sq. 

Advertisements of Elizabethan 
books, 348. 

Aeschylus, his description of Im- 
presas in the 'Seven against 
Thebes,' 142. 

Almanacs, large sale of (1646- 
1648), 42; found profitable by 
Elizabethan publishers, 349. 

American demand for copies of 
the First Folio Shakespeare, 
122, 138 sq. 

Amyot, Thomas, present where- 
abouts of his copy of the First 
Folio Shakespeare unknown, 127. 

Ascham, Roger, his meagre re- 
wards, 305. 

Astrological signs, type for, 39. 

Authors, theirrelations with patrons 
and publishers under Elizabeth 
and James I, by Ph. Sheavyn, 
301-365; occasionally their own 
publishers, 362. 

Avebury,Lord,on the municipal li 
brarian's aims in book-buying, 57. 

Axon, W. E. A., on Christian 
Captive Indulgences in the 
British Museum, etc., 275-286. 

Bacon, Francis, asks James I for a 

theme, 329. 
Bacon-Shakespeare Question, col- 

lection illustrating it in the 
Lambeth Free Library, 183 sq. 

Bad books in libraries, 259. 

Bailey, Sir W., his Presidential 
Address at Library Association 
Conference, 437. 

Baker, Ernest, quoted as to fiftion 
in libraries, 47 sq. 

Ballinger, John, on the municipal 
librarian's aims in book-buying, 
63 ; on 'Shakespearein Municipal 
Libraries,' 181-191; tribute to 
Dr. Garnett, 233-236. 

Barker, Christopher, his reputation 
as a publisher, 339. 

Barnes, Joseph, his preface to 
Lyly's * Speeches at the Progress 
at Bissam,' 360. 

Barrett, F. T., tribute to Dr. Gar- 
nett, 241 sq. 

Barwick, G. F., on Impresas, 140- 

Bates, Henry, letter to Sir Thomas 
Browne, n. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, review of 
the Cambridge edition of, 192- 

Beeching, Canon, his interpretation 
of Shakespeare's Sonnets, 202 sq. 

Berger, Elie, criticism of his ' His- 
toire de Blanche de Castile,' 

Bible, payments made to final re- 
visers of the Authorized Version, 


Bible, New Testament, printers of 
the three quarto editions of 1 5 36, 
376 sqq. 


44 8 


Bibles, stock of, kept by J. Par- 
tridge, 45. 

Bibliographical Society, Dr. Gar- 
nett's work for, 238, 255, sq. 

Bibliography, Dr. Aksel Joseph- 
son's scheme for an Institute of, 
1 1 o sq . 

Birkenhead, Shakespeare collection 
in the Municipal Library, 183. 

Birmingham, Shakespeare collec- 
tion in the Municipal Library, 

Bishop, George, his payments to 
Dr. Fulke, 339. 

Blount, Edward, his enterprise as 
a publisher, 340, sq. 

Bodleian Library, its copy of the 
First Folio Shakespeare in the 
hands of the Turbutt family, 
130 if. 

Bohn, H. G., described, 38 First 
Folio Shakespeares, 1 14. 

Bookbinding Leathers, paper on, 
at L. A. Conference, 440. 

Bookbuyingfor municipal libraries, 
discussion on the proper aims 
of, 44-69. 

Booker, John, charges for printing 
his 'Bloudy Irish Almanack,' 

35 39- 
Boothby, Guy, criticism of the 

purchase of his novels for muni- 
cipal libraries, 48. 

Bouckhout, Adr. Kempe van, and 
the quarto New Testaments of 
1536, by E. G. Duff, 376-383. 

Bourget, Paul, criticism on his 
<Les Deux Soeurs,' 87. 

Boylesve, Rene, criticism of his 
'Le Bel Avenir,' 214. 

Braddon, Miss, criticism of the 
purchase of her novels for muni- 
cipal libraries, 48, 58. 

Bradford, Conference of Library 
Association at, 437 sqq. 

Breton, Nicholas, his gratitude to 

Mary, Countess of Pembroke, 
306 sq.- t poems wrongly attri- 
buted to, in * Breton's Bower of 
Delights,' 356; his apology for 
misprints, 359. 

British Museum, career of Dr. 
Garnett at, 225-256; post of 
'placer ' at, 227; post of Super- 
intendent of the Reading Room 
at, 228; the printing of its 
'Catalogue of Printed Books,' 
229, 238; its atmosphere com- 
pared to that of Egypt, 254. 

Browne^ Edgar, his copy of the 
1 Hydriotaphia,' 7. 

Browne, Dr. Edward, son of Sir 
Thomas Browne, 7, 10. 

Browne, Sir Thomas, article on, 
by Professor Osier, 1-31. 

Brudnell, Thomas, account (1651) 
for printing done by, 32-45. 

Burbage, Richard, payment to, for 
painting an Impresa for the Earl 
of Rutland, 140. 

Bussett, John and Richard, indulg- 
ences granted to those subscrib- 
ing to their ransom, 277. 

Cambridge, Shakespeare Memorial 
collection in the Municipal 
Library at, 182 sq. 

Camden, William, his happy inde- 
pendence, 327. 

Caoursin, Gulielmus, article on his 
'Obsidio Rhodiae,' 422-436. 

Carey, Elizabeth, mother and 
daughter, as literary patrons, 
311 sq., 316, 318. 

Charles V, Emperor, his Impresa, 

Christian Captives, examples of 
Indulgences granted to sub- 
scribers towards their ransoms, 

Churchyard, Thomas, his shame- 
lessness, 329, sq. 



Clayton, Professor, his influence 
on Sir Thomas Browne, 2 sq. 

Cock, Simon, prints 1536 New 
Testament, 378-386. 

Contile, Luca, on Impresas, 144 sq. 

County Councils as library author- 
ities, 445. 

Creed, Thomas, Shakespeare 
Quartos printed by, 155; class 
of books published by, 345. 

Crom, Matthew, 379-381. 

Crunden, F. M., his method of 
leading readers from bad books 
to good, quoted, 56; on the 
public library as a factor in in- 
dustrial progress, 384-396. 

Daniel, Samuel, fortunate in his 
patrons, 305, 314; his gratitude 
to Mary, Countess of Pembroke, 
307; tutor to Lady Anne Clif- 
ford, 311; his appeal for patron- 
age, 321; involves the Earl of 
Devonshire in trouble by his 
' Philotas,' 324; on the com- 
petition among suitors, 327 sq.', 
Jonson's jealousy of him, 328; 
his independence, 333; patent 
granted to, for his * History of 
England,' 353; possible guar- 
antee for his books, 362; Simon 
Waterson his usual publisher, 


Danter, John, Shakespeare Quartos 
printed by, 152 sq.; class of 
books published by, 342; his 
payments to authors, 347; Nash 
boarded by, 364. 

Day, John, his reputation as a 
publisher, 339. 

Daykin, J., his paper on Village 
Libraries, at Library Association 
Conference, 439. 

Dedications, 318 sqq. 

Dekker, Thomas, on the tricks 
played on patrons, 330, 333; 


his difficulty in finding publish- 
ers, 350. 

Derby Winners, Dr. Garnett's 
memory for their names, 229, 
243, 251. 

Devonshire, Earl of, involved in 
trouble by dedication of Daniel's 
'Philotas,' 324. 

Dibdin, T. F., knew only 26 First 
Folio Shakespeares, 113. 

Dictating to Compositors, misprints 
produced by, 361. 

Digby, Lord, Jonson's expectation 
from his patronage, 321. 

Digby, Sir Kenelm, his ' Observa- 
tions ' on the Religio Medici, 
15 sq. 

Dilke, Lady, gift of her books to 
the National Art-Library, 263- 

Dixon, Professor W. McN., on 
the municipal librarian's aims in 
book-buying, 59. 

Dobson, Austin, verses on Dr. 
Garnett, 225. 

Donne, John, lodged by Sir Robert 
Drury, 313, 317. 

Doubleday, W. E., quoted on fic- 
tion in libraries, 47,49; on the 
Library Conference Meeting at 
Bradford, 437. 

Doumic, Rene, criticism on his 
'Etudes sur la litterature fran- 
^aise,' 92. 

Dowden, Edward, tribute to Dr. 
Garnett, 242 sq. 

Drayton, Michael, relations with 
Countess of Bedford, 310; an- 
nuity from Prince Henry, 311; 
his difficulties with publishers, 

Drury, Sir Robert, his patronage 
of Donne, 313, 317. 

Duff, E. G., on Adr. Kempe van 
Bouckout and the 4 New Testa- 
ments of 1536, 376 sqq. 




Dutton, Sir Thomas, step-father of 
Sir Thomas Browne, 2. 

Edwaies, Sir Gervase, his forfeited 
estate restored to his widow by 
third Earl of Pembroke, 308. 

Edwards, J. Passmore, on the mu- 
nicipal librarian's aims in book- 
buying, 60. 

Eld, George, Shakespeare quartos 
printed by, 162. 

Engel, Georg, criticism on his 
'Hann Kluth, der Philosoph,' 
78 sqq. 

Enking, Ottomar, criticism of his 
'Patriarch Mahnke,' 83. 

Esdaile, Arundell, on Shakespeare 
Literature (1901-1905), 167- 
180; on Public Schools and 
their libraries, 366 sqq. 

Essex, Robert Devereux, Earl of, 
as a literary patron, 310; 
troubled by dedications, 323. 

Euripides, his descriptions of Im- 
presas in the Phoenissae, 143. 

Evelyn, John, his visit to Sir 
Thomas Browne, 9. 

Faber, R. S., on the influence of 
librarians on the choice of books 
by readers, 67 sq. 

Fawne, Luke, executor to the will 
of T. Brudnell, 33 sq., 43. 

Ferro, Giovanni, on Impresas, 143 

Fiction, purchases of for municipal 
libraries, discussed under 'The 
Municipal Librarian's Aims in 
Book-buying,' 46-69; cost of, 
49 note. 

Field, Richard, his editions of 
Shakespeare's poems, 149 sqq. 

Fleming, W. H., First Folio Shake- 
speare's described by, 114 note. 

Florio, John, befriended by third 
Earl of Pembroke, 307. 

Folger, H. C., number of copies of 
the First Folio Shakespeare in 
his possession, 121, 133, 134, 

136, 139- 
Fortescue, G. K., memoir of Dr. 

Garnett, 225-233. 
Fovargue, H. W., paper at L. A. 

Conference on County Councils 

as library authorities, 441. 
Frapie, Leon, criticism of his 

' L'Ecoliere,' 289. 
Fraunce, Abraham, his poems for 

Mary, Countess of Pembroke, 

French Literature, articles by 

Elizabeth Lee onRecentFrench 

and German books. See Lee. 
Frenssen, Gustav, criticism on his 

' Hilligenlei,' 78 sqq. 

Garnett, Richard, on 'The Mu- 
nicipal Librarian's Aims in 
Book-buying,' 64 sqq\ verses on, 
by Austin Dobson, 225; memoir 
and tributes to, by G. K. Fortes- 
cue, J. Ballinger, H. R. Tedder, 
F. T. Barrett, E. Dowden, 
A. Symons and A. W. Pollard, 

Gaultier, Jules de, criticism of his 
'Les Raisons de I'ld&ilisme,' 
293 sq. 

German Literature, articles by 
Elizabeth Lee on recent French 
and German books. See Lee. 

German Magazines, improvement 
of, 86. 

Giovio, Paolo, his definition of an 
Impresa, 141. 

Gissing, George, his love of classi- 
cal literature, 227. 

Glover, Arnold, review of his edi- 
tion of ' Beaumont and Fletcher,' 

Gosson, Stephen, his dedication 
to Sidney, 331. 


Gott, Dr. John, Bishop of Truro, 
his ' Shakespeariana,' 129. 

Greene, Robert, his sixteen patrons, 

Greg, W. W., reviews of Cam- 
bridge 'Beaumont and Fletcher,' 
and the facsimiles of Shake- 
speare's * Poems ' and ' Pericles' 
by, 192-208. 

Haebler, Konrad, on a General 
Catalogue of Incunabula, ill. 

Hall, H. T., presents Shakespeare 
Memorial colleclion to the 
Cambridge Free Library, 183. 

Handel-Mazzetti, E. von, criticism 
of his * Jesse und Maria,' 290 sq. 

Hartley, L. L., his copy of the 
First Folio Shakespeare used to 
complete Mr. Morgan's, 117. 

Harvey, Gabriel, his relations with 
his publishers, 350 sq. 

Harvey, William, Sir Thomas 
Browne on his discovery of the 
circulation of the blood, 29. 

Hauptmann, Gerhart, criticism of 
his 'Und Pippa tanzt,' 210 sq. 

Hautpoul, Alphonse d', Marquis, 
notice of his ' Memoires,' 220. 

Heilborn, Ernst; criticism of his 
'Ring und Stab,' 213. 

Henslowe, P., his additional pay- 
ment to playwrights, 351 note. 

Hesse, Hermann, criticism on his 
'Unterm Rad,' 83. 

Heyking, Baroness von, criticism 
of her ' Der Tag Anderer,' 212. 

Heywood, Thomas, his boasts of 
independence, 331; on sale of 
plays to a6lors and publishers, 

35 6. 

Hill, Alexander, on the responsi- 
bility of librarians for the public 
taste, 257, 262. 

Hodgkin, Professor, on ' the Mu- 

nicipal Librarian's Aims in Book- 
buying,' 57. 

Hueffer, F. M., his tribute to Dr. 
Garnett in the ' Bookman,' 247, 

Hunt, librarian at Bootle, 261. 

Impresas, article on, by G. F. Bar- 
wick, 140-148. 

Imprints, absence of, may denote 
that a book was divided between 
two printers, 42. 

Incunabula, at Trinity College, 
Dublin, T. K. Abbott's Cata- 
logue of, 105; plan for a Gene- 
ral Catalogue of, 1 1 1 sq. 

Indulgences, examples of those 
granted to subscribers for the 
ransom of Christian captives, 

Industrial progress, public libraries 
as a faclor of, by F. M. Crun- 
den, 384-396. 

Ingleby, Holcombe, First Folio 
Shakespeares described by, 114. 

Inks used in printing, article on, 
by C. T. Jacobi, 70-77. 

Jacobi, C. T., criticism of prices 
in a seventeenth century 
printer's bill, 43; on Printing 
Inks, 70-77. 

Jaggard, William, his reputation as 
a publisher, 343. 

James I, his dedication of his 
Answer to Vorstius, 330. 

Jenkinson, F., on the municipal 
librarian's aims in bookbuying, 


Jevons, Stanley, on public li- 
braries, quoted, 389. 

Johnson, Mr., founder of Trinity 
College School, Toronto, i. 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, Dr. Garnett 
compared to, 248. 

Jonson, Ben, his financial straits, 



305; befriended by third Earl 
of Pembroke, 308; his annuity 
from the Crown, 311; lodged 
with Lord d'Aubigny, 313; re- 
received jioo from Charles II, 
ib.\ his expectations from Lord 
Digby's patronage, 321; his 
boldness in asking, 325; his 
jealousy of Daniel, 328. 
Josephson, Aksel, his scheme for an 
Institute of Bibliography, 1 10 sq. 

Kay, John, his translation of 

Caoursin's ' Obsidio Rhodiae,' 

Kellermann, Bernhard, criticism 

of his 'Ingeborg,' 418 sq. 
Key, Ellen, criticism of her 'Das 

Gluck als Pflicht,' 294 sq. 

Leahy, A. H., review of his ' He- 
roic Romances of Ireland,' 1 08 sq. 

Lee, Elizabeth, articles on Recent 
Foreign Literature, 78-96; 209- 
224; 287-300; 411-421. 

Lee, Sidney, on the municipal 
librarian's aims in bookbuying, 
58; Notes and Additions by, to 
the Census of copies of the 
Shakespeare First Folio, 113; 
his announcement of the pay- 
ment made to Shakespeare and 
Burbage, for an Impresa, 140 

Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of, 
as a patron of letters, 308. 

Leighton, J. and J., notice of their 
illustrated catalogue, 106 sq. 

Leiter, Mrs., imperfection wrongly 
attributed to her copy of the 
First Folio Shakespeare, 115. 

Lemaitre, Jules, criticism on his 
'Bertrade,' 89 *qq. 

Lespinasse, Julie de, criticism of 
the Marquis de Segur's bio- 
graphy of, 215. 

Leyden, expenses in 1633 of a 
degree at, 4. 

Libraries, suggestions for making 
more alive, 261. 

Libraries, in public schools, article 
by Arundell Esdaile, 366. 

Libraries, municipal, discussion 
on their aims in bookbuying, 
46-69; as a factor in industrial 
progress, by F. M. Crunden, 
384-396; Shakespeare collec- 
tions in, 181-191. 

Libraries, paper on Village Li- 
braries, at L. A. Conference, 439. 

1 Library, The,' Dr. Garnett's ser- 
vices to, 246 sq. 

Library Association, Dr. Garnett's 
presidency of it at its Aberdeen 
meetings, 235, 242; Dr. Gar- 
nett's work for, 236 tq.\ Con- 
ference at Bradford, article on, 

437 W- m 
Lilly, William, astrologer, charges 

for printing seven books by, 35 

rqq.; stock of the books, 44 sq. 
Liverpool, Shakespeare collection 

in the Municipal Library, 183. 
Lodge, Thomas, on the necessity 

of literary patronage, 304, 322. 
London, Elizabethan authors 

obliged to live in, 338, cp. 359; 

need of a central free library 

for, 443. 
Loti, Pierre, criticism of his 'Les 

Desenchantees,' 413 sqq. 
Lucas, E. V., review of his life of 

Charles Lamb, 97 sqq. 
Lyly, John, his complaints of lack 

of help, 319. 

MacGeorge, B. B., sale of his 
copies of the four Shakespeare 
Folios to M. J. Perry, 118. 

Mahan, Captain, review of his 
'Sea Power in its relations to 
the War of 1812,' 102. 



Manchester, Shakespeare collec- 
tion in the Municipal Library at, 
182, 186. 

Massinger, Philip, his dedication 
to Charles, Lord Herbert, 318; 
his dependence on patrons, 


McKillop, J., on a Central Free 
Library for London, 444. 

Michaelmas term, the chief" pub- 
lishing season under Elizabeth, 

Mileham, Dorothy, wife of Sir 
Thomas Browne, 6 sq. 

Miller, A. W. K., his editorship 
of the printed * Catalogue of 
Printed Books in the British 
Museum,' 230. 

Misprints, caused by dictating to 
compositors, 361 ; in First Folio 
Shakespeare, 128; in dramatic 
texts, editorial methods of deal- 
ing with, 194. 

Morgan, J. Pierpont, his copy of 
the First Folio Shakespeare in a 
substituted binding, 117. 

Moxon, Joseph, on printing inks, 
quoted, 72-76. 

Nash, Thomas, his entreaties for 
patronage, 304, 313; his lament 
for Sir Philip Sidney, 306; his 
praise of Mary, Countess of 
Pembroke, 307; housed by the 
Careys, 312, 318; his shame- 
lessness, 316, 332; his anger 
with patrons, 327, 335; refer- 
ences to Elizabethan publishing 
customs in his writings, 343, 

347-351* 353 '?> 356, 359> 

362 sq. 
National Art Library, gift of 

Lady Dilke's books to, 263-274. 
Norfolk, Duke of, peculiarities in 

his copy of the First Folio 

Shakespeare, 127 sq. 

Norwich, Sir Thomas Browne's 
residence at, 6. 

Ocland, Christopher, his ex- 
perience of patronage, 319. 

Okes, Nicholas, probably printed 
one quarto of King Lear, 165. 

Osier, William, article on Sir 
Thomas Browne's ' Religio 
Medici,' 1-31. 

Pamphlets, prices of Elizabethan, 


Paris, history of, published at the 
expense of the municipality, 
218 sq. 

Parker, Dr. Gordon, on Leathers 
for Libraries, 440. 

Partridge, John, bookseller, ac- 
count for printing done for, 32- 
45 ; inventory of his goods, 44 sq . 

Patents for exclusive printing 
classes of books. See Privileges. 

Pater, Walter, on Sir Thomas 
Browne and Francis Bacon, 
quoted, 21. 

Patmore, Coventry, his position at 
the British Museum, 253. 

Patrons and professional writers, 
under Elizabeth and James I, 
by Ph. Sheavyn, 301-336. 

Payments made to Elizabethan 
authors, 339, 347. 

Peacock, Thomas Love, article on, 
by C. Williams, 397-410. 

Pembroke, Mary, Countess of, as 
a patron of letters, 306. 

Pembroke, William, third Earl of, 
as a patron of letters, 307. 

Pericles, Prince of Tyre, descrip- 
tions of Impresas in the play 
and novel of, 146 sq. 

Perry, Marsden J., his purchase of 
the MacGeorge copies of the 
four Shakespeare Folios, 118. 

Physicians as men of letters, 26. 



Piracy of Elizabethan books, 356. 
Plays, attitude of Elizabethan ac- 
tors towards their publication, 


Plomer, H. R., on *A printer's 
bill in the seventeenth century,' 
32-45; on 'The Printers of 
Shakespeare's Plays and Poems,' 

Pollard, A. W., tribute to Dr. 
Garnett, 246-256; on Caour- 
sin's account of the Siege of 
Rhodes, 423-436. 

Ponsonby, William, his reputation 
as a publisher, 341; published 
most of Spenser's books, 363. 

Popes of Rome, Dr. Garnett's 
memory for their names, 229. 

Printer of the Siege of Rhodes, 

4^3 >? 

Printing, article on inks used for, 
by C. T. Jacobi, 70-77; cost 
of, in 1644-48, illustrated by a 
bill, 32-45; custom of dividing 
a book among two or more firms, 

Privileges granted by Elizabeth 
for printing classes of books, 
338; their effeft on the pub- 
lishing trade, 344 sqq.\ privi- 
leges for single books, 352 sq. 

Publishers, article by Ph. Sheevyn 
on their relations with authors, 
under Elizabeth and James I, 


Pyllet, Sir John, indulgence 
granted to those subscribing to 
his ransom, 286. 

Quaker and the burgler, 258. 

Reading, librarians' responsibility 
for public taste in, 237-262. 

Redgrave, G. R., on the Lady 
Dilke gift to the National Art 
Library, 263-274. 

Reger, Johann, his edition of Ca- 
oursin's Obsidio Rhodiae,' 


Religio Medici, article on Sir 

Thomas Browne's, by Prof. 

Osier, 1-31. 
Remainder Market, appearance of 

Dr. Garnett's Twilight of the 

Gods ' in, 249. 
Rhodes, siege of, by the Turks in 

1480, article on, 423-436. 
Roberts, H. D., Hon. Fellowship 

of Library Association conferred 

on, 446. 
Roberts, James, Shakespeare quartos 

printed by, 160.^., 163. 
Rodd, Thomas, his list of 80 First 

Folio Shakespeares, 114. 
Rolland, Remain, criticism of his 

'Jean Christophe,' 416^. 
Ross, Alexander, his ' Medicus 

Medicatus,' 18. 
Rousseau Society, notice of its 

publications, 217 sq. 
Roy, E. A., Panizzi's praise of, 

Rutland, Earl of, Impresa designed 

by Shakespeare for, 140. 
Rutland, Elizabeth, Countess of, 

as a patron of letters, 308. 

St. Louis, comparative cost of li- 
braries and schools at, 389; 
example of circulation of techni- 
cal books at its library, 390 sqq. 

Sarasin, P. and F., criticism on 
their ' Reisen in Celebes,' 85. 

Sargy, John, indulgences granted 
to those subscribing to his ran- 
som, 282 sqq. 

Schools, article by Arundell Es- 
daile on Public Schools and 
their Libraries, 366. 

Segur, Marquis de, criticism of his 
biography of Julie de Lespinasse, 



Shakespeare, Wra., record prices 
fetched by the four Folio edi- 
tions, 119; notes and additions 
to the Census of copies of the 
First Folio, 113-139 ; Impresa 
designed by Shakespeare for the 
Earl of Rutland, 140; the 
Printers of Shakespeare's Plays 
and Poems, 149-166; Shake- 
speare literature, 1901-1905, an 
annotated list of books, 167- 
180; Shakespeare in municipal 
libraries, 181-191; review of 
Sidney Lee's edition of Shake- 
speare's Poems and Pericles, 
199-208; V. V. Stassov's critic- 
isms on 'The Merchant of 
Venice,' 209 ; popularity of his 
plays on the German stage, ib.\ 
his relations with patrons, 307, 
313, 328 sq.-, plays wrongly 
attributed to, 357. 

Shakespeare Reading Societies, in 
connection with municipal li- 
braries, 1 8 5 sqq. 

Sheavyn, Ph., on Patrons and Pro- 
fessional Writers under Eliza- 
beth and James I, 301-336; on 
Writers and the Publishing 
Trade, 337-365. 

Short, Peter, Shakespeare quartos 
printed by, 157 sq. 

Sidney, Sir Philip, as a patron 
of letters, 306, 326 note, 331, 


Sidney, Robert, second Earl of 
Leicester, a binding of a book of 
his transferred to the Morgan 
copy of the First Folio of Shake- 
speare, 1 17. 

Sims, Valentine, Shakespeare quar- 
tos printed by, 153 sqq., 163. 

Slater, H., review of his 4 Book- 
Prices Current,' 103 sqq. 

Snowden, G. and L., Wechel's de- 
vice used by, 

Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, 
Earl of, as a literary patron, 310, 


Spelling, in the sixteenth century, 
206 sq. 

Spenser, Edmund, dedicates a 
sonnet to Mary, Countess of 
Pembroke, 306 ; his relations 
with the Earlof Leicester,3o8/^., 
313 ; his funeral paid for by 
the Earl of Essex, 310; official 
places found for, 312; his dedi- 
cation of * Colin Clout ' to Ra- 
leigh, 322; his impatience of 
suing at Court, 326. 

Sprigge, Joshua, charges for print- 
ing his ' Anglia Rediviva, Eng- 
land's Recovery,' 35, 37 sq. ; 
stock of, 44 sq. 

Squirrel blocks, used by Brudnell, 


Squirrels' nests, 234. 

Stafford, Simon, Shakespeare's 
quartos printed by, 159. 

Stassov, V. V., his criticisms on 
Shakespeare, 209. 

Stationers' Company, its powers as 
regards copyright under Eliza- 
beth and James I, 352 sq., 357. 

Stephens, Philemon, executor to 
the will of T. Brudnell, 33 sq., 


Stewart, A. B., peculiarities in his 
copy of the First Folio Shake- 
speare, 133. 

Subscription, Elizabethan books 
published by, 362. 

Sudermann, H., criticism of his 
1 Stein unter Steinen,' 84. 

Symons, Arthur, tribute to Dr. 
Garnett, 244-246. 

Taine, H., quoted on Sir Thomas 

Browne, 25. 
Tasso, T., his ' Dialogue on Im- 

presas,' 142. 

45 6 


Taste in reading, responsibility of 
librarians for, 237-262. 

Taylor, John, the Water Poet, his 
books often published by sub- 
scription, 362. 

Tedder, H. R., tribute to Dr. 
Garnett, 236-240. 

Texts, gross imperfections of, in 
some Elizabethan books, 360^. 

Thorpe, Thomas, plays published 
by, 342. 

Thucydides, public grant made to, 

Tinayre, Marcelle, criticism of her 
'LaRebelle,' 287. 

Title-pages, lack of information 
on, 87. 

Trinity College, Dublin, T. K. 
Abbott's ' Catalogue of Incuna- 
bula at,' 105. 

Trotter, Sir Coutts, his copy of 
the First Folio Shakespeare, 

i*3 /f. 

Turberville, George, acted as his 
own publisher, 362. 

Turbutt family, ownership of Bod- 
leian copy of the First Folio 
Shakespeare, 130 sq. 

Turner, W., author of the 'Herbal,' 
complaint of piracy, 357. 

University, promising youths 
helped to go there, 312. 

Village Libraries, paper on, at L. 
A. Conference, 439. 

Waller, A. R., review of his work 

on the Cambridge Beaumont 

and Fletcher, 192-199. 
Walsingham, discovery of urns at, 

suggested Browne's ' Hydrio- 

taphia,' 22. 
Wantage, Lady, history of her copy 

of the First Folio Shakespeare, 


Ward, Roger, agent of John Wolfe 
in pirating privileged books, 


Waterson, Simon, published most 
of Daniel's books, 363. 

Webb, Sidney, on the municipal 
librarian's aims in bookbuying, 
60 sqq. 

Wechel, Andreas, his device used 
by English printers, 164. 

White, Robert, partner ofT. Brud- 
nelL,33, 38. 

White, William, Shakespeare quar- 
tos printed by, 159, 166. 

Whitefoot, Rev. John, his descrip- 
tion of Sir Thomas Browne, 12. 

Wilkins, George, his descriptions 
of Impresasin* Pericles,' 146^. 

Williams, C., article on T. L. Pea- 
cock, 397-4 10 - 

Winsor, Justin, First Folio Shake- 
speares described by, n^.note. 

Wither, George, his refusal to 
flatter, 331; on Elizabethan 
publishers, 345, 348, 352, 358, 

Wolfe, John, his commercial keen- 
ness as a publisher, 340; his 
campaign against privileged 
books, 354'; willing to publish 
both for Harvey and Nash, 
363 sq. 

Wood, Mrs. Henry, criticism of 
the purchase of her novels for 
municipal libraries, 47 sq., 58. 

Worboise, Helen, criticism of the 
purchase of her novels for muni- 
cipal libraries, 47 sq. 

Yong, Barnaby, unable to supervise 
proofs of his translation of ' Di- 
ana,' 359. 


Z The Library